Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Habermas Public Sphere-Market Forces or Political Forces and the Essay

Habermas Public Sphere-Market Forces or Political Forces and the Decline of the Public Sphere - Essay Example According to the compilation of Gripsrud, Moe, Molander and Murdock (2010, p. XIV), Habermas’ concept of ‘public sphere’ relates to the social life of humans and how well they adjust in the society. Adjustments in the society, in this case, relates to an arena whereby the members of the society can come in and discuss the problems that affect them in the society. In the words of Habermas (1989, p. 30), it is this freedom of the public to have varying opinions that the political action is shaped so as to fit the ideas of the ‘public’. The ‘public sphere’ is one that explains that persons and groupings in the society have a right to assemble and deliberate issues that impact them in the course of their livelihood. On the other hand, Gripsrud, Moe, Molander and Murdock (2010, p. XIV) indicate that the ‘public sphere’ is an avenue whereby modern day societies come together and share ideas through discussions, thus creating a channel for airing public opinions. In this instance, it is apparent that a collision between the ‘public sphere’ and the authority that governs or rules the ‘public sphere’ exists. The ‘public sphere’ in this context refers to the civil society – the beneficiaries of social labor – whilst the authority refers to the ruling class or the vehicle that drives the need of the ‘public sphere’ (Gripsrud, Moe, Molander and Murdock, 2010, p. XVII). In the words of Habermas (1991, p. 129), the ‘public sphere’ determines the manner in which the ruling class will govern the ‘public sphere’. Through the ‘public sphere’ the laws and regulations of the market are drawn, and debates on how buying and selling will take place. Habermas (1991, p. 175) indicates that the ’public sphere’ has, in one way or another, control of the state. Habermas (1989, p. 51) emphasizes that the ‘public sphere’ is a form of a regulatory mechanism that prevents the ruling class from oppressing the ‘public sphere’. Gripsrud, Moe, Molander and Murdock (2010, p. XIX) are of the opinion that the ‘public sphere’ is a form of democracy that allows for participation in the course of decision making; thus, the public opinion is turned down into a political action. This is a vivid elucidation of the fact that public opinion rules the authority of law making regulations. From another point of view, Fraser (1990, p. 59) argues that the ‘public sphere’ has been credited for its ability to come up with mechanisms that always ensure that the state remains accountable for its actions in the society.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Dynamic and flexible opportunities Essay Example for Free

Dynamic and flexible opportunities Essay Different institution or any organized group that composes members and hierarchy of position can establish welfare policy to maintain balance and harmony. Policymakers are faced with a challenging task to present variety of opportunities, orders and challenges basically for the benefits of those people under a group or institution. However what if those welfare policies create different impacts on the participants? Since an organize group composed of different kinds of members, one can not guarantee that everyone will agree with the given rules and policies. Opinion and principles from different kinds of people who have different cultural and social orientation may collide and thus create conflict. Some policies that are beneficial to others may be a disadvantage to some. Can the conflicting goals of welfare policy ever be reconciled to produce an effective welfare policy? Diversity of ideas and insights from different members can create a relationship within the group who will explore and examine the conflicting interests that is associated to the given welfare policies. The prevailing sense of community from this relationship can establish a sense of understanding from the ideas and goals of each. Since policy welfare is always equated with the well being within the members, relationships and human attachment will be beneficial to unity. This will encourage members to discuss and review the welfare policy that should aim to propose measures which will bring a fairer distribution of resources and opportunities. Attachment will definitely give them a moral responsibility. Variety of insights from different cultural and social orientation can challenged the minds of the policy makers to create more dynamic and flexible opportunities and policies that will suit all members. As a result, these flexible opportunities will help the members to enhance and explore their talents and capabilities outside their normal orientation. The innovated policy welfare because of conflicting goals may create subsequent developments to the individuality of the members and later on to the institution as a whole. Sometimes conflicting goals from the established welfare policy can be healthy and beneficial to the organized group. It encourages innovation to the welfare policy which as a result can motivate new discoveries to the possible policies that can help the members grow as a person and as professionals. Diversity of culture and principles can motivate learning and self discovery. In order to established effective welfare policy, one must discover their full potentials.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

geothermal energy :: essays research papers

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Geothermal energy is one of the oldest sources of energy. It is simply using and reusing (reusable energy) heat from the inside of the earth. Most of the geothermal energy comes from magma, molten or partially molten rock. Which is why most geothermal resources come from regions where there are active volcanoes. Hot springs, geysers, pools of boiling mud, and fumaroles are the most easily exploited sources. The ancient Romans used hot springs to heat baths and homes, and similar uses are still found in Iceland, Turkey, and Japan. The true source of geothermal energy is believed to come from radioactive decay occurring deep within the earth.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Electricity is one of the biggest outputs of geothermal energy. It was first recorded to produce electricity in 1904 in Italy. There are now geothermal power plants in operation in New Zealand, Japan, Iceland, the US and elsewhere.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  For the generation of electricity, hot water, at temperatures ranging from about 700 degrees F, is brought from the underground reservoir to the surface through production wells, and is flashed to steam in special vessels by release of pressure. The steam is separated from the liquid and fed to a turbine engine, which turns a generator. In turn, the generator produces electricity. Spent geothermal fluid is injected back into peripheral parts of the reservoir to help maintain reservoir pressure. If the reservoir is to be used for direct-heat application, the geothermal water is usually fed to a heat exchanger before being injected back into the earth. Heated domestic water from the output side of the heat exchanger is used for home heating, greenhouse heating, vegetable drying and a wide variety of other uses. Hot water and steam exist at many subsurface locations in the western U.S.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  These resources can be classified as low temperature (less than 194 degrees F), moderate temperature (194 – 302 degrees F), and also high temperature (greater than 302 degrees F). The uses to which these resources are applied are also influenced by temperature. If the reservoir is to be used for direct-heat application, the geothermal water is usually fed to a heat exchanger before being injected back into the earth. Heated domestic water from the output side of the heat exchanger is used for home heating, greenhouse heating, vegetable drying and a wide variety of other uses. Hot water and steam exist at many subsurface locations in the western U.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Literacy essay Essay

The curriculum for excellence is organised into eight subject areas: Expressive Arts, Health and Wellbeing, Languages, Mathematics, Religious and Moral Education, Sciences, Social Studies, and Technologies. The Scottish primary curriculum recognises the importance of each of these subjects . However, literacy is seen as fundamental as it â€Å"unlocks access to the wider curriculum† ( Curriculum for excellence: Literacy across learning principles and practice). Literacy is organised into three strands: reading , writing and talking and listening. From my school placement experience, and personal reading I will discuss how grounding in each of these literacy strands can help facilitate children in their knowledge acquisition, and understanding of other curriculum areas. The curriculum for excellence defines literacy as a â€Å"set of skills which allows an individual to engage fully in society and in learning through the different forms of language, and the range of texts which society values and finds useful† Within the curriculum literacy is organised into three strands: reading, writing and talking and listening. Reading is a skill which can greatly help children in all curriculum areas. However, it is essential that children foster a positive attitude towards reading from the early stages, in order for this to occur. â€Å"For the youngest children, well before the age of five, sharing and enjoying favourite books regularly with trusted adults, be they parents, carers, practitioners or teachers, is at the heart of this activity. †(Rose, 2006). While on placement in a nursery school I witnessed how an interest in reading can be promoted which was having a library for the children to go to. â€Å" â€Å"library equips students with lifelong learning skills and develops their imagination, thereby enabling them to live as responsible citizens†. (Premars and Willars, 2002) Before home time the teacher would select a book to read to the children in the library, and would involve the children by asking a question like â€Å"what do you think will happen next? † â€Å"The very hungry caterpillar† was one book the teacher read to the children, which helped the children with their knowledge of the subject Health and Well-being, as from it the children learned about the importance of eating healthily in order to grow big and strong. The children also developed their Numeracy skills from the reading, when they counted the number of fruits the caterpillar eat each day. I could see that the children were all developing an interest in reading which encouraged them to go to the reading area by themselves a pick a book to look at. This was also helping them to establish an interest in other curriculum areas. One girl pick up a book on shapes, and she was pointing at a triangle, and she asked me â€Å"what is that? † with great curiosity. Another boy asked me to read a book about earthquakes to him, and as I was reading the book to the boy more children came over when they heard the excitement in my voice. After the reading. I asked the students to stand up and shake as though there was an earthquake, in order to encourage physical activity among the children. As children progress through the primary curriculum collaboration between teachers and Parents is vital for children‘s reading skills. â€Å"Children whose parents said they heard them read at home had markedly higher reading attainments at age 7 and 8 than children who did not receive this kind of help from their parents. †. While on placement with Primary 4 the teacher assigned the book Fantastic Mr Fox for the children to read at home. The children would then go over their assigned reading with the teacher each day. I remember one student in particular who struggled with her reading so the teacher used the strategy of two stars and a wish to ensure that her enthusiasm for reading remained high, while also tasking her with something to work on. â€Å"Look for positive things to say about a student’s work, even when pointing out problems or mistakes with the work. Some might receive praise for bigger accomplishments than others, but even the lower performers need a regular pat on the back. † (Adams, 2000) This is essential so that no student is left with a negative association towards reading. After the story the teacher assigned the students with a number of tasks which linked to a number of curriculum areas. The children had to work in groups of four to design a healthy for Mr. Boggis, which helped with their understanding of the subject health and well-being.. The children also improved their numeracy skills from the reading Another by having to plan a feast for a number of people, and given the cost of a variety of food the children had to work out how much of each food they would need and then how much it would cost. Furthermore, while on placement with a primary 4 class, the children were encouraged to read up on any topic that they were confused about. I witnessed this occurring dozens of times during my time at the school. I remember one child was very confused about a particular aspect of volcanoes after a lesson on the topic, but the teacher had no time to go over it again with the boy, so she handed him a book on volcanoes. At the end of the day the teacher asked him a question on volcanoes and from his reading he was able to answer. On another occasion the teacher divided the class up into four groups and handed each group a book on the solar system along with a question sheet relating to volcanoes. The following day the teacher asked the students what they had learned from their reading about the solar system, and I was amazed with the amount of information the students had learned from independent reading. Children’s motivation to read can significantly help to facilitate with their learning of other subject areas, because if a student enjoys something they will read it. This was the case with the solar system lesson. In some instances students may become so engaged with a book that they are in a state of flow. Flow is a concept coined by psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and it occurs when a person is immersed on a task, giving it their attention, energy and focus. This is essential for learning as â€Å"to pursue mental operations to any depth, a person has to learn to concentrate attention. Without focus, consciousness is in a state of chaos. †¦ Unless one learns to concentrate, and is able to invest the effort, thoughts will scatter without reaching any conclusion. † (Csikszentmihalyi, 1998) To help promote this  From my readings, I have discovered the crucial role writing plays in helping children to learn new concepts, words and ideas. â€Å"Through writing, they organise thoughts, remember important information, solve problems and reflect. They learn how to communicate for specific purposes and audiences. ( Queensland Authority Studies). Writing is necessary in terms of assessment for most subjects. Therefore if a child, even one with an exceptional level of knowledge in the subject area, struggles to gets their meaning across, due to poor writing skills can end up with a poor assessment mark. Therefore it is vital that students have good written English in order for them to express their subject knowledge. To help students with this issue teachers often use writing maps, these â€Å"include generic reminders to ensure that students consider issues such as: presentation; the purpose for writing; structure and paragraphing; accurate use of punctuation and spelling; and relevant subject-specific vocabulary† Literacy across the curriculum). This would prove very beneficial to all students even those who have a high writing standard as they would still be learning to organise new thoughts and ideas in an effective manner. Teachers may also wish to apply Vygotskys scaffolding concept by pairing up a student who has poor literacy skills but good subject/ topic knowledge with a student who has good literacy skills but poor subject/ topic area, in order for them to learn from one another. Furthermore, from helping one another both children should reach their next level in their Zone of proximal development, (the difference between what a students can do by themselves and what they can do with assistance), in literacy and the given subject area. The last stand of literacy is literacy and talking. From my school experience placement I got the opportunity to see at first-hand how listening and talking can help with the delivery of a multitude of subject area. Listening and talking occurs naturally within the classroom, and it is an essential. After the book â€Å"fantastic Mr fox† was finished the teacher had a discussion about the book with the children, but first she ensured that the children were all sitting comfortably and were all paying attention. â€Å"To be effective, teachers have to try to minimise barriers to communication. We do this in a number of ways – for example by making sure that the room is quiet and well lit; by speaking slowly and clearly; by only using words which the students should be able to understand. However the most important way to overcome the barriers is two-way communication. This means getting regular feedback from the receivers (the students): Do they really understand what we are trying to put across? (Prozesky, 2000) The class discussion helped with the children’s knowledge of Science. As the teacher talked about the different senses the fox used to avoid being caught, and then she asked students about the different type of senses that people have. (Warner, 2012). Another task the teacher assigned the students based on the book â€Å" Fantastic Mr Fox† was to design a poster to show the farms, the wood and the underground tunnels that Mr fox digs. (Warner, 2012) This was assigned to promote the children’s knowledge of Geography and I. C. T. Before the children took up the task, the teacher gave the students the opportunity to ask questions. â€Å"students asking questions is a vital part of the learning process†(Petty, 2009) From having an open question time it also gave students the opportunity to learn from one another, and understand something they may not have thought of asking. The children’s RME was facilitated from listening also. One example of this occurring was after break time and two of the children were arguing with one another. The teacher sat both of the students down and it was discovered that they were arguing because one of the boys did not get an opportunity to play football because of the other boy. So the teacher turned to the offending boy and asked him â€Å" how would you like it if you were left out? † After giving the boy time to think about it, he soon realised he was in the wrong and apologised. From the above it is clear that the Scottish primary curriculum values literacy as being essential in helping to facilitate students understanding of other curriculum areas, â€Å"competence and confidence in Literacy are essential for progress in all areas of the curriculum. † Furthermore literacy skills is essential for students after their school years as â€Å" they will need advanced levels of literacy to perform their jobs, run their households, act as citizens and conduct their professional lives† (Clark and Rumbold, 2006) References Adams, B. (2000). Helping Students Become Motivated Learners. NDT Resource Center. Online article available at: http://www. ndt-ed. org/TeachingResources/ClassroomTips/Motivating_Students. htm [Accessed on 9th March 2013] Clark, C. and Rumbold, K. (2006) Reading for.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

New horizons in standardized work techniques for manufacturing and business process improvement Essay

This document analysis different business improvements techniques stating the benefits and limitations of the improvement techniques and going further to reviewing and reflect on the social, commercial and economical factors that affect these business improvement techniques. Investigation on the engineering and manufacturing processes and systems by explaining in details one type of the system known as the lean or Sigma manufacturing system in depth is critically evaluated based on benefits to business: productivity, quality and cost. In today’s very competitive market environment, there is a dire need for enterprises to ensure continual improvement in all their operations. Manufacturing companies always continue to face increasing pressure to improve the quality of their products, to increase productivity and to reduce costs with the available scarce resources. Service firms need to reduce their response time so as to eliminate errors and ensure customer satisfaction. Deployment of suitable techniques to ensure continued improvement thus proves to be a necessity. Through these techniques process capability need to be enhanced which will do away with any kind of defects? Mechanical Engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the application of engineering principles, physics and material science to analysis, designing , in manufacturing and in mechanical systems. Manufacturing Engineering on the other hand is still field of engineering that deals with various manufacturing processes and practices, research and development of the manufacturing systems, machines, equipment and tools and outline of the manufacturing processes being a core part and parcel of this field. BITs (Business Improvement Techniques)                  Business improvement techniques or process improvements also known as business process reengineering entails improving the quality, productivity and the response time of a business process by doing away with activities that add no value and also doing away with unnecessary business costs. An improvement technique(s) thus brings about overall effectiveness in the business operations and processes through optimization of the organization`s underlying processes and activities so as to achieve more and more efficient results. Business Improvement Techniques are very important and beneficial for the different types and sizes of companies in each and every sector so as to remain competitive and relevant in today’s challenging business environment. Implementation of Business Improvement Techniques usually requires a dynamic culture change throughout the whole organization. The organizations that have been in a position to successfully implement a philosophy of continuous improvement over the time have had benefits of reduced costs of operations reduced inventory costs, increased sales and profitability, improved team work and better customer service level and thus leading to customer satisfaction. These Business Improvement Techniques can apply to the organization as a whole in any particular sector of the economy starting from service providers, to government departments to the health care sector then to construction, agriculture and also from manufacturing. The techniques are also very pivotal in the development of a vision, goals, objectives and a strategy towards yielding extraordinary gains in the business. Through these Techniques proper mapping and identification of key processes is done and the information is systems are designed to ensure that information flows within the whole organization in the right order and manner. Another benefit of these techniques is that through them defective points are noted or identified and areas or points of â€Å"waste† are also identified. Recommendations in terms of ways and methods of introducing business those which will eliminate waste and provide bottom line benefits to the business are formulated. Despite the fact that Business Improvement Techniques have numerous bottom line benefits the techniques still have some limitations. The process of Business Improvement Technique is quite engaging and tiresome it surely requires diligence, dedication and concentrated efforts for it to bear fruits or yield the expected results. The process is also usually costly to implement despite having very many benefits it requires resources in terms of skilled and experienced manpower, hiring of experts and also machinery, tools and equipments especially for a manufacturing organization so as to effect the recommended changes. Thorough and detailed analysis of any available information and gathering of data may in a way strain the organization. In-depth training of workers and staff, regular monitoring and evaluation thorough planning, scheduling and organizing are also highly inevitable if the improvement technique is to succeed. It also takes time for the benefits of implementing the improvement technique to be realized at times even years after the start of the implementation process. Resistance to changes by some people in the organization is also an expected limitation in an endeavor to improve the business, some factions in the organization may feel threatened and insecure with the changes brought about by the techniques in terms of changes to processes and systems in the organization. At times workers and even some customers tend to oppose changes to the existing processes and systems. Difficulties can also be experienced before the new established or streamlined processes and systems can become ful ly operational and functional. The Sigma Six                  Sigma Six is a powerful management philosophy business improvement technique developed by Motorola that champions setting of very high objectives, collection of data and its analysis to give out results to a really high degree so as to reduce defects in the products and services offered by the organization. The word â€Å"Sigma† originates from a Greek letter sigma which is usually used to denote variation from a certain set standard. The Six Sigma philosophy is based on the fact that if you take consideration of the many number of defects through measuring there is in a process then it becomes easier to figure out how to eliminate the defects systematically and get near to perfection as much as possible. For Six sigma to be achieved by any organization or company it cannot be producing more than 3.4 defects per one million opportunities in which case an opportunity is taken to mean a chance for nonconformance. Sigma Six has six processes namely Six Sigma DMAIC and Six Sigma DMADV, each term deduced from the major steps in the process. Six Sigma DMAIC is a process that deals with defining, measuring, analyzing, improving, and controlling of existing processes that fall below the Six Sigma standard or specification. Six Sigma DMADV deals with defining, measuring and analyzing designs and also verification of new processes and even products that are striving to achieve the Six Sigma quality. All Six Sigma processes are implemented by Six Sigma Green Belts or Six Sigma Black Belts, which are then overseen by a Six Sigma Master Black Belts. Six Sigma proponents argue that it has mega benefits to the company. These benefits include an up to 50% process cost decrease, cycle-time improvement, a less waste of materials and company`s resources, a better understanding of customer needs and requirements, multiplied customer satisfaction, and also more reliable products and services that can be trusted . Six Sigma can be a really costly improvement technique to implement and can even take several years before the company begins to see its benefits or bottom-line results. Some of the Companies that have practiced and still practice Six Sigma are, General Electric, Texas Instruments, Scientific-Atlanta, Allied Signal and many others. Cases showing application of Six Sigma Technique in the Industry                  The samples below shows some Six Sigma projects evidencing the improvements and changes to processes and systems that were ongoing some of which were very problematic and people would wonder whether those problems could have actually been saved at all at all. It is the Six Sigma technique or approach that leads to these companies identifying their problems and thus be in a position to seek solutions to them many of these projects that were tackled by Six Sigma teams would not have been tackled or addressed at all. Some of these sample cases are: Sample Case 1: CANCEL THAT NEW PLANT                  The case involved a highly successful new pain-killer drug, a pharmaceutical company launched plans to set up a $200 million production facility so as to double its capacity. As the effort of setting it up were starting some people from the company who were new participants in the company’s Six Sigma effort resolved to investigate some of the short-term steps that can boost production in the existing plant. As they collected data, the group or participants first realized that it was only about 40 percent of the drug that was being packaged was usable or could be used. Looking further, they discovered that the sealing method that was being used for the drug vials was very inconsistent that some of them would not be completely closed, while at the same time others were too long to fit in the box. The team thus used a number of testing and refining of the Sealing process by use of different design experiments methods and finally determined the very best combination of inputs or factors that is the time, temperature, distance and so on that could be used to ensure a good seal. Effecting these changes and an addition of few $50 parts to regulate and change the sealing equipment was done and there was no need of establishing the new plant. Sample Case 2: REPAIRING REPAIRS                  A major organization dealing with appliances repair realized the need to improve its capacity to return items to the customers in accordance to when the goods were promised to be returned. Many are the times that repairs were late and the customers became disappointed when they would call in or drop by the organization premises to pick up their appliances or computer. A multi-level DMAIC team decided to narrow their scope to two repair locations and to diligently and carefully analyze all the causes leading to late repairs. The first discovery is that the time taken to repair one product was only part of the problem and that the time taken to ship appliances back and forth from repair shop to the customer site also was the main and big contributor to delays or missed dates. Based on the findings together with the cost/benefit analysis the team in assistance with other colleagues engaged in the two pilot facilities or projects implemented a few changes so as to streamline the process and increase the number of appliances being returned to customers when promised. Lean Sigma on Manufacturing Systems and its Importance in the Production system                  The value of Lean Manufacturing System is best comprehended when at the particular time that its impact of change on economics is properly understood. This manufacturing engineering philosophy is based on designing a manufacturing process or system that very well blends together the essentials of minimizing cost and maximizing profit. The main fundamentals with these systems are Labor, Materials and Machines or Equipment referred to as 3Ms of manufacturing. A very well balanced 3M results in: Maximum utilization of both skilled and unskilled labor; optimal use of the plant size; Smooth traffic movement of materials, labor and automotives. It can also lead to minimum grand total manufacturing costs of the products being produced; Reduce investment; reducing labor requirement and utilization of more productive equipment. Disposition of less productive or unproductive equipments; Flexibility to keeping in pace with market and customer changes and also Increa se Return on Net Asset are other results of use the 3M fundamentals. Three steps involved in the accomplishment of the ultimate manufacturing engineering lean philosophy namely: The first step is to design a simple manufacturing system; one commences the process of system design as simple as possible with just a low volume through the system. The second step is the realization that there is always a room for improvements and thus refining the first step as much as possible. The third step is to continuously work on and improve the lean manufacturing system design concept with addition of the appropriate insertion of and balance of automations, conveyors and in necessary cases the buffer stocks. Additional concepts can be generated that could lead to satisfaction of product and the technical marketing requirements of the products. Through a thorough re-examination of intra- and inter- technologies, through past production process errors and the lessons learned. The competitive analysis of techno-communication may be applicable and finally selection of the proper manufacturing system concepts to be adopted for further considerations or developments should be based upon a thorough analysis performed or done in accordance with the established selection criteria. Consideration of two manufacturing systems that when they are combined give rise to Lean Manufacturing system that is the Flow Manufacturing System and Agile Manufacturing System. Designing a Simple Manufacturing System through flow manufacturing is a time-based process that joins together a smooth production system without any disruption. Rapidly and smoothly flowing materials from raw materials to finished goods through systematic balancing of the laborers or operators, the machine and equipment to customer demands or requirements. The objective of Flow Manufacturing is to provide the ultimate response and also produce the customer requirement, benefits of this goal being to decrease the Total Product Cycle Time, increased productivity and also increased the per capital equipment utilization. In this system of Flow Manufacturing, the performance and output is measured by the Total Product Cycle Time also referred to as the Critical Path. Total Product Cycle Time is the longest lead time path right away from raw materials to finished goods it is the quickest possible response to a customer order with finished products. Lead Time consideration and analysis is derived from the Critical Path which helps us to outline opportunities so as to reduce or eliminate Non-Value-Adding activities and in the process shortening the Total Cycle Product Time. When reducing the variations in the rate of flow in the manufacturing system, the lead time will be reduced. These variations can be reduced through random downtimes, higher uptime, through quick changeover, lower downtime and also through improved quality through error proofs, self checks, and equipment product centered cellular layouts. Agile Manufacturing is quite a profitable manufacturing system that is closely inter-twined to the concept of Flow Manufacturing. It goes further and builds on the Flow Manufacturing concept to further reduce the lead time, optimize asset utilization or use and build to customer demand by focusing on being able to aptly respond to customer requests and demands. It has an assumption that the customer requirement or specifications and volumes which is based on continuous changes. Program lead time is the form of measurement of Agile Manufacturing performance. The main goal is to have a system that has a smooth flow of material while at the same time maximizing the value added activities of the operator. There are other situations in the system design process that requires special consideration such as situations include: Manufacturing Process, Manufacturing System, Value Added (VA) activities and the Non Value Added (NVA) activities. The manufacturing process entails the equipments used to create, to alter, to assemble, to measure and tests the product with the objective of meeting a pre-determined product requirement. This equipment includes machines, tools, fixtures, and gauges such as drills, grinders and test stands. The manufacturing system involves the combination of labor and manufacturing process which are then linked together with materials handling both manual or automated so as to move the material or product from one manufacturing point to the next process and to the next until it is processed into a finished product. VA or Value Added is any activity that is performed to a product as it moves along the production process that the customer perceived as actually addition of value to the product. The NVA (Non Valuable Activities) are all the activities that are associated with the production process that happen not to be adding any value to the product and thus not necessary to be performed but it is st ill nonetheless performed at the current moment awaiting the emergence or arousal of awareness on availability of better methods to replace it. In Lean Manufacturing however the manufacturing cost does not necessarily have a steep drop as the volume requirements or demands of customer’s changes. This is because of the product flexibility and also equipment flexibility that can be very well incorporated into the Lean Manufacturing System. This system is mostly characterized with: investment which are done as required, more flexible equipment, more adaptability to uncertain markets in terms of volumes and products and also characterized with smaller capacity increments and more product(s) flexibility. Lean manufacturing system design needs to be continuously improved so as to aptly respond to the customer requirements and to ensure this is by having flexibility of equipment and have the capability to match it with the product flexibility. Having uncertain customer requirements makes it important to examine the manufacturing costs over a range of volumes also been very keen not to produce beyond the requirements. This system is characterized with: investments committed upfront which is usually quite high; more rigid and complicated equipment and larger capacity increments with high customer volume demands or requirements for long periods Lean Manufacturing System has potential for greater profitability which highly depends on utilization of its resources that is the 3Ms in terms of the materials moving the Value Activities or VA, man or labor working by adding value to the product, machine running in a manner that is more productive. Lean Manufacturing System can be successfully adopted in new manufacturing system or environment, in an existing manufacturing system requiring capitalization, new equipments or even in product relocation. In conclusion given the increasing competitiveness in the market place it would be suicidal for a business to ignore continual improvement in its systems and operations. Manufacturing companies specifically will always continue to face increasing pressure to improve the quality of their products, to increase productivity and to reduce costs with the available scarce resources. Use of the right Business Improvement Techniques to ensure continued improvement of the business to as to keep afloat of competition and deal with changes in its environment. From this paper it is clear that Business Improvement Techniques dramatically decreases the waste chain in the business operations and also reduces the Inventory and floor space requirements. Creation of more robust production processes and systems and also appropriate material delivery systems are established and there is improved layouts for more flexibility in business as a result of the Business Improvement Techniques and thus should b e a priority for any business to consider embracing. References Marcos, M. (2012). Advances in manufacturing systems selected, peer reviewed papers from the 4th Manufacturing Engineering Society International Conference, September 2011, Cadiz, Spain. Durnten-Zurich, Switzerland: Trans Tech Publications. Martin, T. D., & Bell, J. T. (2011). New horizons in standardized work techniques for manufacturing and business process improvement. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Meyer, U. B., & Creux, S. E. (2009). Process oriented analysis: design and optimization of industrial production systems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC/Taylor & Francis. Olaru, A. (2012). Optimization of the mechanical engineering, manufacturing systems, robotics and aerospace selected, peer reviewed papers from the 7th International Conference on Optimization of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing systems, Robotics and Aerospace (OP. Stafa-Zurich: TTP Trans Tech Publications. Rogers, D. (2011). The future of lean Sigma thinking in a changing business environment. Baco Raton, FL.: CRC Press. Source document

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

buy custom Heart Diseases essay

buy custom Heart Diseases essay Ways of reducing unhealthy fats and cholesterol to prevent heart diseases The topic deals with the reasons why unhealthy fats and cholesterol lead to heart diseases. Besides, it explains the meaning of saturated fats and how they can be reduced or eliminated from the diet. Additionally, examples of saturated fats are discussed as well as the best substitutes that can be used to replace them. A chart showing the recommended amount of fats to be included in the diet is formulated for guidance. Examples of heart diseases are listed and the best ways of preventing as well as treating them are discussed in this topic. The main subject in this topic is to discuss how unhealthy fats and cholesterol can be reduced or eliminated from the diet in order to pevent heart diseases. Outline Introduction Why unhealthy fats and cholesterol lead to heart diseases. Meaning of saturated fats and how they can be eliminated from the diet. Examples of heart diseases and how they are prevented as well as cured. Conclusion. Fruits and vegetables used to prevent heart diseases. The topic discusses the minerals and vitamins obtained from fruits and vegetables. Besides, it explains how the minerals and vitamins obtained prevent heart diseases. The benefits of the fewer calories as well as rich fiber found in fruits and vegetables are explained. The reasons why people should eat fresh fruits and vegetables canned with low sodium are alsso well discussed. There are some fruits and vegetables which should be avoided and they include, coconuts, fruits that are canned in syrup and vegetables that contain cream. The aim of this topic is to discuss the reasons why fruits and vegetables should be included in the diet in order to reduce heart diseases as well as the best choices to make. Outline Introduction How minerals and vegetables in fruits and vegetables help in preventing heart diseases. Significance of fewer calories and rich fiber in the diet. Benefits associated with eating fresh vegetables and fruits. A table showing fruits and vegetables that should be avoided as well as their substitutes. Conclusion. Buy custom Heart Diseases essay

Monday, October 21, 2019

Cookiecutter Shark Facts and Information

Cookiecutter Shark Facts and Information The cookiecutter shark is a small shark species who got its name from the round, deep wounds it leaves on its prey. They are also known as the cigar shark,  luminous shark, and cookie-cutter or cookie cutter shark. The cookiecutter sharks scientific name is Isistius brasiliensis. The genus name is a reference to Isis, the  Egyptian goddess of light, and their species name is a reference to their distribution, which includes Brazilian waters.   Classification Kingdom:  AnimaliaPhylum:  ChordataSubphylum:  VertebrataSuperclass:  GnathostomataSuperclass:  PiscesClass:  ElasmobranchiiSubclass:  NeoselachiiInfraclass:  SelachiiSuperorder:  SqualomorphiOrder:  SqualiformesFamily:  DalatiidaeGenus:  IsistiusSpecies:  brasiliensis Description Cookiecutter sharks are relatively small. They grow to about 22 inches in lengths, with females growing longer than males. Cookiecutter sharks have a short snout, dark brown or grayish back, and light underside. Around their gills, they have a dark brown band, which, along with their shape, gave them the nickname cigar shark. Other identification features include the presence of two paddle-shaped pectoral fins, which have a lighter coloration on their edges, two small dorsal fins near the back of their body and two pelvic fins. One interesting characteristic of these sharks is that they can produce a greenish glow using photophores, bioluminescent organs which are located on the sharks body, but densest on their underside. The glow can attract prey, and also camouflages the shark by eliminating its shadow. One of the most important features of cookiecutter sharks is their teeth.   Although the sharks are small, their teeth are fearsome-looking.  They have small teeth in their upper jaw and 25 to 31 triangular-shaped in their lower jaw. Unlike most sharks, who lose their teeth one at a time, cookiecutter sharks lose the complete section of lower teeth at once, as the teeth are all connected at their base. The shark ingests the teeth as they are lost a behavior that is thought to be related to increasing calcium intake.   The teeth are used in combination with their lips, which can attach to prey through suction.   Habitat and Distribution Cookiecutter sharks are found in tropical waters in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. They are often found near oceanic islands.   These sharks undertake a daily vertical migration, spending the daytime in deep waters below 3,281 feet and moving toward the water surface at night.   Feeding Habits Cookiecutter sharks often  prey upon animals much larger than they are.   Their prey includes marine mammals  such as seals, whales and dolphins and large fish such as tuna, sharks, stingrays, marlin and dolphin, and invertebrates such as squid and crustaceans. The greenish light given off by the photophore attract prey. As the prey approaches, the cookiecutter shark quickly latches on and then spins, which removes the preys flesh and leaves a distinctive crater-like, smooth-edged wound. The shark grips the preys flesh using its upper teeth. These sharks are also thought to cause damage to submarines by biting their nose cones. Reproductive Habits Much of cookiecutter shark reproduction is still a mystery. Cookiecutter sharks are ovoviviparous. The pups inside the mother are nourished by the yolk inside their egg case.   Cookiecutter sharks have 6 to 12 young per litter. Shark Attacks and  Conservation Although the idea of an encounter with a cookie cutter shark is frightening, they generally present no danger to humans due to their preference for deep waters and their small size.   The cookiecutter shark is listed as a species of  least concern on the IUCN Red List. While they are caught occasionally by fisheries, there is no targeted harvesting of this species.   Sources Bailly, N. 2014. Isistius brasiliensis (Quoy Gaimard, 1824). In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2014) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species, December 15, 2014Bester, C. Cookiecutter Shark. Florida Museum of Natural History. Accessed December 15, 2014.Compangno, L., ed. 2005. Sharks of the World. Princeton University Press. 368pp.Martin, R. A. Cookiecutter Shark. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Accessed December 15, 2014.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

How to become a payroll clerk

How to become a payroll clerk If you’re a stickler for details and get a warm glow of satisfaction from the idea of people getting their paychecks on time, then you might want to consider becoming a payroll clerk. These financial professionals are responsible for maintaining and processing large amounts of financial data and payment information for companies.What does a payroll clerk do?Payroll clerks are employed by just about every kind of company (large or small, corporate or nonprofit, etc.) that has employees. These professionals manage employees’ financial data and are typically responsible for processing paychecks and other payments, keeping time records, and handling any pay-related information for employees (like tax information, insurance deductions, or other factors that can affect an employee’s pay).A payroll clerk’s duties may include:Calculating pay for employeesUsing payroll software to manage employee pay and financial informationCalculating taxes and deductionsProducin g and processing employee paychecksTracking employee work time and keeping accurate recordsInitiating direct deposit paymentsCalculating unemployment or severance payVerifying and resolving discrepancies in employee financial data or payKeeping detailed digital or paper financial records to be reportedIssuing pay statements and invoicesProcess and distribute financial documents like W-2 tax formsFollowing financial reporting procedures and legal best practicesThis is typically a 9-to-5 kind of job, with a standard 40-hour work week. Payroll clerks can be found across industries, as their skills are needed by just about any company that handles employee pay.What skills do payroll clerks need?This is a highly specialized role, so there are specific skill sets that will be an asset to you in this field.Math Skills:Â  Although this is a highly administrative position, it also calls for very strong math skills. The payroll clerk is responsible for money going in and out to employees, so they really must be able to do financial math effectively and accurately.Attention to Detail:Â  Because of the emphasis on accuracy, a payroll clerk needs to be able to spot discrepancies or problems in financial documents or paychecks. Mistakes can have significant impacts on employees or the company, so an eagle eye is essential, whether the clerk is using advanced accounting software or good old-fashioned paper and calculators.Problem Solving Skills:Â  Part of the job is resolving issues that inevitably come up when money, math, and humans are involved. If there are discrepancies in amounts paid versus amounts owed, the clerk needs to be able to resolve the issue quickly and accurately.What do you need to become a payroll clerk?The baseline minimum combination is a high school degree and a stellar set of math skills, but many companies prefer their payroll clerk to have at least an associate’s degree in business, accounting, or finance.How much do payroll clerks get pai d?According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, payroll clerks earn a median annual salary of $43,580, or $20.95 per hour.What’s the outlook for payroll clerks?Because these professionals have a strong and versatile set of skills and can work in any industry that has need of payroll processing, it’s a solid career choice in the financial services and administration field. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics expects that the demand for payroll clerks will continue to grow by about 6% through 2024.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Adolescents Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Adolescents - Essay Example Developmental crisis refers to the problems that a person runs into in the course of the natural maturation process that require intervention therapy. The events that trigger the developmental crises come about during the maturation process. Therefore, one should view individuals in light of their developmental history. Erickson proposes some stages of development and among them is the adolescence stage that has the crisis of identity vs. role confusion. During their time, people ask themselves who they are in reality (Kanel, 2012). There are various crisis intervention strategies to solve the arising developmental crises. For instance, the best method to employ in dealing with identity vs. role confusion crisis is counselling therapy. One should carry out an assessment of the crisis first and examine it basing on the development stage. In addition, the person should for those factors that actively contribute to the difficulty and the victim’s perception of the events that trigger the crisis. Counseling at this stage should reflect on the client’s struggle with the developmental issues. The counsellor should ensure that the clients take caution (Kanel,

Friday, October 18, 2019

Film review Movie Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 10

Film - Movie Review Example The film also captivates through its application of irony as Raphael’s status changes from an arrogant successful salesperson to an oppressed loser (Iglesia). The film’s major characters are Raphael and Lourdes. These characters play a major role in the development of the story line besides aiding application of literacy styles, such as irony, in the film. Minor characters on the other hand include Antonio, who beat Raphael in a promotion opportunity, other sales women, the employing organization, and the passive criminal investigation system. These characters facilitate demonstration of Raphael and Lourdes’ character traits. The sales women for example elevate Raphael’s social power but undermine Lourdes (Iglesia). One of the added techniques to the film is flashback, applied towards the film’s end. The technique further illustrates the relationship between Raphael and Lourdes and therefore enriches the storyline

What do you think is the most significant change in correctional Essay - 2

What do you think is the most significant change in correctional policy in the last 100 year and why important - Essay Example Violators of social norms, rights and freedom are referred to as offenders. The correctional policy is designed to address the resultant conflict that emerges when the justice system is jeopardized by individuals or groups of people. One of the significant changes that have been realized in the correctional policy is the embracement of the fact that offenders have rights. In the early stages of the implementation of the policy, the rights and freedoms of individuals subjected to the policy were often curtailed and therefore not observed. However, over the years, the fact that the offenders have rights too have been upheld, leading to from time to time reforms that account for the welfare of both the offenders and the community prior to the interests of the policy. Secondly, the policy has evaluated and assessed punishment mechanisms in a bid to realize the required corrections. In this regard, diversity and dynamism in modes and mechanisms of punishments have been adopted over the years. While strict and specific procedures of corrections were employed in the earlier years of the practice of the policy, reforms, rehabilitation, reintegration and restraint are common in the policy today (Roberts & Springer 32). On the same note, the policy’s diversity has made it possible for its practice to encompass alternative programs that ease pressure in correctional facilities. Sentencing guidelines prior to the desired goals and objectives of the correctional policy have significantly changed over the last 100 years. Uniformity and proportionality are the two primary aspects that have characterized this change (Cole & Smith 495). Offenses of the same or similar magnitude are critically matched to carry the same sentences, as provided for by the policy. With regard to proportionality, the policy differentiates between offences and

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Population control through forced sterilization in the past and Essay

Population control through forced sterilization in the past and medication, food in the present - Essay Example In this regard, the state observed a growth of compulsory sterilization laws that encompassed progressive era reforms and the popularity concerning the eugenic movements (Eccleston 2). The reformers proposed the use of mental institutions and prisons to separate these kinds of the population from the people. On the other hand, the eugenicists proposed that the elimination of such persons from the society is the sure way of curbing the problems of criminal tendencies and disabilities. In the contemporary society, there are modifications of eugenics to involve foods and vaccines that harm the populations. Arguably, the use of eugenics has profound adverse effects on the people that consume them, hence, they should be stopped. The medical communities targeted the feebleminded people in the communities because of the challenges posed by their increased numbers. For instance, the doctors referred to the feebleminded as morons, idiots, and imbeciles claiming that they are legible to initiate crime or settle on begging. Eccleston asserts that studies conducted during those times claimed that high-grade morons would grow to become prostitutes and criminals. The research added that, women of the feeble mind bred at very high rates, thus the need to curb this phenomenon since it led to many welfare dependents and crooks (Eccleston 4). Further, the officials of the public welfare elucidated the potential of social inadequacy by relating disability, the socioeconomic status, and criminality. The state then conducted a survey indicated various challenges amongst many individuals. Eccleston notes that, the President of Campell ascertained that the survey indicated a mutual interdependency between delinquency, dependency, and mental defects. The situation meant that there was enough evidence for the state to support the use of eugenics in population control (Eccleston 5). Due to sexual defiance in the society, the

Internal Auditing - Al Ain Rotana Hotel Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Internal Auditing - Al Ain Rotana Hotel - Essay Example Rotana hotel has managed to counter this risk by putting in place a qualified doorman to receive guests. It has also trained its staff on good interpersonal skills and speed reception. To ensure effective management of addressing of guests feedback, the hotel has to deal with the risk of poor service delivery to impatient customers when handling a complaint as customers differ from each other. Rotana Hotel has formulated a policy on complaint handling that involves all employees receiving complaint handling training, complaints to be addressed by the first individual to handle it, the staff should have knowledge of how to satisfy a complaining guest, a complaint log to be maintained in the front office and the general manager to be informed of all complaints. In regards, to ensuring efficient recruitment, welfare, training and development process of the staff, the risks involved in check-in process without the staff taking proper identifications mostly due to negligence or poor skilled in the check-in process and revealing inside information to outsiders which is dangerous and caused by irresponsibility of the staff. The hospital has managed to sponsor programs of proper selection and recruitment process, staff orientation and performance management so as to have reliable working force to propel the scales of the hotel. The objective of maintaining adequate controls on room occupancy is affected by the risk of double checking in the check-in process where a guest checks in and is not recorded in the system due to default in management. The hospital introduced room control measures that will not enable checking in without full complete of the registration process, guests to be contacted prior to their departure and vacant room accounts to be closed. Discrepancies on rooms to be viewed twice a day and any differences between room occupancy and housekeeping to be addressed. Establishing proper handling of

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Population control through forced sterilization in the past and Essay

Population control through forced sterilization in the past and medication, food in the present - Essay Example In this regard, the state observed a growth of compulsory sterilization laws that encompassed progressive era reforms and the popularity concerning the eugenic movements (Eccleston 2). The reformers proposed the use of mental institutions and prisons to separate these kinds of the population from the people. On the other hand, the eugenicists proposed that the elimination of such persons from the society is the sure way of curbing the problems of criminal tendencies and disabilities. In the contemporary society, there are modifications of eugenics to involve foods and vaccines that harm the populations. Arguably, the use of eugenics has profound adverse effects on the people that consume them, hence, they should be stopped. The medical communities targeted the feebleminded people in the communities because of the challenges posed by their increased numbers. For instance, the doctors referred to the feebleminded as morons, idiots, and imbeciles claiming that they are legible to initiate crime or settle on begging. Eccleston asserts that studies conducted during those times claimed that high-grade morons would grow to become prostitutes and criminals. The research added that, women of the feeble mind bred at very high rates, thus the need to curb this phenomenon since it led to many welfare dependents and crooks (Eccleston 4). Further, the officials of the public welfare elucidated the potential of social inadequacy by relating disability, the socioeconomic status, and criminality. The state then conducted a survey indicated various challenges amongst many individuals. Eccleston notes that, the President of Campell ascertained that the survey indicated a mutual interdependency between delinquency, dependency, and mental defects. The situation meant that there was enough evidence for the state to support the use of eugenics in population control (Eccleston 5). Due to sexual defiance in the society, the

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Literature Review on Total Quality Management in public and private Essay

Literature Review on Total Quality Management in public and private preschools - Essay Example The use of quality management issues in public and education sector is more recent, and the interest of working with quality from a TQM point of view within the education sector has grown during the last decade (Dale, et al., nd). The use of TQM in the public sector such as education and the health sectors is deemed as part of the new public management. New public management is a general term for various change initiatives, which has been brought about by escalating requirements from different authorities. The Swedish public sector introduced an administrative law in 1987 that requires counteracting of inconveniences and enhancing accessibility among authorities. The Swedish commission on advanced vocational education necessitates that educational organizations employ quality assurance as some kind of quality evaluation. Formal definitions of total quality management preschool The external concept of quality refers to attempts to enhance the quality of the incoming product. In the ca se of schools, the product is the student or the child who is entering school for the first occasion. Industry operates with sellers who make parts, which when assembled will be the end product. Schools on the other, hand have two vendors, which are the preschool children and their parents or guardians. Schools ought to have programs for preschool and parenting. Nevertheless, this is often not possible to have preschooling as part of an ongoing program in most cases due to cost inadequacies. If possible, any school wishing to implement the external quality concept should have a preschool program. There are numerous definitions of the quality concept as put forward by different scholars (Karoly & Bigelow, 2005). There are five broad concepts of the term quality. One aspect is the transcendent concept where quality is taken as the innate excellence, which is absolute and universally acknowledgeable and long lasting. In preschooling, transcendent quality can be learned to be acknowledg ed through experience. The second approach to quality is product based, where quality reflects differences in the amount of some ingredient or factor possessed by a product. Preschool quality management concept on product based refers to attributes possessed by students. The third attribute of quality is user based, where the quality of the best satisfies clients’ preferences. Preschool quality management reflects on students meeting the requirements and needs of the employers as they look for those students with the highest quality. The fourth aspect of quality is manufacturing based, where the focus is on the supply side. Manufacturing based quality is essentially concerned with manufacturing practices and fulfilling tolerances (Bradley, 1994). The final concept of quality is value based, where quality is measured in terms of costs and price. In preschooling total quality management, the school should offer performance or conformance at an acceptable price and cost. Main co mponents of total quality management in preschool There are five main basic components in preschool total quality management that foster young children skills and abilities. These are the curriculum, the early literacy learning principles, accountability and assessment, teacher education and professional growth, as well as home-school relations (Bracken, 2004). Early literacy learning principles Developing standards for preschool is among the best

Article Rebuttal Essay Example for Free

Article Rebuttal Essay The author stated that, â€Å"There is a difference between a married couple and a same-sex couple in a long-term relationship. The difference is between the duties that marriage imposes on married peoplenot rights, but rather onerous obligationswhich do not apply to same-sex love. † This statement, in my opinion, is completely untrue. All relationships can be difficult and time consuming, the statement would have more truth if the author of was talking about all relationships or marriages. When reading the article, I took every word as people that are in a same sex relationship can’t have a normal marriage or a normal family and normal life and that is why same sex marriage will ultimately fail. The only thing that is different about same sex marriage is that the genders of both people are the same. This doesn’t mean that the two people can’t have children, it just means they can‘t have them in the traditional way. Homosexuals that are married can have a normal life; they just might have to face other judgmental people, which they face even without being married. This author had no credibility, no fact or anything to back up his argument. There were not any reliable sources in this argument which makes me believe that everything about this article was just the opinion of the author. While I believe that everyone is entitled to their own opinions, I believe one should have reliable sources and make valid points before writing an article and making it public especially on such a controversial topic. Reference; http://www. weeklystandard. com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/016/533narty. asp

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Andean Community of Nations

The Andean Community of Nations The Andean Community of Nations History The history of the Andean Community of Nations started on the 26th of May 1969, when Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru signed the Cartagena Agreement. This was the launch of the Andean Integration process and was also known as the Andean Pact, (Andean Community of Nations, a brief history, par. 1). On February the 13th 1973, Venezuela joined the agreement and on the 30th of October 1976, and Chile withdraw itself out of de community. Also Venezuela withdraws itself out of de community. This happened in April 2006. All the bodies and institutions of the Andean Community of Nations as we know today were created in the first ten years of the organisation except for the Andean Council of Presidents. This was created in 1990 ( Andean Community of Nations, a brief history, par. 4). Objectives The Andean Community of Nations has six objectives: to promote the Member countries harmonious development throughout integration and economic and social cooperation to accomplish growth and to create employment to assist participation in terms of regional integration with the purpose of a creation of a Latin America common market to reduce the differences that exist between the member countries to consequently search for the improvement of the living conditions of the citizens living in the region of the Andean Community of Nations to improve the role of their member countries in the world and the international economy ( Andean Community of Nations, what are our objectives?). Tactics and actions Organisation and structure The Andean Community of Nations consists of 4 members: Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Ecuador. The observer countries are Mexico and Panama. The Andean Community of Nations has thirteen bodies and institutions: Andean Council of Presidents The Council of Presidents is highest body of the organisation and is responsible for the making guidelines for the rest of the organisation Andean Council of Foreign Affairs This body is made up of all the foreign affairs ministers of the member countries and is responsible for making and carry out the foreign policy of the organisation Andean Community Commission The Commission is the main policy- making body of the Andean Community of Nations Andean Community General Secretariat The General Secretariat is the executive body of the organisation and has the responsibility of drawing decisions for the Council of Foreign Affairs Andean Community Court of Justice This Community is the legislative body of the organisation and is made up of four judges of the four member countries. They are responsible for ensuring that the laws of the Community are being applied appropriately. Andean Parliament The Andean Parliament is the body that represent the citizens of the member countries. Andean Development Corporation This Corporation is the financial institution of the organisation. They support the public and private sector of the member countries as well as the governments. Latin America Reserve fund The purpose of this Fund is to give financial assistance to the member countries by giving credits or loans and it also helps the member countries to harmonize their financial and monetary policies. Andean Business Advisory Council Andean Labour Advisory Council Andean Health Body Simon Rodriguez Convention Simon Bolivar University All the above mentioned bodies and institutions are part of the Andean Integration System (SAI). This system was designed to allow effective coordination between al the bodies and institutions in order to maximize the Andean integration. Introduction based on questions 1 -7 The purpose of this paper is to examine the role that e-government can play in Regional International Organizations in Central- en South America. First it is important what is meant by e-government. E-government is also known as electronic government, e-gov, digital government or online government. Technology, or e-government, is the way of exchanging information and services with citizens, businesses, organisations and other arms of government. E-government also entails the use of information technology to free movement of information to overcome the physical bounds of traditional paper and psychical bases systems, as well as the use of technology to enhance the access to and delivery of government services to benefit citizens, business partners and employees. E-government comprises activities that take place by digital processes over a computer network, usually the internet. These activities generally involve the electronic exchange of information to acquire or provide products or service, to place or receive orders, to provide or obtain information, or to complete financial transactions. Second it is important to examine what is meant by Regional Organizations in Central- en South America. Regional Organizations are international organizations which bring together countries occupying a certain region with shared needs and interest for the purpose of closer cooperation and or integration. According to the Yearbook of International organizations there are eight criteria for inclusion under the international organization: The aims must be genuinely international with the intention to cover at least three states Membership must be individual or collective participation, with full voting rights, and must be open to any individual or entity appropriately qualified in the organizations area of operations. Voting must be so that no national group can control the organization The constitution must provide for a formal structure giving members the right periodically to elect governing bodies and officers. Provision should be made for continuity of operations with a permanent headquarter Officers should not all be of the same nationality for more than a given period. There should be a substantial contribution to the budget from at least three states and there should be no attempt to make profit for distribution to members Those with an organic relationship with other organisation must show that it can exist independently and elect its own officials Evidence of current activities must be available Negative criteria are: size, politics, ideology, field of activity, geographical location of headquarters, nomenclature, is irrelevant deciding whether a set-up is an international organisation or not REFERENCES There are two ways of defining Central America. It is possible to define Central America as a region of the North American continent. Geopolitically spoken, it comprises seven countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Mexico is often included. In Latin America and in Europe, the Americas are considered to be a continent and Central America is a region of that continent. The United Nations geoscheme defines the region as all states of North America south of the United States; conversely; the European Union excludes Belize and Mexico from its definition of the region. South America comprises the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela. Besides those countries are there also various islands, many of which belong to countries of the continent. Geopolitically, the islands states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are generally grouped as a part of sub region of North America. Third, it is important to know what the main Regional Organisations are in Central- and South America. The main Regional International Organisations are: Mercado Comun del Sur (MERCOSUR) The Andean Community of Nations The Union of South American Nations (Unasur/Unasul) The Organization of American States (OAS) Pan American Institute of Geography and History (PAIGH) Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la AmÃÆ'Â ©rica Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL) The Inter- American Development Bank Associacao Latino-Americana de Intergracao / Asociacion Latino-Americana de Intergracion (ALADI) Association of Caribbean States (ACS) Latin American Economic System (SELA) Latin American Centre for Development Administration (CLAD) Mercado Comun Del Sur and the Andean Community of Nations are two Regional International Organisations which have great influence in the region. The two organisations are the two main trading blocks and therefore the choice was made to examine them further in the rapport. Mercosur (Mercado Comun del Sur) Mercosur or Mercado Comun del Sur, is a trading bloc in South America. The trading bloc is the fourth-largest trading bloc in the world and the largest in South America. The bloc comprises Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay and was founded in 1991 by the treaty of Asuncion. In 1994 the treaty of Ouro Preto gave the organisation a wider international status and formalised a sustoms union. The organisations headquarters lies in the capital of Uruguay Montevideo. Mercosur has two official languages; Spanish and Portuguese. The rotation of the presidency of Mercosur between member states takes place every six months. The Mercosur institutions include among others: Common Market Council Common Market Group Commission of Commerce of Mercosur Parliament of Mercosur The parliament of Mercosur was inaugurated in December 2006. Initially, the parliament serves only as an advisory committee for the foreign ministers of the Mercosur member states. The four states that conform Mercosur find expression in their democratic, defending societies of the fundamental liberties, the human rights. They unite to fight against poverty and unite to bring economic development and legal security. The fundamental objective of the treaty of Asuncion is the integration of the four states parts, through the free movement of goods, capital, services and people among its member states, the establishment of a common external tariff and the adoption of a common commercial policy. The Mercosur countries count a population of more than 220 million people and have a collective output of $1.1 trillion, accounting for over 75 percent of South Americas GDP with $800 billion for Brazils count. Mercosur has 5 associated members; Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. The fact that they are associated members means that can join free-trade agreements but they remain outside the blocs customs union. There were moves to include Chile as full member, but these were suspended after Chile signed a free-trade deal with the United States in 2002. On the 4th of July 2006, Venezuela became the fifth full member of Mercosur. Venezuela, a leading oil and gas producer gave Mercosur greter economic clout, but it raised fairs that the controversial Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez could use the group as a platform for his anti-US stance. Klonsky, J. (2007). Mercosur: South Americas Fractious Trade Bloc. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from Council on Foreign Relations Website: http://www.cfr.org/publication/12762/ Mercosur, Quienes Somos. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from Mercosurs official website. Website: http://www.mercosur.int/msweb/portal%20intermediario/es/index.htm BBC, Profile: Mercosur Common Market of the South. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from Internation Organisations Website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/5195834.stm

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Diviners: How Does Morags Past Influence Piques Life :: essays research papers

The Diviners: How does Morag's Past Influence Pique's Life Pique is the inheritor of French-Indian and Scottish-Canadian roots. She is raised her mother in Canada and England. However, her growth is affected by Morag's life style and Morag's past life. There are three events in Morag's past that affects Pique's life. Morag moves away from Christie when she goes to college and she rarely comes back to Manawake, "Going to Winnipeg this fall. To college. And I'm never coming back." She does not seem care for her stepparents. In certain respects the parent-child relationship between Morag and Pique resembles the one between Christie, the Scavenger, "You've never had somebody tell you mother was crazy between she lived out her alone and wrote dirty books and had kooky people coming out from the city to visit?" (P.446) And both, in different ways, attempt to deny their parents. At one point, Pique, having run away from home, ends up in a mental hospital in Toronto after "a bad trip", "Can't you see I despair you? Can't you see I want you to go away? You aren't my mother. I haven't got a mother." (P.111) Furthermore, Morag does not get married with Jules. When her husband is Brooke Skelton, she has a sexual relationship with Jules and gets pregnant. Later, Pique is aware that Jules is her father. Pique has an idea about why she is different from the others because a typical family should have a mother and a father, but she comes from a single parent family. When Pique first meets her father she is at about five years old. Jules sings a song to Pique which she finds fascinating and meaningful to her. Pique, at 18, is more mature than her mother at the same age. She loves her father very much and wants to live with him, however, Morag does not approve that Pique should stay with Jules, "Why did you have me?" "For your own satisfaction, yes. You never thought of him or of me." We are aware that Pique needs care and love from both of her parents because Morag cannot fulfill Pique's desire. She runs away in search of what she thinks she is missing all along, which she, herself is not sure what it is. Later on, she dates Dan McRaith, who is a husband of Bridie. They have a abnormal friendship between them. As we know Dan Scranton and Gord are boyfriends of Pique. It is coincidental with Morag's boyfriend first name is also Dan. These two individuals occurs in Morag and Pique's life as their names are the same.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Speeding: Speed Limit and Effective Form

The quickest way from point A to point B is a straight line but while driving a vehicle that is rarely an available path. So to make up for that some people decide to speed, but with speeding comes a lot of risk and dangers. Speeding can cause you to get a ticket which is expensive and time consuming, increase your cost of insurance, put your life and others lives in danger, and above all it is against the law. In North Carolina, 1 person is killed or injured in speed-related crashes every 22 minutes. The risk of a crash in a 60 mph zone doubles with every 5 mph above the limit.The public needs to be more aware of the dangers of speeding. You can frequently watch ads for fast cars and ways to avoid police on the roads. The police and the community have expressed particular concern about the potential of these ads to influence the behavior of young drivers. The risk of being involved in a crash increases with the speed a vehicle is being driven because there is less time to react, les s control of the vehicle and the distance needed to stop is longer. The higher the speed a vehicle is travelling when it hits a pedestrian the greater the chance of a fatality occurring.The impact on a person in a crash at 60 mph is equivalent to falling from a four story building, while the impact at 100 mph equals falling from a 12-story building. Speeding has been implicated as a contributing factor in about one-third of all fatal motor-vehicle crashes. Speed reduces the amount of available time needed to avoid a crash, increases the likelihood of crashing and increases the severity of a crash once it occurs. Speeding is defined as travelling faster than the posted speed limit or travelling too fast for the road condition.Such as when it is raining, snowing, fog present, dust storm, ice on the road, or even bad visibility from the sun rising or setting. For example the speed limit might be 55 mph on a road but there is so much fog you can’t see but up to 20 feet in front o f you. In this situation you could either slow down to a safer speed or if it is bad enough pull off the side of the road and turn on you emergency flashers. Speeding is the number one law violation in fatal motor vehicle accidents and the average American is more likely to be involved in a traffic crash than be a victim of a crime.Those two facts put together make a strong argument on why you should not speed or drive an unsafe speed when road conditions are less than good. While you might be in a hurry if you get pulled over because of you excessive speed you will be even later than you would have if you were just driving the speed limit. Also you will probably be losing time and money in the near future. Speeding is one of the most common ways that people break the law. When people break the law there are unpleasant consequences. A speeding ticket is an effective form of discipline: paying for a ticket, traffic school, and higher insurance rates.Paying for a speeding ticket is an unpleasant experience. A ticket can be outrageously expensive depending on how fast you were speeding. Some states charge ten to twenty dollars per mile an hour over the speed limit. The officer assigns you a day to appear in court, if you choose to fight the ticket rather than pay the fine. Waiting in the courtroom to see the judge is a painful wait. The wait is long, and the company can be frightening. Once you plead your case, you generally end up paying the fine. This only leads to another line, and another wait.This has to be the most unpleasant part of a speeding ticket. In addition, paying for traffic school is also a disagreeable experience. If you waited to see the judge, you may be on your way after paying the fine. If the judge is kind, and offers a traffic school option, the unpleasantness continues. Usually the traffic school is nowhere near to the courthouse, which causes you to search to find it. The great experience of paying is close at hand after locating the scho ol. You must endure the nine hour course after paying for the privilege of attending.This is a class most people would have never taken if given the chance. The unpleasantness associated with a speeding ticket is almost finished when you have completed the course. It is like studying for your driver license all over again. A reoccurring reminder of a previous mistake is evident in higher insurance rates. Most insurance companies feel that speeding tickets make someone a higher risk. So, to offset the risk they raise the premium. Which means it is more expensive to obtain insurance. If the insurance company decides to raise your rates by only ten dollars it can have a lasting effect.When the ticket falls off your driving the record, usually in three to five years, you have spent more than one thousand dollars more than if you had not been speeding. The insurance company raises your rates with each ticket, until they cancel the policy. This alone makes it worthwhile to obey the law. A speeding ticket is an effective form of discipline, with court, with traffic school, and with higher insurance rates. The deterrents for speeding are not all outwardly noticeable until you has been through the process.Once you have a speeding ticket experience, you may be more careful to obey the law. If you choose to not pay the ticket or go to your assigned court date there are consequences such as additional fines, license suspension, and even impoundment. If you don't pay your speeding ticket, eventually your fine will increase. If you have more than one speeding ticket, costs can add-up quickly. In some places, it's possible to avoid fines entirely by going to traffic school. If money is a significant problem for you the court about working out a payment plans.You might be able to save some money and ongoing hassle by participating. In many places, the consequences of having one or more unpaid tickets are temporarily losing your license. While you can sometimes negotiate with the court to have some driving privileges, such as driving to work or taking your kids to school, your license will be useless until you pay up and meet any other requirements set by the court. Your unpaid speeding tickets can cost you your car, at least temporarily. Some cities will boot your car if you have several unpaid tickets on your record.Not only will you have to pay all your fines, but you'll also have to pay to have the boot removed. Even worse, the city may eventually tow your car, which means that you'll have to pay your fines, then get a ride to the tow yard and pay to get your car back. All of this because you didn’t pay your ticket by your court date or show up to court. Clearly speeding comes a lot of risk and dangers. Those risks and dangers include getting a ticket which is expensive and time consuming, increase your cost of insurance, put your life and others lives in danger, and above all it is against the law.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

2000 U.S. Presidential election

The recap of the United States presidential elections of 2000 reveals it was one the most controversial election ever. The Democratic Party candidate Al Gore lost narrowly to the, Republican George W.Bush with a controversial small number of votes. Although the election was based on real issues that ranged from the international affairs, foreign policy, ethics and morality, they were overshadowed by the results at the count of the final vote. Al Gore enjoyed the popular vote but lost to George Bush because he lacked in the electoral votes. To the run up of the elections, opinion polls had predicted a closely run presidential race and it was not clear who would win the day[1].Al Gore had been nominated in the Democratic Party ticket and was groomed to succeed the outgoing democratic elect president bill Clinton. He defeated Senator Bill Bradley from New Jersey. From the start, Al Gore was receiving major endorsements from economic and political heavy weights in the party.Opinion polls used to show him as a front runner as majority of the people thought him of being tested and armed with necessary experience to propel America to greater heights, having been a vice president to Bill Clinton.In the Republican Party, George Bush was the party’s favorite. Potential aspirants in the party could not stand against him. To the traditional republican standards, George Bush was the right candidate. He was the son of a former President, Bush Senior, and the outgoing governor in one of the most populous state in America.Bush won the nomination by a large margin with his major competitor dogged with scandals that saw his support in the party plummet before the nominations. Bush’s running mate was Dick Cheney.The run up campaigns to elections were as heated as the elections themselves. The Republican themselves could be seen running advertisements that were favoring Ralph Nader, an independent candidate.This was an open bid to split the Democrats or the leftwing vote. Al Gore and Ralph Nader drew their support from the same people as they were espousing to tackle similar issues. The Republican had recognized a real threat from Al Gore and knew that if they drew on the obvious similarities, they could split the vote into two and secure a Republican win.The main differences that were propelling both parties were drawn from the issue of morality. Republicans traditionally have all along been at the fore front in safeguarding the morals in the society. Bush could also be heard making a scathing attack on the Democrats because of the Clintons scandal, vowing to restore morality in the nation and especially in the White House. However, despite the differences, both candidates were locked in a tight race as would be reflected in the elections that ensued.The preliminary reports on the elections on November 7 indicated that they were unexceptionally close. As expected, Bush had won decisively in the southern states and also in the rural states. Al Gore had recorded an early lead in the north eastern states.There were a number of states that were recording closely contested race but it became clear that it was in the state of Florida that the next president of the United States was to be announced. It is this state that remained the centre of focus as it held the key to deadlock. All the worlds’ eyes were glued on the outcome of the vote counting, for a period of close to one month.Initial reports by the media based on exit polls had indicated that Al Gore had taken the lead after clocking 25 electoral votes. A recap of the votes indicated that indeed Bush was ahead of Gore.After the media retracted the misleading news they were to place and declare that Bush was leading in Florida with a close but a decisive win. These reports too were misleading as the three Democrats rich counties had not completed their vote count and there were indications that Gore was closing in the gap.The media was to again retract the news on Bush’s lead and win. By the close of the day, Gore had closed in and the difference lay at 500 votes and he ordered a mandatory recount in a number of counties and also sought legal intervention.The United States Supreme Court quashed the complaints and gave a go ahead to the Florida state to announce the results. George Bush was announced the winner in the Florida state.[1]Wardle, Claire and Kate Kinks and Dan Orr, August 2001

“A Dark Brown Dog” Analysis Essay

In Stephen Crane’s short story of â€Å"A Dark Brown Dog†, he writes about a young boy who finds, neglects, and befriends a ragged puppy, with a rope dragging the ground, when they meet. The boy takes fun in abusing the puppy, but when he tires of this he makes his way home. The puppy, even though the boy was not nice, starts to follows the boy home. When arriving home the boy defends the puppy to claiming him as his own. The boy’s father agrees to allow the boy to keep the puppy. The boy and the puppy grow very fond of each other. The puppy was abused but always showing his love even after his abuse. Then the story takes a very sad, gruesome turn for the young dog. The story tells of a very young boy who lives in a fifth story apartment in a very run down area of a big city. The father is portrayed to be a violent man that regularly is in a drunken rage. His wife and family are the victims of his rage. â€Å"A Dark Brown Dog† describes how the young boy f inds safety under the kitchen table on regular bases. The story draws attention to the father coming home and going into his usual drunken rage on the wife, kitchen utensils, and furniture, then the father takes joy in turning his rage on the pup. When the boy comes home during the rage he goes for his safe place but the puppy does not understand the rage and becomes the victim of the drunken rage. The story tells that the father takes great fun in kicking and hurting the pup. His final fun and torture he picks up the puppy by the leg and swings the pup around in the air several times. The young boy tries to detest the cruel punishment, but it does not work as the father then throws the pup out the window of the fifth story apartment. The story details the neighborhood that no one really thought it was unusual that a puppy was being thrown out a fifth story window. In a literary analysis of â€Å"A Dark Brown Dog† written by Braden Davis, he states that his interpretation of the story is from the slavery times known as the Jim Crow era. Branden states that â€Å"the boy, his father, and the dog were symbols in this classic retelling of the reconstitution period known as Jim Crow†. (1)  Braden’s analysis was a very deep reading on what he saw behind the story. But after reading deeper into the life of Stephen Crane it is very easy to see that â€Å"A Dark Brown Dog† is the story based off what Crane witnessed on the streets. The young boy lived in a very run down part of the city in a fifth story apartment; tales of the father coming home and abusing not only the dog but his family as well. Argument is based off the Biography of Stephen Crane, he lived a bohemian lifestyle for a while living in poverty and had firsthand experience with street life. Crane also was known for living in the â€Å"bowery† section, which was a down trodden tenement districts. Crane’s other stories had recognition for writing brutally honest stories about life experiences. Crane was also known for his plot less stories due to him writing about experiences he was either involved in or witnessed with his own eyes. Being known for writing what he saw and experienced gave Crane his recognition in his book â€Å"Maggie: A Girl of the Streets† was said to be a very brutal story of a prostitute that lived on the streets. Crane’s eye for detail gives â€Å"A Dark Brown Dog† full life; that this was ju st a short story based off of what he experienced while living on the street. He wrote about the life of a little boy that he watched and the tragedy that the boy had to deal with in his young life. Speculation could also raise questions that this could have been a story from Crane’s life as well. His biography told he was the youngest of 14 children. Although his father was a reverend and his mother was a busy woman with her children and was said to be a writer herself. Being in a household with this many children could have led to a lonely existence that left him on his own to see the world as cruel and uncaring. This story was a tale told of abuse and neglect from a broken drunk that took pride in showing his dominance of his family and an innocent animal. Braden’s analysis was based on the time and situation but read into more than looking at what was on the surface of the story. The research of the biography tells that with the history that Crane had and the life that he experienced himself. Works Cited Grade Saver. â€Å"Biography of Stephen Crane† List of Works, Study Guides & Essays†. Grade Saver 22 October, 2014 WEB. 22 October 2014 â€Å"Stephen Townley Crane† Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2014. WED. 22 Oct 2014 â€Å"Literary Analysis of a Dark Brown Dog†. Tales of a Nerdy College Student, http://btd0902.blogspot.com/2010/11/literay-analysis-of-dark-brown-dog.html . WEB 22 October 2014

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Low cost airline Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 12000 words

Low cost airline - Dissertation Example udice of people who probably who do not fly a great deal on business themselves and may regard those who do as pampered and privileged minority'' (pp14). According to Knowledgerush website ''A low-cost carrier (also known as a no-frills or discount carrier) is an airline that offers low fares but eliminates all unnecessary services. The typical low-cost'' According to the Statistics and Forecast (STATFOR) Service of Euro control there is no single best definition of a low-cost carrier. It is generally accepted that a low-cost airline, also known as no-frills or discount airline, is such carrier, which offers low fares but eliminates most traditional passenger services. The 'low-cost carrier' business design is defined by three key elements: - Simple product: catering on demand for extra payment; planes with narrow seating ( but bigger capacity) and only a single class; there is no seat assignment; they don't offer frequent-flyer programs; ticket less travel - positioning : non-business passengers, esp. leisure traffic, and budget priced; they have short-haul point-to-point traffic with high frequencies; they are making an aggressive marketing; they are using secondary airports (e.g. regional airports); they have a strong competition with all transport carriers - low operating costs: low wages, low air fees; low costs for maintenance; reduced employment (with much lower rates of number of passengers per employer); cockpit training and standby crews due to homogeneous fleet; high resource productivity: short ground waits due to simple boarding processes, no air freight, no hub services, short cleaning times (Internet). There are also other characteristics, which are typical for low-cost airlines. They all have in their fleet a single type of airplane, chosen to reduce... According to the Statistics and Forecast (STRATFOR) Service of Euro control, there is no single best definition of a low-cost carrier. It is generally accepted that a low-cost airline, also known as no-frills or discount airline, is such carrier, which offers low fares but eliminates most traditional passenger services. The ‘low-cost carrier’ business design is defined by three key elements: - Simple product: catering on demand for extra payment; planes with narrow seating and only a single class; there is no seat assignment; they don’t offer frequent-flyer programs; ticketless travel - Positioning: non-business passengers, esp. leisure traffic, and budget priced; they have short-haul point-to-point traffic with high frequencies; they are making an aggressive marketing; they are using secondary airports (e.g. regional airports); they have a strong competition with all transport carriers - low operating costs: low wages, low air fees; low costs for maintenance; reduced employment (with much lower rates of number of passengers per employee); cockpit training and standby crews due to homogeneous fleet; high resource productivity: short ground waits due to simple boarding processes, no air freight, no hub services, short cleaning times. There are also other characteristics, which are typical for low-cost airlines. They all have in their fleet a single type of airplane, chosen to reduce training and service costs. Commonly it is the Boeing 737, but it is not always like that, e.g. the Wizzair fleet has only Airbus A320.