Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Introduction to Atmospheric Modelling Yazdan M.Attaei ABSTRACT An atmospheric model is a computer program that produces meteorological information for future times at given locations and altitudes. Within any modern model is a set of equations, known as the primitive equations, used to predict the future state of the atmosphere . These equations (along with the ideal gas law) are used to evolve the density, pressure, and potential temperature scalar fields and the air velocity (wind) vector field of the atmosphere through time. The equations used are nonlinear partial differential equations which are impossible to solve exactly through analytical methods, with the exception of a few idealized cases . Therefore, numerical methods are used to obtain approximate solutions. In this work, we study the Heat and Wave equations as two important aspects when studying meteorology and atmospheric modeling. We assume an idealized domain with certain boundary conditions and initial values in order to predict the evolution of temperature and track the wave propagation in the atmosphere. Keywords: Atmospheric model, Finite difference method, Heat equation, Wave equation. Introduction: An atmospheric model is a mathematical model constructed around the full set of primitive dynamical equations (equations for conservation of momentum, thermal energy and mass) which govern atmospheric motions. In general, nearly all forms of the primitive equations relate the five variables n, u, T, P, Q, and their evolution over space and time. The atmosphere is a fluid. Therefore, modelling the atmosphere in fact means the numerical weather prediction which samples the state of the fluid at a given time and uses the equations of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics to estimate the state of the fluid at some time in the future. The model can supplement these equations with parameterizations for diffusion, radiation, heat exchange and convection. The primitive equations are nonlinear and are impossible to solve for exact solutions and numerical methods obtain approximate solutions. Therefore, most atmospheric models are numerical meaning they discretize primitive equations. The horizontal domain of a model is either global, covering the entire Earth, or regional (limited-area), covering only part of the Earth . Some of the model types make assumptions about the atmosphere which lengthens the time steps used and increases computational speed. Global models often use spectral methods for the horizontal dimensions and finite-difference methods for the vertical dimension, while regional models usually use finite-difference methods in all three dimensions. Since the equations used are nonlinear partial differential equations, in order to solve them, boundary conditions and initial values are required. Boundary conditions are specified by the assumptions related to horizontal and vertical domain of study. The equations are initialized from the analysis data and rates of change are determined. These rates of change predict the state of the atmosphere a short time into the future; the time increment for this prediction is called a time step. The equations are then applied to this new atmospheric state to find new rates of change, and these new rates of change predict the atmosphere at a yet further time step into the future. This time stepping is repeated until the solution reaches the desired forecast time. The length of the time step chosen within the model is related to the distance between the points on the computational grid, and is chosen to maintain numerical stability. Time steps for global models are on the order of tens of minutes, while time steps for regional models are between one and four minutes. The global models are run at varying times into the future. Approximating the solution to the partial differential equations for atmospheric flows using numerical algorithms implemented on a computer has been intensively researched since the pioneering work of Prof. John von Neuman in the late 1940s and 1950s. Since Von-NeumanÃ¢â¬â¢s numerical experimentation on the first general purpose computer, the processing power of computers has increased at a breath-taking pace. While global models used for climate modeling a decade ago used horizontal grid spacing of order hundreds of kilometers, computing power now permits horizontal resolutions near the kilometer scale. Hence, the range of the scales of motion that next-generation global models will resolve spans from thousands of kilometers (planetary and synoptic scale) to the kilometer scale (meso-scale). Hence, the distinction between global climate models and global weather forecast models is starting to disappear due to the closing of the resolution gap that has historically existed between the two . In this work first we solve two-dimensional heat equation numerically in order to study temperature rate of change which is a part of the equation for the conservation of energy in atmosphere. Two different types of sources (steady state and periodic pulse) are applied to simulate the heat sources for a local (small-scale) domain and the results are illustrated in order to investigate results for the applied boundary and initial value conditions. In the second part of this study, two-dimensional wave equation is solved numerically using finite difference technique and certain boundary and initial value conditions are applied for the small-scale idealized domain. The aim is to study the wave propagation and dissipation along the domain from the results which are illustrated for different types of excitations (standing wave and travelling wave). Overall, the aim of this paper is to show the efficiency of numerical solutions particularly finite difference method for solving primitive equations in atmospheric model. Heat Equation: To study the distribution of heat in the domain, we consider following parabolic partial differential heat equation with thermal diffusivity a; Domain: The idealized 2D domain is a plane of the size unity on each side with the following initial values and boundary conditions; Boundary Conditions (BCs): Dirichlet boundary condition is assumed for all the boundaries except at the regions where the source with T=Ts is taking place; T (0,y)=0 , T(x,0)=0 (except at source) T(1,y)=0 , T(x,1)=0 Initial Values: At time zero, we assume temperature to be zero everywhere except at the region where the source is applied to; Finite Difference Scheme: Heat equation can be discretized using forward Euler in time and 2nd order central difference in space using Taylor series expansions and spatial 5-point stencil illustrated below; Figure 1: Five points stencil finite difference scheme which after simplifying it takes the form; If we apply equal segmentation in both directions so that and rewriting the equation in the explicit form we have; where . For stability of our scheme we need hence; Excitation: In order to observe the heat transportation in all directions, we assumed two different types of the source. First, we use a steady state source placed at the corner next to the origin with dimension of 5 grid cells with temperature amplitude Ts=10o . The second source will be the following pulse source applied for 5 time steps and removed for the next 15 time steps (period of pulse function = 20). This will help to visualize the ability of the scheme to evaluate the temperature at the source region when the source is removed (back-transport of the heat). Results: The following figures illustrate the results observed by applying the scheme, the sources described previously and thermal diffusivity of a=2 with grid cells of size (Ni=Nj=50 number of grid points in x and y directions); (a) (b) Figure 2: Distribution of temperature (a) t=0 sec, b) t=20 msec, steady state source of size 5 grid cells in each direction. It is observed that for t>0 while we have a constant temperature at the source, temperature is diffused along the domain in both directions and it will not diverge at any point when time increases since the stability criterion was already applied for the duration of time steps . Also, in the vicinity of the source temperature is remained almost constant or with small variations after a sudden large increase due to the adjacent source cells with Ts=10o and the nature of the scheme in which back grid points are included for approximation. When the steady state source is replaced by a pulse source with certain On and Off duration (period) as it is seen in Figure 3, diffusion continues even in the absence of the source at the whole domain including the source region as in Figures 3(b),(d). This is more visible in Figure 3(c) in the vicinity of the source but compared to the steady state excitation, there is a significant temperature drop due to the fact that the source has been Off for several time steps and temperature drops gradually with its maximum drop just before the source is applied again as illustrated in Figure 3(d). (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 3: Distribution of temperature when Pulse source is applied (period=20 time steps). (a)Initial time, (b)At first Off state, c)Right after second On state, d)Before 24th On state The last parameter to study for the heat equation is the diffusion coefficient. It is the coefficient which affects the rate of diffusion. Figure 4 shows that during equal time period, by larger coefficient heat will diffuse in larger area (dotted circles) of domain compared to when the coefficient is small. (a) (b) Figure 4: The effect of thermal diffusivity on temperature distribution.(a) a=2, (b) a=0.25 Wave Equation: Similar to the heat equation, hyperbolic partial differential wave equation can be discretized by using Taylor series expansion. In this equation, c is the wave constant which identifies the propagation speed of the wave. Our goal is to study the reflection of the wave at the boundaries and the dissipation of the wave due to the numerical solution of the wave equation. Domain: We use the same idealized domain in studying heat equation but in addition to Dirichlet, we also consider Von-Neumann boundary condition in order to study the reflection of the wave at the boundaries. A proper set of initial values will be chosen since this differential equation is of second order with respect to time. Von-Neuman Boundary Conditions: At the boundaries we will assume the following conditions; Source region Initial Conditions: The following initial conditions are assumed since we will use central difference in time and two time steps (current and previous) are used to evaluate the value at the future time; ) Finite Difference Scheme: For the above parabolic differential wave equation, 2nd order central difference scheme in both time and space is used for discretization as follows; and with Ã ¢Ãâ Ã¢â¬ x=Ã ¢Ãâ Ã¢â¬ y=h and rewriting the equation explicitly; with , the CFL number which must be less than or equal to since the coefficient of should be a positive (or zero) for stability of the scheme. Hence; Now, back to the boundary condition, by using forward Euler difference for the left and bottom boundaries (i=1,j=1) we can write; and similarly using backward difference at right and top boundaries (i=Ni,j=Nj) ; As we numerically solve for the derived general finite difference equation and illustrate it, we will see that the above boundary conditions are the mathematical representation of full wave reflection at the boundaries. For the second initial value condition we use central difference at t=0 (n=1) and it is derived; Substituting in general difference equation we get; Now, we can apply second order central difference for both temporal and spatial variations for Von-Neumann boundary conditions. Excitation: In this work, in order to study propagation and reflection of the wave using numerical solution of the wave equation, two different sources are applied at the origin with the dimension of 5Ãâ"5 grid cells for both Dirichlet and Von-Neumann domain boundary conditions; Travelling Wave: Stationary Wave: where and wave numbers . The wave constant c assumed to be c=1 for simplicity, therefore = 0.01 in both x and y direction. Results: For Dirichlet boundary conditions the following figures are obtained for Stationary and Travelling wave sources; (b) Figure 5: Dispersion of Stationary wave in domain with Dirichlet BCs (a) before reflection (b) after partial reflection In Figure 5(a) the wave which is scattered from a stationary source is dissipated through the domain since the source is stationary. In Figure 5(b) the reflections at the boundaries are seen to be weak because of the Dirichlet BCs. Infact, these ripples are mostly due to the nature of finite differencing. However, it is clearly observed in Figure 6(a),(b) that the magnitude of the wave at the boundary is kept zero by Dirichlet BCs. (b) Figure 6: Dispersion of Stationary wave in domain with Dirichlet BCs (a) before reflection (b) after partial reflection, 3D view Figure 7 illustrates the travelling wave propagating in the domain. The ripples have larger magnitudes since the wave itself is travelling and this reduces the amount of attenuation because of the scheme specially after the reflection at the boundaries the weakend ripples are magnified by continuously incoming waves. (b) Figure 7: Travelling wave propagates in domain with Dirichlet BCs (a) before reflection (b) after partial reflection For Von-Neumann BCs, it is expected that for both standing wave and propagating wave we observe full reflection by the boundaries as described during the discretization of these BCs. Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the application of such boundary conditions for standing wave source and travelling wave source respectively. (b) Figure 8: Dispersion of Stationary wave in domain with Von-Neumann BCs (a) before reflection (b) after partial reflection (b) Figure 9: Wave propagation in the domain with Von-Neumann BCs (a) before reflection (b) after partial reflection In the above figures, it is seen that at the boundaries the ripples are fully reflected back to the domain as well as the time when the wave is propagating forward from the source and is reflected at bottom and left boundaries. These would be more visible when showing the figures in three dimensions (Figure 10); (b) (c) (d) Figure 10: Wave propagation (a),(b)standing wave, before and after reflection (c),(d)travelling wave, before and after reflection To sum up, finite difference scheme which is used in this work provides numerical solution of the wave equation well and the results are close to what are expected for the wave propagation in such idealized domain with different boundary conditions. Conclusion: In atmospheric science, heat flow is related to temperature rate of change and the evolution of momentum and energy in atmospheric models are related the gravity waves as they transport energy. In the Earths atmosphere, gravity waves are a mechanism for the transfer of momentum from the troposphere to the stratosphere. Gravity waves are generated in the troposphere, propagate through the atmosphere without appreciable change in mean velocity. But as the waves reach more diluted air at higher altitudes, their amplitude increases, and nonlinear effects cause the waves to break, transferring their momentum to the mean flow. Therefore, numerical solutions of atmosphere primitive equations play an important role for studying the evolution of fundamental variables in atmospheric science especially since these equations are partial differential equations which cannot be solved analytically. In this paper, a brief study over the numerical solution of heat and wave equations was conducted as a basis for a bigger scale atmospheric modelling. The results demonstrate the efficiency of finite difference method to solve these equations (in small-scale domain) when they are compared to the theoretical expectations, therefore, solving primitive equations in atmospheric models by numerical techniques can be a following work to this paper. REFERENCES
Monday, August 19, 2019
Fishing Disaster Background: The ocean around the rocky shores of Newfoundland were once so full of cod that explorer John Cabot marveled in 1497 that they virtually blocked his ship. In the centuries to follow, fish became the one of the only reasons anyone ever came to Newfoundland, or stayed. Cod was the center of life in the Canadian Maritimes from the beginning. Starting in the 1950's, Huge European trawlers began to travel across the Atlantic to fish the waters off Newfoundland. Some refered to these super-ships as "Fish Factories". With the increased effort by these distant-water fleets, catches of northern cod increased in the late 1950s and early 1960s and peaked at just over 800,000 tons by 1968. However, by 1975 the Candian Government realized the devastating effect this was having on its fish populations and closed its waters to foriegn fishing boats. Although this temporarily staved off the growing crisis, European intervention had changed the nature of Canadian fishing, leading to the development of Canadian owned super-trawlers. Disaster Strikes: Throughout the 1980s, the annual catch of Canada's northern cod fishing fleet hovered around the 250,000 tonnes mark, as the Canadian government kept promoting more investment. Newfoundland's small-scale, inshore cod fishermen, however, were voicing concerns long before anyone else that the abundance of the northern cod population was not as healthy as scientists were reporting. Contradictory to scientific data, traditional inshore fishermen in Newfoundland began to notice declining catches before the mid-1980s. By 1986 the scientists also realized that the stock was declining, and by 1988 had recommended the total allowable catch be cut in half. Instead of acting immediately, in a precautionary manner to protect dwindling fish stocks by substantially reducing catch quotas at the first signs of overfishing, the federal government delayed conservation action, choosing instead quite moderate reductions of the total allowable catch beginning in 1989. It wasn't until 1990, following several years of analysis and re-analysis of data from stock surveys (without simultaneously reducing catch quotas) that the Independent Review of the state of the Northern Cod stock concluded that the population, the biomass, the spawning population, and the spawning biomass of the Northern Cod were all in decline and that fishing-related mortality was at dangerously high levels. By 1992, the biomass estimate for northern cod was the lowest ever measured. The Canadian Minister of Fisheries and Oceans had no choice but to declare a ban on fishing northern cod.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Stereotyping Stereotyping is a form of pre judgement that is as prevalent in today's society as it was 2000 years ago. It is a social attitude that has stood the test of time and received much attention by social psychologists and philosophers alike. Many approaches to, or theories of stereotyping have thus been raised. This essay evaluates the cognitive approach that categorisation is an essential cognitive process that inevitably leads to stereotyping. Hamilton (1979) calls this a 'depressing dilemma'. Brown's (1995) definition of stereotyping through prejudice is the 'holding of derogatory social attitudes or cognitive beliefs, the expression of negative affect, or the display of hostile or discriminatory behaviour towards members of a group on account of their membership to that group'. This definition implies that stereotyping is primarily a group process, through the individuals psyche's within that group. A further idea of stereotyping, defined by Allport (1954) as 'thinking ill of others without warrant', is that people 'make their mind up' without any personal experience. This pre judgement about a whole group is then transferred to the stigmatisation of any individuals in that group. It is these ideas that the essay aims to evaluate, through the cognitive process of categorisation and the above definitions that bring about three distinct features of stereotyping, that our cognition can be demonstrated through. The first characteristic of stereotyping is over-generalisation. A number of studies conducted found that different combinations of traits were associated with groups of different ethnic and national origin (Katz and Braly, 1933). However, stereotyping does not imply that all members of a group are judged in these ways, just that a typical member of a group can be categorised in such judgements, that they possess the characteristics of the group. Still, when we talk of a group, we do so by imagining a member of that group. The second feature and characteristic of stereotyping is the exaggeration of the difference between ones own group (the in-group) and the 'other' group (the out-group). This can be traced back to the work of Tajfel during the 1950's - 'the accentuation principle' (Tajfel, 1981). Tajfel's work was specifically on physical stimuli, and concluded that judgements on such stimuli are not made in isolation, but in the context of other factors. Applied socially - a judgement about an out-group relies upon other factors surrounding the judgement in question, as well as making a statement about the in-group and the relationship between the two groups.
Thrre Things Wrong with the World The first thing I would have to say that is wrong with the world is definitely the drug problem. I mean, it seems that most of the war, famine, & disease that are running rampant through our lives are initially from drugs. For instance, you get a hit of crank from a friend who used the needle on herself & then WHAM, you've got AIDS & never even knew it could happen. Another example would be the wars. In Cuba, there are drug wars going on now that inadvertently have caused many people to die, be left homeless, or even without food or water. So, that would definitely be my first & foremost idea on what's wrong with the world today. The next thing on my list would have to be AIDS itself. Mostly, this is a big problem because there is no cure & many people get this disease every day. Granted, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always contracted by a needle, but other ways, such as intercourse without protection, are effective in contracting this disease as well. The only real way to prevent this disease would have to be never to share a needle (if youÃ¢â¬â¢re doing something stupid enough as doing drugs in the first place), & never have sex. That would have to be the only 100% way not to get this disease, besides knowing your partner is not HIV positive. That is why this disease is affecting so many people. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize that they can get it just by doing one of the above mentioned activities, as well as some others I canÃ¢â¬â¢t think of. That, & many other reasons, is why AIDS is my number two in my list of three things. My final thing I believe that is wrong with the world would have to be our government. Yes, I said it, OUR GOVERNMENT. It is not as if I am Anti-American, I love my country, but there has to be some sort of line between helping other nations & trying to control other nations. I believe we have not only crossed that line, but have gone so far as to cross several more after it. Take the war on Iraq, for example. Initially, I was all for getting rid of Saddam Hussein & helping the Iraqi people become free & independent. But, now as I think about it more & more, I wonder why we're are still over there fighting & killing those people if they say that we have ridded ourselves of that nuisance already?
Saturday, August 17, 2019
LYRIC AND THE INNER LIFE COURSEWORK Ã¢â¬ËElegy is about mourning for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own conditionÃ¢â¬â¢ Stuart Curran, Ã¢â¬ËRomantic Elegiac HybridityÃ¢â¬â¢, in The Oxford Handbook to Elegy (Oxford, 2010), ed. Karen Weisman, p. 249 Discuss CurranÃ¢â¬â¢s comment in relation to the work of Thomas Gray and Percy Bysshe Shelley. Ã¢â¬ËOne of the major tasks of the work of mourning and of the work of the elegy is to repair the mourner's damaged narcissism'. This quote by literary critic Peter Sacks, flourishes from Sigmund Freud's model of primary narcissism which suggests that Ã¢â¬Ëwe love others less for their uniqueness and separateness, and more for their ability to contract our own abundance, that is, to embody and reflect back that part of ourselves that we have invested in them'. Sacks expands this coalescence in his criticism of elegies such as Milton's Lycidas and Tennyson's In Memoriam. Using this model of narcissism and literary mourning along with key aspects of history, language and critical reviews, I will explicate how an Ã¢â¬Ëelegy is about mourning for one's own condition in Thomas Grays' Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard and Percy Shelley's Adonais, Before delving straight into how the poems serve as elegies to the poets themselves, I will first discuss how the poems appear and attempt in their best capacity not to do so. Samuel Johnson famously commented on Gray's Elegy saying that Ã¢â¬ËThe Churchyard abounds with images which find a mirror in every mind, and with sentiments to which every bosom returns an echo'. The portrayal of such a literary universality springs from the poem's apparent mourning of the common man. Gray laments a ubiquitous sense of mortality, paying homage to the archetypical Ã¢â¬Ëweary plowman' who falls prey to Ã¢â¬Ëdumb Forgetfulness' (85) and lies forgotten in his Ã¢â¬Ëlowly bed' (20). This notion that the poem Ã¢â¬Ëis life in its most general form, reinterpreted so as to speak to mankind generally, where all men are comparable and consciousness seeks a universal voice' can be understandably gathered from a superficial analysis of the poem. The poem is not just an elegy, but a pastoral elegy, a literary form that encompasses idyllic rustic life with death, a technique employed by Gray to enhance his mournful depiction of the common, simple man who labours away unfulfilled only to die unremembered. Phrases such as Ã¢â¬Ëmopeing owls' (10), Ã¢â¬Ëtwitt'ring swallows' (18) and Ã¢â¬Ëecchoing horns' (19) create the image of a bucolic and generic place, one where villagers engage in rural and generic activities Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ëoft did the harvest to their sickle yield' (25) and Ã¢â¬Ëhow bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke' (28) The constant use of third person plural pronouns such as Ã¢â¬Ëthey', Ã¢â¬Ëtheir' and Ã¢â¬Ëthem' allow the reader to merge these villagers into one, once again echoing the universality of the poem. Although the title tries to deliver a place for the poem, ambiguous descriptions such as Ã¢â¬Ëthe glimmering landscape' (5), Ã¢â¬Ëthe distant folds' (8), Ã¢â¬Ëthe upland lawn' (100) and the Ã¢â¬Ëcustom'd hill' (109), accentuate the poem's attempt to be nowhere and everywhere. Marshall Brown in his essay Gray's Churchyard Space' suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"everything and nothing is shared with all and none in a world that is nowhere and everywhereÃ¢â¬ . This displacement coupled with the fact that the poem refers to no one in particular, creates a sense of timelessness in keeping with it's universality, thereby supporting Johnson's credo that Ã¢â¬ËThe Churchyard finds a mirror in every mind'. Marshall Brown further reveals that the Ã¢â¬Ëpoem evokes the possibility of a language and a consciousness beyond station, beyond definition and beyond identity'. Gray accomplishes this by the illustration of an all-encompassing world. The poem drifts from a Ã¢â¬Ësolemn stillness' (6) to the Ã¢â¬Ëcock's shrill clarion' (19), from a Ã¢â¬Ëblazing hearth' (21) to a Ã¢â¬Ëfrozen soul' (52), from Ã¢â¬Ëparting day' (1) to the Ã¢â¬Ëincense-breathing morn' (16), from the Ã¢â¬Ëdesert air' (56) to the Ã¢â¬Ësmiling land' (63), etc; creating an image of the world that comprises all heights, weather, feelings and time. Gray's exploration of the opposite poles of class, the Ã¢â¬Ëpomp of pow'r' (33) and Ã¢â¬Ësimple annals of the poor' (32), and his empathy for the poor rather than the rich Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ënor you, ye Proud, impute to These the fault, if Mem'ry o'er their Tomb no Trophies raise' (37-38), heightens this indiscriminate sense of inclusion and the all-embracing voice of his elegy. Thus we see how Gray tries to attribute a sensitivity that amplifies the appeal of his apparently universal elegy, as seen by this uote from Stephen Cox's essay, Contexts of Significance: Thomas Gray Ã¢â¬â that Ã¢â¬Ëthe individual self [in the Elegy] is significant even when it lacks any visible signs of significance, such as power, wealth, or social recognition'. Thus, we see how it can be interpreted that Thomas Gray's elegy focuses on a common condition rather than his own, but a closer analysis reveals that the all-embracing attempts made by Gray in the poem is part of a manipulation to create a n image that adequately appeases his own narcissism. Firstly, although he paints a generic and timeless world he also places himself far away from it. The poem is seeped in an isolation that springs from Gray's differentiation of himself from the world he's creating Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËThe curfew tolls the knell of parting day, the lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea, the plowman homeward plods his weary way, and leaves the world to darkness and to me' (1-4). From the start of the poem itself we are plummeted into the poet's segregation from the rural, rustic all encompassing world, and into the image he creates of himself as the poetic lonely outsider. Wallace Jackson in his essay Thomas Gray and the Dedicatory Muse, supports this when he says that Ã¢â¬ËGray's ideal self is situated like a melancholic outcast and the village oddity. He is constellated in a poetic heaven, in any event, alone'. While Gray spends the first 23 stanzas expounding his sensitivity for the Ã¢â¬Ëunhonored Dead' (93), the next 9 stanzas are wholly based on him and the image he tries to further enhance of his Ã¢â¬Ëmindful' (93) and Ã¢â¬Ëlonely' (95) self. Howard Weinbrot in his essay Restoration and the Eighteenth Century, points out that Ã¢â¬Ëno one in particular is being mourned as the elegy opens, but it soon become clear that the speaker is mourning his own repressed potential'. The shift between referring to himself as Ã¢â¬Ëme' (4) in the 1st stanza to Ã¢â¬Ëthee' (93) at the start of the 23rd stanza, elucidates a respect he demands for his shallow efforts to praise the common man. Andrew Dillon in his essay Depression and Release, includes a reference by Ketton-Cremer, Gray's biographer Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ëthe man of reading and reflection often feels an envious admiration for the man of physical skill', and this is seen in the parallels Gray draws between himself and the villagers, who in death resemble the same Ã¢â¬Ëfame and fortune unknown' (118) of Gray. However, he shatters this connection through his elaborate and verbose epitaph for himself. While the simple Ã¢â¬Ëbones' (77) of the forgotten Ã¢â¬Ëplowman' (3) rests beneath Ã¢â¬Ësome frail memorial erected nigh' (78), Gray's memorial is far from Ã¢â¬Ëfrail' Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËLarge was his bounty, and his soul sincere' (121). Jackson confirms this in his essay, when he says that the poem's Ã¢â¬Ëmotive is grounded in a further, yet concealed, rendering of the self-image, present especially at the close of The Elegy'. Freud's belief that melancholia is a consistent form of mourning can be seen in his epitaph for himself Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ëmelancholy marked him for her own' (120) and Ã¢â¬Ëhe gave to misery all he had' (123). This coupled with the undercurrent of still sadness that permeates the poem places Gray in a constant state of mourning. On a simplistic level, the epitaph echoes his application of a universal mortality unto others and himself, but what is more haunting is the thread of fatalism that laces these last few stanzas. Dillon writes, Ã¢â¬Ëthe Elegy can be read as a journey of recognition conceived in dusk and worked out Ã¢â¬â not in a miasma of depression Ã¢â¬â but in the light of symbolic self-destruction'. The quiet acceptance Gray achieves seems to transcend the idea of everyman's mortality, and is rather an active realisation of his own. In the line Ã¢â¬ËEv'n from the tombs the voice of Nature cries, ev'n in our Ashes live their wonted Fires' (91-92), Gray moves away from the constant grouping of the villagers (they, their and them) to include himself (Ã¢â¬Ëin our ashes') tilting the poem towards his own self-destruction. Dillon explores this in his essay when he contemplates Ã¢â¬Ëwhose ashes are these? They are those of the safe dead, yet they also form a melancholic, personal estimation of the poet Ã¢â¬â alive but in the ashes of an entombed self'. Thus we see that Gray is aware of the image he is creating of his own condition. His reference to himself in third person in the words of the Swain divulges his yearning for a posthumous sympathy. This along with his concern with the way he is perceived, his reconstruction of himself in death and his self-appointed social position in his glorious epitaph, all seal the idea that in fact he is trying to repair a Ã¢â¬Ëdamaged narcissism' and in doing so is Ã¢â¬Ëmourning his own condition'. Unlike Gray, whose poem appears to mourn the common man, Shelley's Adonais remembers one man in particular Ã¢â¬â John Keats. However, this specificity does not detract from the idea that, similar to Gray, Shelley's elegy is intwined ith his own condition as well. The disquieting refrain Ã¢â¬Ëweep for Adonais Ã¢â¬â he is dead! Ã¢â¬Ë is instrumental in diverting the readers attention from Shelley onto Keats, constantly reiterating the idea that the elegy is about Adonais Ã¢â¬â a name he assigned to Keats that amalgamates the Greek myth of Adoni, and Adon ai, the Hebrew word for God. However, our first instinct that the poem isn't just about Keats springs from its historical background. Shelley, upon hearing of Keats death, was convinced that Keats was killed by the envenomed reviews of Keats' longest poem, Endymion. This belief is reflected in the classical allusion to Adoni, a youthful man who met an early and untimely death when he was killed by a wild boar, an event symbolic of Keats' apparent death by cruel reviews. In Nicholas Roe's Keats and History, he reveals that on the 8th of June 1821, Shelley requested his publisher Charles Ollier to ask Keats' friends the exact circumstances of his death, and Ã¢â¬Ëtransmit to me any information you may be able to collect and especially as to the degree in which, as I am assured, the brutal attack in the Quarterly Review excited the disease by which he perished'. Roe uses this letter to suggest that although this request Ã¢â¬Ëmay arise from Shelley's characteristic attention to historical detail', it also reflects something else: an appetite for a history already conceived, a history the outlines of which applied to Shelley himself, for the Quarterly had also taken aim at his poetry and character', thus proposing that Shelley's own wounded narcissism is tied to his portrayal of Keats' death. Stanza 37 of Adonais reveals this bitterness towards the critics Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËAnd ever at thy season be thou free to spill the venom when thy fangs o'erflow: remorse and contempt shall cling to thee! Ã¢â¬Ë (329-31). Shelley, who even now is closely associated with Keats, was an avid admirer of Keats' work. The godly portrayal of Keats in his poem reveals this reverence Ã¢â¬â Shelley calls him a Ã¢â¬Ëstar' (494) and places him in league with Thomas Chatterton, Sir Philip Sidney and Marcus Lucan, poets who died young and never received the chance to flourish to the maximum of their literary prowess. Though Shelley considered himself a lesser poet, he felt they shared a common thread. In regard to Adonais, he is known to have written, Ã¢â¬Ëthe total neglect and obscurity in which the astonishing remnants of his mind lie, was hardly to be dissipated by a writer, who, however he may differ with Keats in more important qualities, at least resembles him in that accidental one, the want of popularity'. This connection that Shelley felt they had explains his outrage at the critics' reviews, as they dashed the growing popularity of Keats and Shelley many a time. Eleanor Hutchens in her essay Cold and Heat in Adonais says Ã¢â¬Ëthe earlier part of Adonais suffers from an artificial chill, cast over perhaps by Shelley's primary intention not of mourning Keats but of using a fellow poets death as an occasion for expressing certain attitudes of his own'. This belief isn't entirely true; although it is certain that Shelley uses Keats' death to battle the critics that scorned them, there is a significant difference in the two acts Ã¢â¬â that of mourning and that of expressing his opinions Ã¢â¬â as they are inevitably and exclusively related with each other, as seen in Clewell's credo that Ã¢â¬ËBy resuscitating the other in memory, the mourner attempts to reclaim a part of the self that has been reflected on to the other'. To Shelley, Keats is a part of him and he is a part of Keats, as seen when he says Ã¢â¬ËI have lately been composing a poem on Keats, it is better than anything I have yet written, and worthy both of him and of me'. Shelley believes that in writing the elegy and in mourning Keats they are both experiencing a sense of liberation and resolution. This idea is seen in the first stanza itself when Shelley says Ã¢â¬Ëwith me died Adonais' (6-7) and recurs throughout the poem, especially in stanza 34 when Shelley describes one of the mourners at Keats' grave Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËAll stand aloof, and at his partial moan smiled through their tears; well knew that gentle band who in another's fate now wept his own' (300). In the case of Shelley's elegy, the major disquietude of its reflection on his own condition lies in the fact that it acts as elegy for him without meaning to. It transcends Shelley's narcissistic intentions, echoing beyond even the time of composition. In Roe's Keats and History he says that Ã¢â¬ËIndeed one of the posthumous fates of Adonais itself was its retrospective (or uncannily prophetic) application to Shelley'. Adonais was an elegy for Shelley himself in that it foreshadowed his own early and untimely death. Peter Sacks stated that Ã¢â¬ËShelley's conclusion to the poem is Ã¢â¬Ëprofoundly disturbing' when we remember, as we must, that Shelley died a year later at sea'. Some believe his death wasn't accidental and a product of years of depression that lead to his eventual self-destruction, a theory perhaps encouraged by the suicidal tone in the last stanzas of Adonais Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËWhat Adonais is, why fear we to become? Ã¢â¬Ë (459). But whether this is true or not, Shelley's association with Keats is undeniable, especially considering that a book of Keats' poems was found in the pocket of Shelley's jacket that confirmed the corpse was his. After Shelley's death, his wife Mary is known to have said Ã¢â¬ËAdonais is not Keats's, it is his own elegy' and his dear friend Leigh Hunt confirmed that Shelley himself said the poem was Ã¢â¬Ëmore an elegy on himself than the subject of it'. Shelley's cousin, Thomas Medwin beautifully wrote in Memoir that Ã¢â¬Ëthere was, unhappily, too much similarity in the destinies of Keats and Shelley: both were victims of persecution, both were marked out by the envenomed shafts of invidious critics, and both now sleep together in a foreign land'. Thus, we see how both poems reflect a situation stemming from the poet's own condition. While Andrew Dillon believed that Ã¢â¬Ëthe Elegy works because of the exquisite beauty of its language and the psychic complicity of the minds of readers with that of Thomas Gray', critic Katherine Duncan-Jones felt that Ã¢â¬ËAdonais is fundamentally an elegy on one poet by another, a poem whose force comes more from the problems and concerns of the living poet, than from the precise character and circumstance of the dead one'. Both poems exhibit a damaged narcissism that the poets try to appease or console through the act of mourning, whether it is Gray's desire to be remembered in a perfect melancholic image of himself, or Shelley's to chastise the embittered critical reviews that plagued his career and Keats'. However, the sense of isolation, fatalism and admiration in their poems evokes a posthumous and timeless sympathy in readers that cannot be disregarded, particularly in the case of Shelley, even if we are aware that they mourn themselves. Bibliography: Bieri, James, Percy Bysshe Shelley: a Biography (Massachusetts: Rosemont Publishing, 2005) Brown, Marshall, Ã¢â¬Å"Gray's Churchyard SpaceÃ¢â¬ , in Preromanticism (California: Stanford University Press, 1991), pp. 42-8. Clewell, Tammy, Ã¢â¬ËMourning Beyond Melancholia: Freud's Psychoanalysis on Loss', Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association, 52. 1(2004), p. 46-48. Cox, Stephen, Ã¢â¬Å"Contexts of Significance: Thomas GrayÃ¢â¬ , in The Stranger within Thee: Concepts of Self in Late-Eighteenth Century Literature (Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press, 1980), pp. 2-98. Curran, Stuart, Ã¢â¬ËRomantic Elegiac Hybridity', Oxford Handbook to Elegy (Oxford: Oxford Printing Press, 2010) Dillon, Andrew, Ã¢â¬Å"Depression and ReleaseÃ¢â¬ , North Dakota Quarterly, 60. 4 (1992), pp. 128-34. Duncan-Jones, Katherine, Ã¢â¬Å"The Review of English StudiesÃ¢â¬ , New Series, 22. 86 (1971), p. 75-171. Gray, Thomas, Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard: with the complete works of Thomas Gray (Virginia: Peter Pauper Press, 1947) Hutchens, Eleanor, Ã¢â¬Å"Cold and Heat in AdonaisÃ¢â¬ , Modern Language Notes, 76. 2 (1961), p. 24. Hurtz, Neil, The End of the Line (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009) Jackson, Wallace, Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas Gray and the Dedicatory MuseÃ¢â¬ , ELH, 54. 2 (1987), pp. 277-98. Roe, Nicholas, Keats and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995) Shelley, Percy Bysshe, The Selected Prose and Poetry of Shelley (Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1994) Weinbrot, Howard, Ã¢â¬Å"Restoration and the Eighteenth CenturyÃ¢â¬ , Studies in English Literature 1500-1900, 18. 3 (1978), pp. 537-551. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â 1]Tammy Clewell, Ã¢â¬ËMourning Beyond Melancholia: Freud's Psychoanalysis on Loss', Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association, 52. 1(2004), p. 48. Clewell, p. 46. Stuart Curran, Ã¢â¬ËRomantic Elegiac Hybridity', Oxford Handbook to Elegy (Oxford : Oxford Printing Press, 2010), p. 249. Neil Hurtz, The End of the Line (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009), p. 73. Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard: with the complete works of Thomas Gray (Virginia: Peter Pauper Press, 1947), line 3 (all subsequent references will be made in the body of the text). 6]Marshall Brown, Ã¢â¬Å"Gray's Churchyard SpaceÃ¢â¬ , in Preromanticism (California: Stanford University Press, 1991), pp. 42-8. Brown, pp. 42-8. Hurtz, p. 73. Brown, pp. 42-8. Stephen Cox, Ã¢â¬Å"Contexts of Significance: Thomas GrayÃ¢â¬ , in The Stranger within Thee: Concepts of Self in Late-Eighteenth Century Literature (Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press, 1980), pp. 82-98. Wallace Jackson, Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas Gray and the Dedicatory MuseÃ¢â¬ , ELH, 54. 2 (1987), pp. 277-98. 12]Howard Weinbrot, Ã¢â¬Å"Restoration and the Eighteenth CenturyÃ¢â¬ , Studies in English Literature 1500-1900, 18. 3 (1978), pp. 537-551. Andrew Dillo n, Ã¢â¬Å"Depression and ReleaseÃ¢â¬ , North Dakota Quarterly, 60. 4 (1992), pp. 128-34. Jackson, pp. 277-98. Dillon, pp. 128-34. Dillon, pp. 128-34 Clewell, p. 48. Curran, p. 249. Percy Shelley, The Selected Prose and Poetry of Shelley (Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1994), line 1 (all subsequent references will be made in the body of the text). 20]Nicholas Roe, Keats and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 23. Roe, p. 23. Roe, p. 33. Eleanor Hutchens, Cold and Heat in Adonais, Modern Language Notes, 76. 2 (1961), p. 124. Clewell, p. 47. Roe, p. 33. Roe, p. 36. Katherine Duncan-Jones, Ã¢â¬Å"The Review of English StudiesÃ¢â¬ , New Series, 22. 86 (1971), p. 75. James Bieri, Percy Bysshe Shelley: a Biography (Massachusetts: Rosemont Publishing, 2005), p. 239. Bieri, p. 239. Roe, p. 36. Dillon, p. 128-34. Jones, p. 171.
Friday, August 16, 2019
1. 0 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background of the assignment Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages. Some claim it is the most widely consumed liquid in the world aside from water. Coffee is more than a beverage, however. It is a memory, anticipation, a lifetime of consoling moments of modest pleasure woven into our lives. Coffee's success as a beverage undoubtedly owes both to the caffeine it harbors and to its sensory pleasure.Coffee lovers come to associate the energizing lift of the caffeine with the richness and aroma of the beverage that delivers it. Coffee is produced from the seeds of a small red (sometimes yellow) fruit that grows on plants halfway in size between shrub and tree. The process that turns these seeds into beverage is a long and complex process, perhaps the most complex process associated with any major beverage.It is also a very labor intensive process involving a vast intercontinental collaboration that starts with the coffee grower, moves from there to th e picker, then to the mill workers who meticulously remove the fruit and dry the beans, then to those who clean and grade the beans, to those who roast them, to those consumers and baristas who finally grind the beans and prepare the beverage. Every act along the way can be performed either with passion and precision or with careless shoddiness.It is the cumulative quality of all of these creative contributions that together make the difference between a lackluster cup and a fine and distinctive one Starbucks, a corporation that has grown since its retail inception in 1982 to reach global stardom with over 6,000 shops worldwide, it is truly one of the most successful business ventures to-date. Starbucks purchases and roasts high-quality whole bean coffees and sells them along with fresh, rich-brewed, Italian style espresso beverages, a variety of pastries and confections, and coffee-related accessories and equipment Ã¢â¬â primarily through its company-operated retail stores.In ad dition to sales through our company-operated retail stores, Starbucks sells whole bean coffees through a specialty sales group and supermarkets. Additionally, Starbucks produces and sells bottled FrappuccinoÃ ® coffee drink and a line of premium ice creams through its joint venture partnerships and offers a line of innovative premium teas produced by its wholly owned subsidiary, Tazo Tea Company. The Company's objective is to establish Starbucks as the most recognized and respected brand in the world.To achieve this goal, the Company plans to continue to rapidly expand its retail operations, grow its specialty sales and other operations, and selectively pursue opportunities to leverage the Starbucks brand through the introduction of new products and the development of new distribution channels. The competitor is Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee was franchising in 1998, and opened 185 stores within 6 years where all are locally owned and operated by more than 100 franchisees. By 2003, Gl oria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee has established stores in every state of Australia.The company has opened 906 stores and signed 34 Master Franchise agreements across 33 countries worldwide, its strength is built upon a strong recognized brand synonymous with coffee quality and industry leading franchise systems. Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees has played a major role in the development and growth of the retail coffee market in Australia. Our team of Franchise Partners is passionate about the brand and its products, and has the dedication and determination to succeed. To meet the rapid global expansion, the corporation unwillingly had compromised on some of its key success factors.This paper will examine these factors from the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s point, and how essential are they for Starbucks and Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee to retain its current customers. 1. 2 Objectives of the assignment The objective of this assignment is to achieve: 1) Analyze company A background STARBUCK COFFEE 2) Analyz e company B background GLORIA JEANÃ¢â¬â¢S COFFEE 3) Compare and analyze between two company services retention. 4) Compare and analyze between two company services recovery strategies. 1. 3 The important of the assignment ) The output of this report will give us the clear view of both company perspectives in the customer retention strategic program. 2) Revile both company service marketing plan In addition to sales through our company-operated retail stores, Starbucks sells whole bean coffees through a specialty sales group and supermarkets. Additionally, Starbucks produces and sells bottled Frappuccino coffee drink and a line of premium ice creams through its joint venture partnerships and offers a line of innovative premium teas produced by its wholly owned subsidiary, Tazo Tea Company.The Company's objective is to establish Starbucks as the most recognized and respected brand in the world. [pic] 2. 0 STARBUCK COFFEE Ã¢â¬â COMPANY A 2. 1 Introduction Starbucks purchases and r oasts high-quality whole bean coffees and sells them along with fresh, rich-brewed, Italian style espresso beverages, a variety of pastries and confections, and coffee-related accessories and equipment Ã¢â¬â primarily through its company-operated retail stores. Starbucks is primarily known for selling coffee, but also sells other hot and cold beverages, pastries, sandwiches and other snacks.A Ã¢â¬Å"SkinnyÃ¢â¬ line of drinks rolled out in 2008, offeringÃ lower-calorieÃ and sugar-free versions of the company's offered drinks which useÃ skim milkÃ and are sweetened by a choice of artificial sweetener or one of the company'sÃ sugar-freeÃ syrup flavors 2. 2 Company background Starbucks, named after the first mate in Herman Melville's Moby Dick, was founded in 1971 at Seattle's Pike Place Market by three atypical businessmen, Gordon Bowker, Jerry Baldwin, and Zev Siegel. Starbucks mission is to Ã¢â¬Å"inspire and nurture the human spirit one person, one cup, and one nei ghborhood at a time. Ã¢â¬ Starbucks, founded in the 1970s, opened heir first location in 1971 in SeattleÃ¢â¬â¢s Pike place. In 1982, SeattleÃ¢â¬â¢s Best began to sell to restaurants and coffee bars. In 1987, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s name became Starbucks. The same year, stores in Chicago and Canada where opened. In 1988 Starbucks began mail-order sales of their products. Today Starbucks sells hot and cold beverages, complementary food items, coffee-related accessories and equipment, teas and other non-food products through retail stores in 37 countries. The company operates primarily in the US, is headquartered in Seattle, Washington and employs about 204,000 people.Starbucks has experienced expansion globally, and has created licenses throughout Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and the Americas, and maintains a 40% market share internationally. The goal of the company is to create brand awareness through the Ã¢â¬Å"Starbucks Experience. Ã¢â¬ This experience translates well, hel ping folks start their day with an aromatic cup of coffee, pleasant customer service, and each personÃ¢â¬â¢s finding a niche while enjoying their favorite drink and listening to music or reading a book. The first Starbucks location outside North America opened in Tokyo, Japan, in 1996.Starbucks entered the U. K. market in 1998 ,UK-based Seattle Coffee Company, re-branding all the stores as Starbucks. In September 2002, Starbucks opened its first store in Latin America, at Mexico City. In 1999, Starbucks experimented with eateries in the San Francisco Bay area through a restaurant chain called Circadia . These restaurants were soon Ã¢â¬Å"outedÃ¢â¬ as Starbucks establishments and converted to Starbucks cafes. In April 2003, Starbucks completed the purchase of Seattle's Best Coffee and Torrefazione Italia from AFC Enterprises .The deal only gained 150 stores for Starbucks, but according to the Seattle Post-Intelligencer the wholesale business was more significant. In September 20 06, rival Diedrich Coffee announced that it would sell most of its company-owned retail stores to Starbucks. This sale includes the company-owned locations of the Oregon-based Coffee People chain. Starbucks converted the Diedrich Coffee and Coffee People locations to Starbucks, although the Portland airport Coffee People locations were excluded from the sale In August 2003, Starbucks opened its first store in South America in Lima, Peru.In 2007, the company opened its first store in Russia, ten years after first registering a trademark there. In March 2008 they purchased the manufacturer of the Clover Brewing System. They began testing the Ã¢â¬Å"fresh-pressedÃ¢â¬ coffee system at several Starbucks locations in Seattle, California, New York and Boston. Starbucks has always been a place where you can find the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s best coffees. But in 1971, you would have had to travel all the way to our only store in SeattleÃ¢â¬â¢s historic Pike Place Market. [pic] |[pic] |[p|1970s | | | |ic|The first Starbucks opens. The name comes from Herman MelvilleÃ¢â¬â¢s Moby Dick, a classic | | | |] |American novel about the 19th century whaling industry. The seafaring name seems | | | | |appropriate for a store that imports the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s finest coffees to the cold, thirsty | | | | |people of Seattle. | | |[pic] |[pic] |[p|1980s | | | |ic|Howard Schultz joins Starbucks in 1982. While on a business trip in Italy, he visits | | | |] |MilanÃ¢â¬â¢s famous espresso bars. Impressed with their popularity and culture, he sees | | | | |their potential in Seattle.HeÃ¢â¬â¢s right Ã¢â¬â after trying lattes and mochas, Seattle | | | | |quickly becomes coffee-crazy. | |[pic] |[pic] |[p|1990s | | | |ic|Starbucks expands beyond Seattle, first to the rest of the United States, then the | | | |] |entire world.After becoming one of the first companies to offer stock options to its | | | | |part-time employees, Starbucks becomes a publicly traded company. | |[pic] |[pic] |[p|20 00s | | | |ic|The Starbucks phenomenon continues. As of this writing, Starbucks has more than 6,000 | | | |] |locations in over 30 countries.In addition to our excellent coffees and espresso | | | | |drinks, people now enjoy for TazoÃ ® tea | Logo description In 2006, Valerie O'Neil, a Starbucks spokeswoman, said that the logo is an image of a Ã¢â¬Å"twin-tailed mermaid, or siren as she's known in Greek mythologyÃ¢â¬ . The logo has been significantly streamlined over the years. In the first version, which was based on a 16th-century Ã¢â¬Å"NorseÃ¢â¬ woodcut, the Starbucks siren was topless and had a fully visible double fish tail.The image also had a rough visual texture and has been likened to a melusine. ] In the second version, which was used from 1987Ã¢â¬â92, her breasts were covered by her flowing hair, but her navel was still visible. The fish tail was cropped slightly, and the primary color was changed from brown to green, a nod to Bowker's Alma Mater, the University of San Francisco. In the third version, used between 1992 and 2011, her navel and breasts are not visible at all, and only vestiges remain of the fish tails. The original Ã¢â¬Å"woodcutÃ¢â¬ logo has been moved to the Starbucks' Headquarters in Seattle.At the beginning of September 2006 and then again in early 2008, Starbucks temporarily reintroduced its original brown logo on paper hot-drink cups. Starbucks has stated that this was done to show the company's heritage from the Pacific Northwest and to celebrate 35 years of business. The vintage logo sparked some controversy due in part to the siren's bare breasts,] but the temporary switch garnered little attention from the media. Starbucks had drawn similar criticism when they reintroduced the vintage logo in 2006. The logo was altered when Starbucks entered the Saudi Arabian market in 2000 to remove the siren, leaving only her crown, as eported in a Pulitzer Prize-winning column by Colbert I. King in The Washington Post in 2002 . The company announced three months later that it would be using the international logo in Saudi Arabia. In January 2011, Starbucks announced that they would make small changes to the company's logo, removing the Starbucks wordmark around the siren, enlarging the siren image, and making it green. [pic] Starbuck mission Our mission: to inspire and nurture the human spirit Ã¢â¬â one person, one cup and one neighborhood at a time. Here are the principles of how we live that every day: Our Coffee It has always been, and will always be, about quality.WeÃ¢â¬â¢re passionate about ethically sourcing the finest coffee beans, roasting them with great care, and improving the lives of people who grow them. We care deeply about all of this; our work is never done. Our Partners WeÃ¢â¬â¢re called partners, because itÃ¢â¬â¢s not just a job, itÃ¢â¬â¢s our passion. Together, we embrace diversity to create a place where each of us can be ourselves. We always treat each other with respect a nd dignity. And we hold each other to that standard. Our Customers When we are fully engaged, we connect with, laugh with, and uplift the lives of our customers Ã¢â¬â even if just for a few moments.Sure, it starts with the promise of a perfectly made beverage, but our work goes far beyond that. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s really about human connection. Our Stores When our customers feel this sense of belonging, our stores become a haven, a break from the worries outside, a place where you can meet with friends. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about enjoyment at the speed of life Ã¢â¬â sometimes slow and savored, sometimes faster. Always full of humanity. Our Neighborhood Every store is part of a community, and we take our responsibility to be good neighbors seriously. We want to be invited in wherever we do business.We can be a force for positive action Ã¢â¬â bringing together our partners, customers, and the community to contribute every day. Now we see that our responsibility Ã¢â¬â and our potential for good Ã¢â¬â is even larger. The world is looking to Starbucks to set the new standard, yet again. We will lead. Branding strategies Three components to this experiencing branding strategy: ? First, coffee itself Ã¢â¬â offering the highest-quality coffee in the world, Ã coffee standards by controlling the supply chain as possible and the distribution to retail stores ? Second, service Ã¢â¬â customer intimacy ? Third, atmosphere. To make customers want to stay.Based on human spirit, a sense of community, the need for people to come together. Channels Ã¢â¬â Broad distribution strategy ? Want to reach customers where they work, travel, shop, and dine ? Good Location: Company-operated stores located in high-traffic, high-visibility settings ? Product mixed tended to vary depending on a storeÃ¢â¬â¢s size and location non-company-operated retail channels, food-service accounts, domestic retail store licenses Good starbuck partner ? All Starbucks employees were called Ã¢â¬Å "partnersÃ¢â¬ -Most hourly-wage employees ? Generous policy of giving health insurance and stock options High partner satisfaction rate (80% to 90%), well above the industry norm. ? Lowest employee turnover rates in the industry (just 70%, compared with fast-food industry averages as high as 300%) ? Lower managers turnover rates & encouraged promotion from within its own ranks Delivering on Service and good measuring service performance ? Training: hard skills and soft skills ? Treated as a valuable customer (75%), friendly staff (73%) and highest quality coffee (67%). ? A variety of metrics, including monthly status reports and self-reported checklists. ? Ã¢â¬Å"Customer SnapshotÃ¢â¬ measurement toolLess competition ? A variety of small-scale specialty coffee chains (regionally concentrated). independent specialty coffee shops & Donut and bagel chains Strategic for supply ? Part time employees- Starbucks had lowest employee income rate of any restaurant or fast-food company b ut Starbucks offering health insurance and modest stock options to part-timers. ? Increased consumer participation- Starbucks does a nice job of encouraging this through its integrated marketing communications efforts. For example : has questionnaires in its stores urging customers to send in feedback about their experiences Facilities for future expansion The company's efforts to greatly increase its sphere of strategic interest by its joint ventures with Pepsi and Dreyer's, its move to sell coffee in supermarkets, and the possibility of marketing fruit-juice drinks and candy under the Starbucks label represented In order to sustain the company's growth and make Starbucks a strong global brand, that the company had to challenge the status quo, be innovative, take risks, and alter its vision of who it was, what it did, and where it was headed. 2. 3 Customer Retention Strategies When Mr.Schultz founded Starbucks and created its unique service experience which is based on a customer-d riven marketing strategy, fully understood the strategic importance of segmenting his target market, differentiating his products and thus achieving a successful positioning for Starbucks not only in its traditional markets, but globally. These strategies are to protect their current customers from deserting to competitors and to capture new markets. StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ unique blend of relaxing ambience and innovative coffee drinks positioned it as a leader in its category, and made it an all time favorite for millions of devotees around the world.The third place theme highlighted that Starbucks surpassed a place for just a cup of coffee, but instead it gave its customers the comfort of a home, excellent customer service, quality products and the feeling of being special. These elements made the Starbucks experience key in retaining its customers. Starbucks' overall retention strategy has cleverly covered the 5Ps, among others, as we will see below. Product Quality Starbucks trademark was the unique features of the coffee-based beverages. These innovative drinks have attracted new customers to experience luxury coffee drinks at affordable prices, in a very cozy environment.Starbucks created a coffee culture, educating its customers on the coffee types, origins, and the roasting process, thus building brand credibility and gaining clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ trust in the brand and quality of products provided. Consistency StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ major coffee priority is the consistency of the product taste and quality assurance. Starbucks whilst priding itself as the best quality coffee in the world tries to control much of the supply chain for quality control and product assurance. StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ reliability and product consistency is driven by the super-efficient coffee maker machines.Besides making the same drink shot, it is noise-dampening, making sure the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËexperienceÃ¢â¬â¢ is not disturbed by the blendersÃ¢â¬â¢ noises. Customized and Seasonal Pr oducts StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ brand name and popularity came through customizing the beverages to the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s desire through offering flexible drink options such as extra cream, caramel syrup etc. Starbucks also introduces various and new seasonal products to differentiate themselves from its competitors and to capture new clients. The new drinks add to the overall experience of loyal clienteles and this specialization increases its competitive edge over other players in the market.Convenience Through Location Starbucks applied the first rule in opening a store i. e. a successful and strategic location, and for thousands of its stores worldwide, credit should be given to their sharp foresight in store-site strategy to reach its target customers and eliminating its competitors. Starbucks' store-site strategy is to have high visibility, high traffic and convenient location like shopping malls, bar districts and populated business towers, so a daily commuter will be delighted to s top everyday at the store for his Latte.The storesÃ¢â¬â¢ high visibility, convenience and accessibility in terms of its locations and amenities provided (comfy furniture, grand amount of seating, clean restrooms, etc) attracts attention and increases brand recognition and reputation, thus diminishing customer defections and increasing the storesÃ¢â¬â¢ traffic and sales. Strong Brand Equity The unique earthly-colored walls of the each store, innovative product display and cozy atmosphere, seasonal themes, promotions etc makes Starbucks a strong brand that allows for brand recognition and consumer retention.In addition, Starbucks promotes the idea of supporting the local communities by being a good neighbor, and aims to involve its partners in the decision making process. The image of Starbucks sustaining local coffee farmers and helping in grooming their crops builds the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s trust in the coffee bean superiority and Starbucks as a socially responsible corporate brand looking after the long-term benefits of the local community with the aim of growing together and not to exploit. (www. tarbucks. com). The storeÃ¢â¬â¢s clean and hygienic image has added very much to the strong image of Starbucks; a survey states that 83% of the sampled clientele rated a clean store as highly important, a reputation which is equally important for StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ overall image. Customer Bonds and Loyalty Programs Starbucks recognized that one of the ways to obtain customer satisfaction is by manipulating their perception of equity and fairness in gaining maximum return for their money and loyalty.So, Starbucks introduced the Starbucks Loyalty Card which gives great benefits to its customers; ranging from syrup and milk options on their drinks free of charge, complimentary coffee refills and free beverage with whole bean purchases. The Starbucks Card or the Duetto Visa Card (a reloadable prepaid card/Visa credit card) binds the customer whereby they feel that the y are gaining more value for their money, being treated fairly by Starbucks and feeling appreciated by a better quality service in being a loyal and a regular client, thus preferring to stay devoted to the brand and gaining further benefits with their future purchases.Starbucks also created its own world culture by innovating new proprietary language for its products, to the extent of publishing a booklet for such vocabulary for its clients. This syntax enabled customers to choose the drink that suits them the most, thus creating a customization bond with StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ beverages and products. The mastering of this language is essential for the customer to get exactly what he wants, and since this lingo cannot be found out of Starbucks, it will refrain the regulars from flocking to other coffee shops.In addition to the customization of the drinks, StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ interior store design was carefully studied and aimed at reaching the human inner-soul, sending subliminal messages making the customer comfortable and at ease in enjoying his ultimate coffee experience. An Affordable Experience Starbucks market entry and key success was in providing high-end quality coffee drinks at affordable prices. This clever blend of unique quality drinks with a great ambiance and an excellent service made their pricing reasonable and fair for millions.The customer satisfaction on the overall package in exchange for the price paid is reflective in their patronage. Sustaining their prices is essential for customer contentment and retention. The Relationship with Customers Employees of Starbucks are a critical factor since they interact directly with the client. StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy of creating a personalized service that is vital for the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction is pivotal in ensuring his loyalty; personalized services include personal greeting, flexible changes to the drink/order and memorizing the favorite order of each customer, all with a genuine smile and fr iendly spirit.The human touch and customer intimacy is an essential element in the overall Starbucks experience by making each client feel special and well looked after. This point clearly marks StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ acknowledgement of creating relationships and having personal bonds with their clientele to deter them from changing stores. 2. 4 Services Recovery Strategies Starbucks interacts with customer in two ways. The first way is at the Point of Sale (POS). The interaction with the customer begins with the greeting, followed by taking the dink/food order, money exchange and leaving.Pleasant conversation is encouraged the regular customer. This build the idea of the third Starbuck phase for its ambiance meaning that a person has their house, work and Starbuck to make them comfortable. The second interaction is taken place over the phone or by email concerning question comments, or any complaint that they might have. During the first set of interactions, the customer has a high leve l involvement. The customer has all the choice in how they would like their drink made. There are no self-service or technology used in these interactions.The second interaction has medium involvement with the customer and has no face time. If a situation does arise, Starbuck has several different ways to rectify the situation. The first way is with their guarantee. This guarantee is that the customer drink should be made right in time and particular item needed by the customer. If not, let the Ã¢â¬Å"baristaÃ¢â¬ know and Starbucks will give a remake it for the customer. This is also called within company Ã¢â¬Å"a right now recoveryÃ¢â¬ . This allows the Ã¢â¬Å"baristaÃ¢â¬ to remake the drink to any specification that was missed in the previous attempt for free.If the Ã¢â¬Å"right now recoveryÃ¢â¬ is not enough to fix the situation, the supervisor will give the customer a recovery certificate. This is a coupon that allows the customer to receive any drink of their choice for free. Finally Starbucks also has the store managers as well as the district managers lave their business card in the store. This allows the customer to have direct communication with the management if any situation become out of hand. Online feedback at www. starbucks. com from one customer reads that Ã¢â¬Å"The licensed stores never had a conception of the Ã¢â¬Å"heartÃ¢â¬ of the business to start with.They are exemplary of everything that is wrong with current store operations. Ã¢â¬ [pic] 3. 0 GLORIA JEANS COFFEE Ã¢â¬â COMPANY B 3. 1 Introduction As one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading providers of specialty-flavored whole bean coffees, Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s has been providing the ultimate coffee experience for over 29 years. In 1979, Ed and Gloria Jean Kvetko purchased a small gift shop in a quaint little town just north of Chicago. Deciding to share their secret for great tasting coffee, the store soon developed a loyal following as people came from all around to experi ence Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s gourmet coffees.Due to increasing demand and popularity, Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s began franchising stores in the mid-1980Ã¢â¬â¢s to entrepreneurs in the Chicago market who shared their passion for specialty coffees. Today Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s has grown to be one of the largest mall-based retailer of specialty coffees in North America. Committed to quality and selection, Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s is the premier destination for people who know and crave gourmet coffee. Each of our flavored coffees receives utmost care from harvest to cup. We meticulously roast and flavor to exacting standards, making Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s coffee the finest you can buy.Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees is known for its signature range of hot and cold coffee drinks including traditional espresso and ice blends; coffee beans, specialty teas, pastries and coffee accessories. (Wikipedia Ã¢â¬â The Free Encyclopedia 2008) 3. 2 Company background In 1979, Gloria Jean Kvetko founded Gloria Jea nÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees with her first outlet opened in Chicago, USA, selling coffee and gifts. 1n 1996, Jireh International Pty Ltd, founded by NabiSaleh and Peter Irvine, purchased the rights to franchise Gloria Jean's Coffees in Australia.With stores in over 30 countries world, Gloria Jean's Coffees is one of Australia's leading coffee specialists and one of the fastest growing franchise organizations in the world. The company has opened 906 stores and signed 34 Master Franchise agreements across 33 countries worldwide, its strength is built upon a strong recognized brand synonymous with coffee quality and industry leading franchise systems. Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees has played a major role in the development and growth of the retail coffee market in Australia.Our team of Franchise Partners are passionate about the brand and its products, and have the dedication and determination to succeed. Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees is one of the top 30 fastest growing franchises in Australia a nd is also listed as one of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s top 1,000 companies and top 500 Private Companies (Source: BRW 2007/2008). The company has been recognized for their systems, most recently winning the Ã¢â¬ËFood Franchisor of the Year 2007Ã¢â¬â¢ in the PricewaterhouseCoopers Excellence in Franchising Awards and Ã¢â¬Ë2006 International Franchisor of the YearÃ¢â¬â¢ awarded by the Franchising and License Association, Singapore.Passionately committed to creating the ultimate coffee experience for every guest from bean to cup, the Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees difference comes from a true dedication to handmade coffee Ã¢â¬â from hand picking beans to handcrafting each individual cup. Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees is driven by a desire to be the most loved and respected coffee company in the world. They are committed to leaving a positive net benefit to both the communities from where they source their coffee and those communities they serve. With the sale of each cup, Gloria JeanÃ¢ â¬â¢s Coffees helps to support local and international communities through their partner programs.Over the last year Gloria Jean's Coffees has made a huge investment in new resources, systems and tools that will take their franchise model to the next level globally. The team has put in place leading-edge platforms, systems and tools that have strengthened their business and created a robust model that can be implemented successfully and consistently across their overseas markets. Gloria Jean's Coffees provides ongoing management and support from the moment new Franchise Partners join the Gloria Jean's family. The Gloria Jean's CoffeesÃ business modelÃ is aÃ franchisingÃ system similar to many fast-food chains.Franchise owners have to pay franchise fees and royalties on their sales as well as operating costs. The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s board consists of chairman Nabi Selah, and directors John Dwight, Peter Irvine and Andrew Tyndale. Product Coffee houses serve and sell a ran ge of espresso coffee drinks, cold drinks, blended and estate whole bean coffees and specialty teas along with pastries and coffee accessories. Gloria Jean's Coffees recently purchased through auction an allocation of the whole coffee bean that came fifth in Brazil's Cup of Excellence awards, Niche/Small Target MarketGloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee is currently targeting small market segment, young adults segment, which comprises people age 18 to 25 years old, compared to Starbucks, 15 to 64 years old. Besides that, Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s mainly focuses on female customers, where half of the sales came from that particular gender. Customers Are More Demanding Nowadays, customers are more knowledgeable towards coffee. Besides, there is no switching cost to other competitors. They know what different types of coffee taste like and what kind of beans came from where. Thus they only drink those that they prefer and they like.Customers are price sensitive, where a slight change in price might lead to change in preferred brand due to the low switching cost. This means that if customers do not get what they want from a brand, they will have no obligations to switch to the other brand, or they might as well buy coffee beans from supermarkets and brew themselves, which is one of the reason why sales is declining. Highly Competitive Industry There are a lot of brands that selling the same product, which is coffee. Most of it is already well established. Thus it is a highly competitive industry where all are fighting for a share in the industry.The reason for many companies being in the same industry is because of a profitable market and low entry barrier. Growth in specialist coffee shops such as HudsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee and Starbucks Coffee took up a huge portion of the share in the market. Selection of Franchisee/Partners Gloria Jeans is very particular in selecting franchisees or partners. The company stands by their values, which is Ã¢â¬Å"Our partnerships are based on inte grity and trustÃ¢â¬ . They only choose those that they prefer and they feel good with. Logo description Gloria Jean's coffeeÃ logo colorsÃ are twoÃ shades of brown, orange, yellow, and silver.The logo itself is a coffee cup with steam coming out of it. The motto is Ã¢â¬Å"escape the daily grindÃ¢â¬ are full of meaningful in a coffee lover life. [pic] 3. 3 Customer Retention strategies Operations Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees strive to develop their operations in retail business environment by using several channels. One of their distribution strategies is having a very well known third party companies that basically shares their beliefs, values, and commitment to quality. Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees also expanded their coffee business by making their coffee and coffee-related products available via mail order and the World Wide Web.This suits their main slogan, which is, Ã¢â¬Å"Making It GloriousÃ¢â¬ (Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees n. d. ). Donate / Joint venture with so ciety Our success is thanks to the communities that support us, and in return we aim to give back whenever possible. We strive to have a positive impact, both on the communities from where we source our coffee and the communities we serve. Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s CoffeesÃ¢â¬â¢ core value of Ã¢â¬Å"Belief in People, Building and Changing LivesÃ¢â¬ Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees in Singapore has collaborated with World Vision International by sponsoring seven children through the Child Sponsorship Programmed.The Child Sponsorship Programmed supports the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s less fortunate children from various countries by addressing the root causes of poverty and diseases, helping these children, their families and communities break the cycle of poverty, and empowering them to help themselves in the future. A Bean for a Dream for our sponsored children. When you buy a Happy Cookie at our outlet, part of the proceeds will go towards the outletÃ¢â¬â¢s sponsored child. The bean represents t he dreams that you will help fulfill, and the card shows your support for the Child Sponsorship Programmed.Customer Service Due to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëfamily spiritÃ¢â¬â¢, they tend to take customer service as an important role and expect their partners would share these values in the area. Since Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee houses around the world are known for providing a very friendly environment and offers a personalized service. Therefore, Ian Martin, group chief executive of Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee franchise said that, Ã¢â¬Å"At Gloria Jean's we don't talk about customer service because we don't have customers, we have guests. This is more than emantics Ã¢â¬â we don't see ourselves as retailers, but as a coffee house, serving guests, and you treat guests differently from customersÃ¢â¬ (Franchise Business 2007). This is one of Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees strength as it is proven that they do take their consumers seriously. Production-Operations Gloria JeanÃ¢ â¬â¢s Coffees stores are typically more like a gift shop concept than a specialty coffee outlet. Stores vary in size and located in a variety of settings, including overlooking parks and gardens, the beach, and main thoroughfares. Most of the location chosen for their outlets usually is a metropolitan area which most of people usually go.They believe in the concept of higher volume, higher chances of having customers. The product mix varies between each store based on the size and location of the store. It was a take-away concept, which is totally un-Australian. Marketing Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees positions their products on quality and experience, rather than just offering coffees. A comparison of specialty drinks with its competitors reveals very minor differences. Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s CoffeesÃ¢â¬â¢ image is one of the key elements to their success. The company has realized that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t only come for the coffee; they come for the atmosphere.People socialize, rea d, study, dine, or just enjoy the music while drinking their coffee. By knowing this, Diedrich Coffee try to make their stores unique in some way or another that will create a vibrant store atmosphere. Research and Development Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees consider research and development (R) as one of the main factor to be successful in the market thus they constantly urge their employees to be innovative and creative. This is evident through the continuous developments of new and exciting products, being the various drink flavors and coffee related products.By introducing more and more new products and by developing new distribution channels, it coincides with Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffees goal of becoming the most loved and respected coffee company in the world. 3. 4 Services Recovery Strategies Caring for Upset Customers Now and again there are bound to be problems. A customer may be dissatisfied with his meal or may find the quality to be below his standards. There are special t raining for server and they have to attend it, in able to get confirmation of services. At Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee they are 100% sure servers know the best ways to handle customer complaints.Retaining upset customers can be a challenge. By putting in the effort and respect to recover distressed customers, usually Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s may be able to convince their customer to return to in the future. Customer Comment Cards Customer comment cards are recently use and most type of way in evaluating the customer experience. Customer comment cards are typically set out on the table or delivered by the server at the end of the meal. Customers can rate qualities of the Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee cafe, such as food presentation, menu pricing and server friendliness. 4. 0 COMPARATIVE ANALYSISThe definition of comparative analysis are the item-by-item comparison of two or more comparable alternatives, processes, products, qualifications, sets of data, systems, or the like. In accounting, for example, changes in a financial statement's items over several accounting periods may be presented together to detect the emerging trends in the company's operations and results. 4. 1 Comparisons Starbuck Coffee and Gloria Jeans Coffee in term of Customer Retention Strategies In order to maintain the customers for both companies in this industry, there have to make sure that their customers always satisfied with their product.The definition of customer retention strategy are helps the organization to keep their sales up, to create social and structural bonds and build engagement to delight the customers. The top strategies to retain customers are: market to the existing clients, connect with the customers, ask for feedback and input, share resources, reward customers for staying, be consistent in the approach and interactions, and follow through on the commitments, and keep learning. It is well documented that optimizing customer loyalty has a direct and positive impact on a co mpanyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial performance and strategy.Increasing customer loyalty through improved customer experiences can be driven by the insight gained from a comprehensive customer feedback program. Below are comparisons table for both company. 4. 2 Comparisons Starbuck Coffee and Gloria Jeans Coffee in term of Services Recovery Strategies Service recovery has drawn the attention of researchers and academicians recently. The concept of service recovery is seen as both business practice and focus ofÃ marketing study which has developed over time.Perhaps the strongest single factorÃ that causes service failure is the nature of service products themselves, which increase the possibilities of errors, or service failures, and therefore the need for recovery. Most scholars point out that the difference between tangible products and intangible services has increased customer awareness of the possibility of service failures eitherÃ from the operational perspective or from the custome rÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint and itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult for marketers to understand and to meet customerÃ expectations. Besides, service variability has been identified as ongoing problem both for marketing and quality managers.Below is the table of both companies for services recovery strategies. 5. 0 CONCLUSION 5. 1 Conclusion for Starbucks and Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s As one of the famous coffee brand shop, the coffee shop does well in the field of marketing. According to the analysis of the shopÃ¢â¬â¢s situations concerning the marketing mix and positioning, a clear picture of the shopÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantages can be achieved. Generally speaking, there are some important factors that help the shop to achieve business success, which include convenient location, guaranteed high quality of both coffee and service and the Starbucks and Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s brand itself.On the other hand, this research also gives some recommendations to help to solve problems found during the course of research. For example, the shop should pay more attention to create a more comfortable environment in the guest area, and be more positive to introduce the Ã¢â¬Å"Member CardÃ¢â¬ which can help to build more stable and loyal customer relationship. 5. 2 Recommendation for Starbucks Coffee Based on the analysis, there are some issues should be taken into considerations to make further improvements for the Starbucks coffee shop.First one is based on the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectation survey. Some customers suggest that Starbucks should offer more comfortable armchairs and coaches, canopy and replace the outdoor floor with the wooden floor as same as the indoor decoration. In service industry, customers often look for tangible clues, namely physical evidence which can influence customerÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation of service quality. In this case, there is knowledge gap between the service providers and the customers perceived service quality.More comfortable environment can help create frie ndlier atmosphere, which enhance the supplementary services by adding values to customers. It is more attractive to customers, especially when they want to have a relaxed time in this Starbucks shop except for a cup of coffee. Besides that, many customers were surprised when they heard that Starbucks also offer a reward card called Ã¢â¬Å"Starbucks Card VisaÃ¢â¬ , which, however, is not introduced to customers by staff, compared to the Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s positive attitude to introduce their discount card to customers.Loyalty reward programs can offer existing customers incentives to remain loyal and perhaps even increase their purchases. In this case, the coffee shop appears negative to reward their customers, which is easily resulting in customer defection because customers will feel like being defected when they get to know the truth. The shop should realize that existing customers are more profitable while winning new customers are costly. Thirdly, should pay more attention t o educate its customers about StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ coffee culture. Starbucks does well in brand building.Besides good coffee, it also provides its customers a very particular type of experience called the Ã¢â¬Å"third placeÃ¢â¬ , a place away from their home and work, where people can meeting friends and business partners or just get relaxed by reading a book with a cup of gourmet coffee. This is the StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ positioning, the selling point. However, according to the survey results, no one knows it. The shop should realize that differentiation is most of the time why people buy. A clear concept of what the difference is will directly pull customers to come in. There should be a complete consideration about the cost issue before taking action. 5. Recommendation for Gloria JeanÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee Product Uniqueness Gloria Jeans should opt for better coffee beans or a variety of coffee beans from around the world. Beans could be obtained from areas such as South America and Indones ia. These are the places that venture into to obtain variety of beans that suits the consumers. By doing so, consumers will definitely have a variety of brew that they could choose from, besides, the special beans could even provide a better taste of coffee for different types of consumers. Using low fat milk, creamer and artificial sweetener could benefit those whom are worried about obesity and have obesity problem.This specially caters to them as it is less fattening and less sweet, thus it could comply with World Health Organizations agenda of providing healthier food and beverages. Product Differentiation Gloria Jeans should provide food to customers instead of only cakes and pies. This is because walk in customers would find it convenient to dine in instead of just buying coffee from the outlet. Menu such as breakfast sets and set lunch should be provided besides serving light food such as sandwiches and cakes. Raising standards Most walk in customers look for a cozy and warm place to hangout when they enter the outlet.Gloria Jeans could provide a better environment for them by using comfortable sofas and furniture, warm ambience with music and also providing handicap facilities. This will improve consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perception towards the outlet. Modern equipment such as The Clover, which is a specialized brewing machine that allows a barista to quickly deliver one freshly brewed cup of coffee at a time, would be useful. It takes quite some time for a freshly brewed cup of coffee to be served to customers with traditional equipments, thus it might lose some customers whom could not wait.Many people patronize coffee outlet is because it is a neutral place for people to talk about business and do their homework and assignment. This means that internet connection is very useful for them, including students whom usually do their assignments and homework at the outlet. Providing Wi-Fi service to them might benefit Gloria Jeans, as more people will patronize th e outlets for usage of Wi-Fi, which will indirectly linked to purchasing of coffee in the outlet. Increase baristas standards Providing further training such as entrepreneurship skills and management skills to baristas might improve their services.Baristas will feel more knowledgeable in handling situations that might occur. Giving baristas extra incentives such as entertainment allowance and company trips might boost up their morale, which might indirectly increase their productivity level and decrease the turnover rate. Widen the target market Gloria Jeans target market in considerably small, where there only target people aged 18 to 25 years old compared to other competitors. They could widen their target market to cater students as well as corporate business people.This can be done by widening the operation to hotels and resorts, healthcare, college and university campus environments and business and industry cafeterias. Besides that, they could provide kids menu, which could be favorable to those families that brings their children together to Gloria JeansÃ¢â¬â¢ outlet. Increase Customer Awareness Gloria Jeans hardly did any advertising and promotions. They should advertise in local newspaper on their special promotions and their new products to gain customers awareness. Celebrity endorsement could also be useful in the sense that Gloria Jeans is their choice of coffee.This will gain attention of the fans of the celebrity and also people in public. Local celebrities such as Nicole Kidman is prove to be useful as a marketing strategy in the sense of celebrity endorsement. Social and environmental effort can be seen as a good way to increase customersÃ¢â¬â¢ awareness towards the brand name. Doing charity work such as funding the coffee bean farmers, building schools and clinics could be seen as a useful tool to gain worldwide attention towards what Gloria Jeans is doing for the world. They could also be part of Governments plan of reducing the consumpti on of electricity and water by doing so in the outlets itself.Customer incentives Gloria Jeans should reward their loyal customers with membership card or loyalty card to encourage them to stay loyal to the brand and also continue patronizing. These rewards will be beneficial to them and make them feel happy and treasured. They could provide them with discounts coupons and free refills for them who have the membership card, and encourages those that have not sign up, to sign up for these benefits. Franchisee Criteria Gloria Jeans has a strict policy in choosing franchisees for their business. This causes a lot of potential franchisees withdrawn from franchising for Gloria Jeans.The company should be more lenient towards the requirement in selecting franchisee or partners. But then also they have to do adequate power research on the background of the franchisee before choosing them. This is because they reflect the brand image of the company when they are operating under Gloria Jeans Ã¢â¬â¢s name. Choosing the Right Partner From the problem regarding funding Mercy Ministry against anti-gay society, Gloria Jeans should discontinue the funding of it in order not to interfere with serious issues that could jeopardize the business.Instead, they should fund beneficial organizations such as Red Crescent Society and World Wildlife Fund. This will also help promote Gloria Jeans name worldwide, as a form of consumer awareness 6. 0 REFERENCE ? http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Gloria_Jean's_Coffees ? http://www. gloriajeans. com. sg/our-drinks/ ? http://www. starbucks. com. my/ ? theentrepreneurshipjournal. wordpress. com/Ã¢â¬ ¦ /customer-retention-strategies ? www. slideshare. net/Spartanski/starbucks-case-analysis ? http://www. ukessays. com/essays/marketing/gloria-jean-coffee. php
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Yair Lopez Prof. Madara 2/27/2012 Section 07 Critique of Oedipus Rex Is Oedipus Rex one of the most important pieces of literature of all time? This Athenian tragedy was written by Sophocles and was first performed in 449 BC. This piece is about a king named Oedipus who in the course of the story finds out that he killed his father and married his mother.I enjoyed a lot of parts of this story especially when he made the decision you leave Corinth because he was told about the prophecy and when he was worried about the ThebeÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens and wanted to do anything possible to end their suffering; however I was not too excited about the ending of the story. The Story began with Oedipus being surrounded by ThebesÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens who were suffering because of a plague that was invading their territory. In order for the plague to be gone an oracle said that the murderer of Laius must be driven out.In a long quest to find LaiusÃ¢â¬â¢s murderer Tiresias, a blind prophet, reveals to Oedipus that he is the one that killed Laius, who is his father, and married Jocasta, his mother. When they finally found out that the prophecy was right, Jocasta killed herself and Oedipus took his eyes off. This would summarize most important parts of this classic piece. One of the things I liked in this story is the decision of Oedipus of leaving his hometown Corinth because he thought that that way he was going to protect the ones he thought who were his parents (942-957).I personally admired this characterÃ¢â¬â¢s decision because it is not easy to leave your hometown with the people you love for their own safety. If I was in OedipusÃ¢â¬â¢s predicament I really wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t knew what to do. He proved that he is the kind of person that does whatever it takes for the safety of their love ones and a person with the mentality should be praised. This is one of the events I liked the most in this masterpiece. Another event that I enjoyed was when he cared about his citizens and wanted the plague to be over to end their suffering (249-320).Not too many kings are known for their caring and consideration of their own people, but Oedipus proved that he is not the stereotypical cruel king and he wanted to do everything he could to end his peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s suffering. Nowadays we have in some countries presidents that really care about neither the health nor the life of their citizens. In my opinion, in order to be an admirable leader, that person must care about their people jus like if they were their own family and Oedipus in this is the perfect example of an admirable and honorable leader.With leaders like him this this world would be a better place. This event is the one I most like about this story because we donÃ¢â¬â¢t see too many king concerning about their people like Oedipus did. In every story thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a part that the reader either doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like or knows that something could be better. In my opinion, the end of the story could be a lot b etter than what it is. The story ends with Jocasta committing suicide and Oedipus taking his eyes off (1475-1586). During the whole story I was thinking of how will the story end and was impatiently waiting to read the ending of the story.When I finished reading the story I was disappointed and I started thinking in better endings that this story could have. Every story is always recognized in the way it ends because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the part that the reader is always waiting for and the whole reason we read the entire piece is to knoe the end of all the drama. With this being said, a better ending of this story in my opinion would transform this from a good to a great literary piece. This was the only thing I disliked about the story, but unfortunately for me the ending is the most important part of the story.In conclusion, Oedipus Rex is a very entertaining and enjoyable piece of literature who could be a little better by just putting more effort and creativity. The answer to the que stion stated in the introduction is that is definitely one of the best literary pieces ever, but the best of all time is too much for it. However, if I has to recommend a book this one will be without a doubt one of my considerations, especially to a politician, even though I know they will be disappointed with the ending of it. Work Cited Page Oedipus Rex. Vol. 1. Ed. Peter Simon. Second ed. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. , 1956. 570-613. Print.