Friday, November 15, 2019

Knowledge and understanding of the term normative development

Knowledge and understanding of the term normative development The purpose of this writing is to demonstrate my knowledge and understanding of the term normative development. I will analyse Daniels (child I carried out my child study on) learning and development in relation to my knowledge and understanding of normative development by referring to the Early Years Framework Stage (EYFS) (Scottish Government, 2010). I will show evidence of my knowledge and understanding of two theorists, in which will relate in some way to Daniels learning and development. I will show how I supported and provided suitable learning opportunities for Daniel, by referring to all three visits. From this, I will evaluate and reflect on my ability to do this by using the Pre-Birth to Three Guidance (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010) and refer to my own experience and suggest some challenges for staff caring for babies in early childhood centres. Dryden et al. (2005) utters that every child is a unique individual and will develop at different times and in different ways throughout their life. Child development is holistic; a child cannot have cognitive development if they do not have language development. When a child develops, the development does not progress in one area and discontinues in another. (Doherty and Hughes, 2009) Normative development means stages of development that the majority of children of that specific age are expected to achieve. (Meggit, 2006). I will use the (EYFS) (Scottish Government, 2008) to illustrate Daniels (twenty four months old) stage in learning and development. The EYFS (Scottish Government, 2008) suggests that children aged between sixteen and twenty six months are expected to show signs of using one and two word utterances to express simple and more difficult messages. Daniel demonstrated this on all three visits, however was most evident on visit two when we went to the park. Daniel mainly used one word utterances, such as up, o (go), oggie (doggie), you. He endeavoured to use two word utterances on visit two and three when he said, the water and Nana you. I took pictures of toys and characters from his favourite programmes and put together a book to help support Daniels language development. Not only do children need to hear language being spoken to develop their language development but social interaction is needed also (Bruner, 1983 cited in Doherty and Hughes, 2008, p.311). A Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) (Bruner, 1983 cited in Doherty and Hughes, 2009, p.311) is a group of approaches used by parents/carers to further promote the development of language. This approach is where the adult speaks to the child at a more advanced level than the child is capable of creating on their own (Doherty and Hughes, 2009). On visit two, Daniel uses his hands to splash in the puddles and says to myself you. I used the scaffolding approach and responded by asking, Would you like me to use my hands to splash in the puddles with you? By using the scaffolding approach and asking Daniel if he would like me to join him, has helped me evaluate my practice by referring to one of the four key principles in the Pre-Birth to Three Guidance (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010) Res pect. I respected Daniels wishes about what he wanted to do; he made an informed decision by allowing me to accompany him in splashing in the puddles. (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010). Responsive care is another key principle and is defined as: building close relationships with children, being observant of them and meaningfully involved with them. (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010, p.23) I was tuned into Daniels wishes by observing him and reading his signals. By doing this, I noticed he was extremely engrossed with playing in the puddles. I went over and became involved in what he was doing by participating alongside him. Daniel then presented what most children of that age are expected to show between the ages of sixteen and twenty six months signs of looking for ways to get attention from others by pulling them into social interaction. (Scottish Government, 2008) Daniel also demonstrated he could use his growing physical abilities to make social interaction (Scottish Government, 2008) by using his hands and feet to splash in the puddles to obtain my attention. In accordance with the EYFS (2008) children aged between sixteen and twenty six months are expected to look to others for reactions which test what they know about themselves. (Scottish Government, 2008). This is clear on visit one when Daniel sat on his mothers knee, holding onto her hand, whilst he watched the television. John Bowlbys theory highlighted the significance of the attachment between children and their main guardian (Sayers, 2008). Daniel showed he had a strong attachment with his mother. Mary Ainsworth established the strange situation (Dryden et al. 2005, p. 78) where the baby and mother are in a room playing, the mother then leaves the room, leaving the stranger in the room with the baby. The majority of the time, this experiment resulted in the child being apprehensive and uneasy at their mothers disappearance. (Dryden et al. 2005). On visit one, Daniel showed signs of anxiousness when his mother left myself in the room with Daniel as she went to answer the door. Daniel also displayed on visits two and three that he can: Make choices that involve challenge, when adults ensure their safety (Scottish Government, 2008, p.31). I used Lev Vyostskys idea of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Pound, 2005, p.40) to support Daniels learning and development in this situation. The ZPD is the space between what a child can do by themselves and what they can do with the support of a person who is more skilful. (Pound, 2005). On visit two, Daniel indicated he wanted to go on the climbing frame by saying up. I assisted Daniel with his permission and ensured his safety by going up the climbing frame behind him. Visit three, Daniel also demonstrated this stage of development when he began to climb up the chute backwards at the swimming baths. I ensured Daniels safety by modelling how to go up chute the correct way and by holding his hand to climb the steps. I can relate my practice to the key principle Relationships in the Pre-Birth to Three Guidance (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010) as I strongly believe a connection was made between Daniel and I when I helped him climb up the climbing frame on visit two. Also, on visit three when I modelled and helped him climb the steps on the chute by holding his hand. A further key principle I can relate my practice to is Responsive care (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010) because I readily responded to what Daniel wanted to do, I believe Daniel began to trust myself and felt safe and secure when I assisted him. (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010) As previously mentioned, Daniel and his mother have a strong attachment. Daniel showed anxiousness when he was left in the room with myself on visit one when his mother went to answer the door. This could be a possible challenge for early childhood practitioners working with this age group as Daniel may take a while settling into nursery as his attachment with his mother is very strong. It is clear Daniel is still uncertain when being left alone with strangers myself on visit one. Other members of staff/adults may walk in and out of the room who Daniel do not know, which may result in him getting upset, which again could challenge practitioners. Consulting with Daniels mother, she informed me that Daniel has never attended play group but interacts well with Dion (Daniels mothers friends little girl). On visit one Dion came to visit Daniel and I observed how they interacted with one another. Before long, Daniel hit Dion because Dion wanted her wellington boot back. This may be a possible challenge for practitioners working with this age group as Daniel does not know at this stage how to play with other children because he has not had the experience. He also demonstrated aggressive behaviour towards Dion which may be a further challenge for practitioners. The adult to child ratio for under threes is one adult to five children. Daniel is an only child and thrives to gain adult attention. Daniels needs are responded to immediately by his family as he is an only child, it is certain from visit one if Daniel does not get what he wants he will cry. This may be a challenge for practitioners as each are responsible for five children and may find it difficult to respond to every childs needs. It has been said that parents are their childs main educator (Whalley, 2007) and is therefore extremely important to involve them in their childs learning and development (Ward, 2009). Throughout the child study, I involved Daniels mother through initial meetings to discuss Daniels interests, general information, his learning and development and what my next steps were in taking this further. Throughout the child study I respected and valued the information Daniels mother gave me in regards to Daniel. For children to develop successfully and reach their full potential, a strong positive relationship between parents, teachers and professional caregivers is essential (Hobart and Frankel, 2003, p.1) A relationship was built between Daniels mother and I as we both connected and came to agreements on suitable learning opportunities for Daniel. Trust was also created as Daniels mother allowed me to interact and devise appropriate learning opportunities for Daniels age and stage of development. (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010) In conclusion, References Doherty, J. Hughes, M. (2009) Child Development: Theory and Practice 0 -11 England: Pearson Education Limited Dryden, L. et al. (2005) Essential Early Years Abington: Hodder Arnold. Hobart, C. Frankel, R J. (2003). A Practical Guide to Working with Parents. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes Ltd. Pound, L. (2005) How Children Learn London: Step Forward Publishing Limited Learning and Teaching Scotland. (2010) Pre-Birth to Three: Positive Outcomes for Scotlands Children and Families: National Guidance. Glasgow: Learning and Teaching Scotland Scottish Government (2008) Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage. Nottingham: Scottish Government Ward, U. (2009) Working with Parents in Early Years Settings Exeter: Learning Matters Ltd. Whalley, M and the Pen Green Centre Team. (2007) Involving Parents in their Childrens Learning (2nd Edition) London: Paul Chapman Publishing

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Themes of Class and Society in Blood Brothers Essay -- essays research

Blood Brothers How does Willy Russell explore the themes of class and society through Mickey and Eddie on stage? Introduction Through out the play `Blood Brothers’ Willy Russell explore the themes of class and society through Mickey and Eddie. He uses to look at the ideas of different classes in society within the play. Willy Russell `Blood Brother’ concerned with issue of class in society and Eddie and Mickey represent working class and middle class respectively. The lifestyle of Eddie symbolyses a more comfortable, which he has many good things such as foods, sweet, money and the environment of Eddie. He also has comfortable with his parents. â€Å" It’s only because I love you, Eddie† it states that Eddie’s parents love him, huge him and even though he do not get punished like Mickey. Mickey receives little support where he lives in a rented council estate flat. â€Å" We come all this way just look at the bleeding estate†. This tells that Mickey live up by the park. Russell uses dramatic devices to reveal these differences to the audience. For example the dictionary, he uses dictionary in the middle class family because in the middle class family they have all kind of resources such as books. But the working class family does not have any of these resources. Fo r example Mickey don’t know what a dictionary is. â€Å" Its thing in it†, it comments on that there is much differences about the society through Mickey and Eddie to the audience. Russell clearly intends to show how society was divided by showing the effect upon two characters. â€Å" Give one to me†. On the past Mrs. Lyon took one of the twins from Mrs. Johnstone by persuading her before the twins were born. This is how Russell uses to show how society was split. .. ...h used to show the difference in class between Mickey and Eddie to the audience. The characters react each other about the way they speak and does. For example Willy Russell uses language of the two main characters to reveal the difference in their upbringings and education. Mickey regularly uses slang and shorten words â€Å" Gis a ciggie?† it shows that Mickey is unsatisfied with speaking standard English whilst Eddie shown to be posh by speaking eloquently, â€Å" you, sound dead funny swearing in that posh voice,† Willy Russell state here to show the diversity in class and society through out the play. It uses dramatic irony that the two characters are unknown to each other that they are twins, but the audience realise and know the relationship of Mickey and Eddie. This emphasises the effects of differences in class and that the audience will be more affected be event. Themes of Class and Society in Blood Brothers Essay -- essays research Blood Brothers How does Willy Russell explore the themes of class and society through Mickey and Eddie on stage? Introduction Through out the play `Blood Brothers’ Willy Russell explore the themes of class and society through Mickey and Eddie. He uses to look at the ideas of different classes in society within the play. Willy Russell `Blood Brother’ concerned with issue of class in society and Eddie and Mickey represent working class and middle class respectively. The lifestyle of Eddie symbolyses a more comfortable, which he has many good things such as foods, sweet, money and the environment of Eddie. He also has comfortable with his parents. â€Å" It’s only because I love you, Eddie† it states that Eddie’s parents love him, huge him and even though he do not get punished like Mickey. Mickey receives little support where he lives in a rented council estate flat. â€Å" We come all this way just look at the bleeding estate†. This tells that Mickey live up by the park. Russell uses dramatic devices to reveal these differences to the audience. For example the dictionary, he uses dictionary in the middle class family because in the middle class family they have all kind of resources such as books. But the working class family does not have any of these resources. Fo r example Mickey don’t know what a dictionary is. â€Å" Its thing in it†, it comments on that there is much differences about the society through Mickey and Eddie to the audience. Russell clearly intends to show how society was divided by showing the effect upon two characters. â€Å" Give one to me†. On the past Mrs. Lyon took one of the twins from Mrs. Johnstone by persuading her before the twins were born. This is how Russell uses to show how society was split. .. ...h used to show the difference in class between Mickey and Eddie to the audience. The characters react each other about the way they speak and does. For example Willy Russell uses language of the two main characters to reveal the difference in their upbringings and education. Mickey regularly uses slang and shorten words â€Å" Gis a ciggie?† it shows that Mickey is unsatisfied with speaking standard English whilst Eddie shown to be posh by speaking eloquently, â€Å" you, sound dead funny swearing in that posh voice,† Willy Russell state here to show the diversity in class and society through out the play. It uses dramatic irony that the two characters are unknown to each other that they are twins, but the audience realise and know the relationship of Mickey and Eddie. This emphasises the effects of differences in class and that the audience will be more affected be event.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Nigeria Oil Crisis Essay

Fariha Ahsan, period 5 This article displays a vivid picture for us about the conditions in Nigeria due to the oil reserves. Though Nigeria contained the potential to strive and become a wealthy oil nation, leaving the cocoon of poverty encompassing Africa- it became trapped in a lot of corrupt dealings. Today, the Niger Delta in Nigeria has caught the attention of world wide humanitarian and environmental activists. The article states how in the past, the corrupt government ruling Nigeria was funded by Western governments and large oil corporations. Together, the group have benefited from the fossil fuels that are in abundant supply in the delta region. However, the mines are not the only things that are in this area, there are people of the Niger Delta who have been harshly affected for decades due to this illegal mining. The Ogoni, Ijaw and other minority groups of the Niger Delta have been stripped away of their environment and basic human rights. Their non-violent protests have been ignored and harshly cracked down by the money-hungry government. For example, during one non violent protest, Shell paid several community members to break off the protesting group. The Human Rights Watch has sided with the people of the delta, as it is clearly visible how the oil mining has ruined the area. The oil corporations have destroyed the chances of neighboring communities and minorities to form. Money to control the environmental pollution has been insufficient, causing extremely- harsh living condition with scarce drinking water, and abundance of malnourishment and disease. The oil mining has destroyed the land of the Nigerian Delta as well as the homes of many living there. After the delta started receiving world wide attention some change has begun to start, but the previous government has left behind much chaos. It is reported that in the last decade, the military took control of the region’s people, burned homes and killed masses of civilians. The present government has attempted on being more democratic and open, so change is still underway.

Friday, November 8, 2019

African American History and Women Timeline 1920-1929

African American History and Women Timeline 1920-1929 The Harlem Renaissance: also called the New Negro Movement, a blossoming of arts, culture, and social action in the African American community all through the 1920s 1920 19th Amendment to the US Constitution became law, but practically this did not give the vote to Southern African American women, who, like African American men, were largely prevented by other legal and extra-legal measures from exercising the voteMamie Smith and Her Jazz Hounds recorded the first blues record, which sold more than 75,000 copies in its first monthNational League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes shortens its name to National Urban LeagueKaty Ferguson Home founded, named for 19th century African American educatorUniversal African Black Cross Nurses founded, for public education, by the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) led by Marcus GarveyZeta Phi Beta Sorority founded at Howard University, Washington, DCSadie Tanner Mossell Alexander received a Ph.D, the first African American woman to do so.  Eva B. Dykes (Radcliffe) and Georgiana R. Simpson (University of Chicago) follow.(October 12) Alice Childress born (writer) 1921 Bessie Coleman became the first African American woman to earn a pilots licenseAlice Paul reversed an invitation to Mary Burnett Talbert of the NAACP to speak to the National Womans Party, asserting that the NAACP supported racial equality and did not address gender equality(September 14) Constance Baker Motley born (lawyer, activist) 1922 Lucy Diggs Stowe became Howard Universitys Dean of WomenAnti-lynching bill passes United States House, fails in the United States SenateUnited Negro Improvement Association appointed Henrietta Vinton Davis as Fourth Assistant President, responding to criticism by women members of gender discrimination(August 14) Rebecca Cole died (second African American woman to graduate from medical school, worked with Elizabeth Blackwell in New York) 1923 Bessie Smith recorded Down Hearted Blues, signing a contract with Columbia to make race records, and helping rescue Columbia from imminent failureGertrude Ma Rainey recorded her first record(September) Cotton Club opened in Harlem - women entertainers were subjected to the paper bag test: only those whose skin color was lighter than a brown paper bag were hired(October 15) Mary Burnett Talbert died (activist: anti-lynching, civil rights; nurse; NAACP director, president of the National Association of Colored Women 1916-1921)(November 9) Alice Coachman born (first African American woman to win an Olympic gold medal ((London, high jump)), National Track and Field Hall of Fame)(November 9) Dorothy Dandridge born (actress, singer, dancer) 1924 Mary Montgomery Booze became the first African American woman elected to the Republican National CommitteeElizabeth Ross Hayes became the first African American woman board member of the YWCA(March 13) Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin died (journalist, activist, lecturer)(March 27) Sarah Vaughan born (singer)(May 31) Patricia Roberts Harris born (lawyer, politician, diplomat)(August 29) Dinah Washington (Ruth Lee Jones) born (singer)(October 27) Ruby Dee born (actress, playwright, activist)(November 30) Shirley Chisholm born (social worker, politician; first African American woman to serve in the US Congress)(December 7) Willie B. Barrow born (minister, civil rights activist)1924-1928 Mary McLeod Bethune served as president of the National Association of Colored Womens Clubs (NACWC) 1925 Founding of the Hesperus Club of Harlem, the first womens auxiliary of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car PortersBessie Smith and Louis Armstrong recorded St. Louis BluesJosephine Baker performed in Paris at La Revue Negro(June 4) Mary Murray Washington died (educator, founder of the Tuskegee Womans Club, wife of Booker T. Washington) 1926 First Negro History Week promoted by Carter G. WoodsonYWCA adopted an interracial charterAfrican American women were beaten in Birmingham, Alabama, for attempting to register to votePublication of Hallie Browns  Homespun Heroines and Other Women of Distinction, profiles of notable African American womenViolette N. Anderson became the first African American woman attorney to present a case before the U.S. Supreme CourtBessie Coleman died (pilot) 1927 Minnie Buckingham was appointed to fill her husbands remaining term in the West Virginia state legislatureSelena Sloan Butler founded the National Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers, focusing on segregated colored schools in the South (merged with PTA in 1970)Mary White Ovington published Portraits in Color, biographies of African American leadersFuneral for actress Florence Mills drew more than 150,000 in HarlemNella Larsens novel, Quicksand, publishedJosephine Baker played in La Sirene des tropiquesTuskegee established a womens track teamCoretta Scott King born (activist, singer)(February 10) Leontyne Price born (singer)(April 25) Althea Gibson born (tennis athlete, first African American to play in American Lawn Tennis Association championship, first African American to win at Wimbledon) 1928 Publication of An Autumn Love Cycle by Georgia Douglas Johnson(April 4) Maya Angelou born 1929 Regina Anderson helped found Harlems Negro Experimental TheaterAugusta Savage won Rosenwald grant for Gamin and used the funds to study in EuropeBessie Smith recorded Nobody Knows You When Youre Down and Out(May 16) Betty Carter born (jazz singer)(October) stock market crash, a sign of the oncoming Great Depression, where African Americans, including women, were usually the last hired, first fired(1929-1934) Maggie Lena Walker chaired Consolidated Bank and Trust, which she created by merging several Richmond, Virginia, banks

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Croatia essays

Croatia essays The Croatian society went through a lot of changes to get to where they are today. The Croatians have worked very hard and gone through a lot of suppression. I will start with a brief history, and then I will explain some of the customary traditions and expressions of the Croatian society. Croatia became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes against the will of its people after the crumbling of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. For the first time, Croatia's self-governing practice was interrupted, with all activity of the Croatian parliament suspended and the Croatian state divided within the Kingdom. In 1928, Croatian representatives were shot in the Belgrade Assembly; among the killed were Croatian Peasant Party, Stjepan Radic. The following year, Serbian King Alexander Karadjordjevic proclaimed a royalist dictatorship. In 1939, the Banovina of Croatia was formed in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In 1941, after Germany occupied and partitioned the Kingdom of Yugoslavi a, the "Independent State of Croatia" was announced. Although the idea of Croatian statehood was supported, the majority of Croatians opposed the Axis occupation of Croatia and founded the anti-fascist movement under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito and Andrija Hebrang. The communist domination of Yugoslavia stifled the development of Croatian statehood and democracy after the war. In 1971, the Croatian democratic movement, known as the "Croatian Spring," was ended. The first free democratic elections were held in Croatia in April and May 1990. The Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), led by its founder and President Dr. Franjo Tudjman, won the election on a platform that united all Croats around the idea of a sovereign, democratic state and national reconciliation. The first democratically elected Parliament was constituted on May 30, the day that has come to mark Croatian statehood. In the referendum held in May 1991, ninety-four percent of Croati...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Management of Utilities Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Management of Utilities - Assignment Example Further, this establishment will ensure compliance with regulatory requirements, health standard, and guidelines established by various stakeholders in the health sector. An effective preventive maintenance program and the establishment of reference documents for each system will ensure good utility management. On the other hand, contingency plans in the event of a utility system failure should be established and the introduction of performance evaluation of the various systems put in place (Hal, James, and Wayne, 2004). The establishment of such a system that will incorporate the various components of utility management will be quite effective in the provision of quality health care and increase in income of this nursing home. In utility management, the plan identifies the various stakeholders and educates them on their use. After its implementation, the way the stakeholders respond should subsequently be monitored and the improvement cycle established to identify the weaknesses and the strengths of the system. This plan will also help in giving a guideline on the responsibilities and the delegation of duties among the staff members so as to improve performance by elimination of duplication and conflicts of targets. Review of the progress is recommended to ensure that the management system is performing and hence maintenance. A quality control department needs to be established in the nursing home under utility management and with collaboration with risk management. Under utility management, it will establish the procedures for the reduction of health hazards as depicted by the Harvard analysis Critical Control Point. Emergency procedures should also be well illustrated in the plan in the event of utility system malfunction. The consumer-inspired quality is one of the methodologies used in performance measurement.  

Friday, November 1, 2019

Capstone Research Project Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Capstone Project - Research Paper Example The company was exercising a share based compensation plan for its top executives comprising of stock options. These were also not reflected in the financial statements. The company is planning to enter into partnership for which it requires presenting financial report to IFRS. Negative impact of the fraudulent activity on the company followed by recommendations to CFO The inventory write downs are often associated with various negative impacts on the organization. It negatively impacts the operating performance of the organizations. It has been seen that the extreme sales growth in companies lead to higher chances of experiencing future inventory write down as compared to the moderate growing firms. The inventory is an important portion in the financial statement of any organization. The cost of goods sold contains inventory portion, which an organization sells during an accounting period. The inventory stands out to be paramount for the business as it helps in the computation of th e company’s gross profit indirectly. After the gross profit, the net income of the company is obtained by subtracting all the operating expenses from the gross profit figure. Thus, missing entire inventory value in the financial statement leads to misinterpretation of the growth profit as well as the net income of the company. Underestimation or overestimation of the cost of goods sold results in huge differences in the profit figure as well. The manipulation in the financial statements may lead to several consequences. The company might manipulate its financial data in order to hide the actual financial performance. The financial statement of any organization reflects its financial information based on which the stock prices are changed. This information assists the investors in making their investing decisions. The GAAP reflects true and fair view related to the financial information of any particular company. But many times it has been seen that the figures in the financia l statements get manipulated by the managers of the organizations in such manner that it bears no resemblance with real performance of the company. This can also be termed as the creative accounting method. The manipulation in the real figures of the items presented in the financial statement has a negative impact on the stock prices in the financial market and due to which the values get deviated from the actual values. This displays a misleading picture for the market which in turn misleads the investor’s decisions. Many research studies in the past have reflected positive abnormal returns because of the changes made in the actual earnings of the organization. The returns get altered depending on the validity of alteration in the total earning gained. If the accounting process is conducted in fair manner then this statement becomes highly profitable for an organization. But in case if manipulations or alterations have been done on the actual earni