Monday, September 30, 2019
In Australia, an aboriginal medicine man/witch doctor, King George was teaching a young aborigine named Nullah how to do various tasks in the Outback. When all of the sudden a group white men shoot King George with an arrow. Then, Nullah rides home on his horse to his home in Faraway Downs. He hears people coming and is scared that someone will take him away from his family, so he goes into hiding. However, the voices he hears and people he sees are Drover and Sarah. The property of Faraway Downs is SarahÃ¢â¬â¢s and her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s. When Sarah goes into her property she finds that her husband has been killed and he is lying dead across a table. Because of this Sarah decides she wants to sell her property to the Carney Empire. However, if Faraway Downs is sold, the company will have a monopoly over the cattle business. Sarah soon finds out from Nullah that Carney is stealing her cattle and driving them across the river. Soon after she hears the news she fires Fletcher (the current driver for her cattle) and hires Drover to drive in their 1,500 cattle. They need 7 people in all to successfully drive them all in so, Sarah, Nullah, his mother and grandmother, and an aborigine named Magarri offer their help. They could still use one more person but no others are willing or capable. Then one morning the police appear at the house and are looking for Nullah and his mother who are hidden in the water tower. Sadly, his mother drowns in the tower because the tank filled up when one of the men used the faucet to cool down. Now Nullah is motherless so Sarah decides to give it a shot and raise him herself. She does not do a wonderful job of this because she does not have any children of her own. Fletcher creates a stampede by lighting the brush on fire and has the cows heading towards a cliff. Some fall off the cliff but many cows were saved because Nullah resorted to song and magic to stop the cattle. Fletcher is attempting to hurt their cattle and destroy their plans on saving Faraway Downs by killing cattle, burning items and poisoning waterholes. At a ball Carney attempts to convince Sarah to sell Faraway Downs to him. However, she refuses and tells him that it is no longer for sale. A few days later Fletcher pushes Carney into water where an alligator attacked and killed him. Also, Nullah goes missing. But Drover believes he is safe and protected by King George. Unfortunately they are not safe and are caught by the police where Nullah is sent to the mission and King George is put in jail. There is a treat of war in the city of Darwin so the town is being evacuated. Sarah searches for Nullah and can hear his singing but cannot find him. He is being sent to another island to work on a mission. While Sarah is working at an Army radio headquarters Japanese planes bomb the headquarters and the building catches on fire. Also, the jail is hit and King George escapes. Drover thinks Sarah has died and rescues Nullah and the other children from the explosion on the island. Sarah survives the explosion and is reunited with her love, Drover and Nullah. Afterwards, they return safely to their farm and all survive the explosions and save their cattle from Carney and Fletcher. Australia History During the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s Germany was expanding its territory and in 1939 they threatened to invade Poland. Germany decided to disobey Britain and France when they told Germany that they would declare war if Poland was invaded. The Australian people do not approve of the German expansion and because they are a British nation they were pulled into the war along with Britain (www. nzacday. org). Australia declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939 and joined the war in Europe to aid its Allies in the United Kingdom (www. worldwariihistory. com). Australia was forced to make a tough decision: to watch after homeland in case Japan attempted to expand its power, or send troops to aid England in the war. Because Japan pledged its neutrality and the British naval base in Singapore would stop any Japanese invasions towards Australia, they decided to commit itself to the European War. Australian troops were not prepared to fight and risk their lives in war. This caused he Royal Australian Navy to be put under British control. They began to train and recruit men and they helped the Royal Air Force in the war against Germany (www. anzacday. org). During 1940 and 1941 troops in Australia helped capture Bardia and Tobruk in Libya because they saw action in North Africa and the Middle East. Once Japan bombed Pearl Harbor and the war was brought closer to Australian homeland, Australia declared war on Japan. The most direct threat that Australia faced was New Guinea. Thankfully, the Americans held off a naval attack on Australia at the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942. By the end of WWII, Australia has lost about 30,000 men and women (www. worldwariihistory. com). Also, the Indigenous people of Australia were driven out by the British and many were killed and driven out of their homes. The deaths of aborigines occurred because of the diseases spread by Europeans, the introduction of domestic animals destroyed many natural habitats and fighting in Tasmania. During the early 20th century laws were passed to segregate and protect aborigines. This caused restrictions on where they could live, and work. Families were also broken up (www. australianexplorer. com). Also, during WWII aborigines under the age of five were taken from their homes by white men and sent to live with white families. The British did this because the Australian government thought their race lacked a solid future. The children were never reunited with their families (http://history. howstuffworks. com). Unfortunately after WWII the British wanted to Ã¢â¬ËEuropeanizeÃ¢â¬â¢ them. In this case all rights were taken away from the aborigines. During the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, the aborigines were given citizenship status but in 1972 they were given limited rights to their own land (www. australianexplorer. com). Australia Analysis During World War II in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s there are many similarities and differences in Australia the movie compared to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s real history. A similarity between history and Hollywood is that they both go into great detail on how horribly the British treated the aborigines of Australia. A difference between the two was how little detail the movie Australia went into when it came down to the war itself and its allies. Throughout the movie the director, Baz Luhrmann does not focus on the key points of the outcome of WWII, the disaster and hardship it put on Australia, and the effects on its people and cities. A similarity of the treatment of aborigines is that in the movie the aborigines were taken away from their families and homes. This was known as the Stolen Generation in Australia. During the movie they were sent away to work on missions on different islands and were rarely seen again by their families. Although this did occur in reality the children were mainly forcefully sent or tricked into living with a white family. The parents were sometimes unaware that their children were even still alive. The government would often tell them their child had died. Where in reality they are living with a white family so they have a chance at a better future. A difference between the movie Australia and reality is how little detail Baz Luhrmann displays on the actual war itself. Throughout the entire movie except for the end, the main idea is focused on cattle and the Stolen Generation. However during the end, WWII begins to take place and the movie displays the war aspect. It does not explain how the war began, the final result, or the results on Australian people. The war began in Germany because they tried to expand their territory into Poland. France and Britain declared war and because Australia was British territory they also joined in the fight. The movie did include when Japan attacked close to Australia at Pearl Harbor, which caused them to go to war against each other. By the end WWII Australia lost about 30,000 men and women.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Conducting my research for this class project, I have learned that conducting a thorough job analysis is an important step in filling a job opening as well as contributing to the successful growth of an organization in terms of finances and talented workers. A job analysis should be conducted to gather information about the responsibilities, duties, skills of a particular job. In addition, it can include information about the work environment and desired education and experience. There are several ways to conduct a job analysis including using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), using an analysis questionnaire, observation and interviewing. While doing my research there are other informal ways to conduct a job analysis and it depends on the amount of time and resources allowed and the type of job position. Conducting a job analysis is important because it makes sure that the job description is accurate while being in compliance with legal and professional guidelines. It als o helps the selection process be more smooth and makes sure that the right candidate(s) is selected (David, 2011). High performers should be included as well as senior level managers and direct supervisors and anyone with critical knowledge about the job. The analysis can take anywhere from a few weeks to three months if you use a systematic process to make the analysis run quickly and efficiently (Chao, 2012). HR professionals have a responsibility to make sure that they hire productive, talented workers because this adds value to their organization and will help to make the organization prosper in the future (Chao, 2012). For this project I used the observation method as well as researching current Human Resource Receptionist and Human Resource Assistant job openings. I found that the two titles had a lot of the same tasks, skills and requirements, however, from the job openings that included the salary the Human Resource Assistant position was more ($13.00) than the Human Resource Receptionist position ($11.00). My explanation for the difference in pay is that the assistant position seemed to focus more on the administrative function of an HR department, whereas the receptionist position seemed to focus more on front office skills such as copying, faxing, answering phone lines, etc. I also found it interesting that most of the job openings required that the candidate have a college degree, but the pay is about the same as similar jobs that only required a high school diploma or some college coursework. Because of the economy and its effect on the job market, it seems as thoughÃ a lot of companies in the Nashville, TN are not really competitive when it comes to pay. Employers know that their is an abundance of highly qualified workers and HR should consider hiring new workers as well as developing their current staff (Chao, 2012), however since pay is a determining factor in job satisfaction, companies should make sure that the pay is competitive. After you have chosen candidates to interview for the open position, it is important that you stay compliant. Being unfamiliar with your policies and procedures can come off as being uncaring and negligent. In addition, it is important to document not only who you hired but who you did not hire; documenting why you did not hire someone can be an important step if your organization is ever accused of not being compliant (10 HR mistakes your employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s lawyer will try to exploit, 2012).
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Mother Tongue is about the authors struggles with her linguistic identity, her mothers Ã¢â¬Å"fracturedÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"brokenÃ¢â¬ variation of english and the relationship with her mother. At the beginning of the piece we are told about the different types of english she would speak with her mother and with everyone else; we are then told how english wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t AmyÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest subject and later on we are told about the difficulties her mother experienced because of the way she spoke english and the prejudice she faced. In the text Tan uses a variety of stylistic devices to express herself, tans use of parallel structures is used frequently throughout the piece, for example she starts the first paragraph with the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"i am not a scholar of englishÃ¢â¬ and the second with Ã¢â¬Å"i am a writerÃ¢â¬ ; this contrast implies to the audience that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to know everything about english to be a writer. She also uses personification in the second paragraph when she says Ã¢â¬ language is the tool of my tradeÃ¢â¬ . This might suggest that the use of language through writing is the way she expresses herself or gets her point across. She then goes onto saying Ã¢â¬ And i use them all- all the Englishes i grew up withÃ¢â¬ and in the next paragraph she says Ã¢â¬Å"Recently, i was made keenly aware of the different Englishes i do use.Ã¢â¬ She uses repetition in this instance to emphasize how, in her opinion, there is no right way or one way of speaking english there are different variations, in this instance the English with her mother is very different from how she speaks english to her teachers or classmates, this can refer back to the title of the text Ã¢â¬Å"mother tongueÃ¢â¬ . Mother tongue is usually reffered to the first language a person is taught, however i think Tans use of the word mother tongue is much more intimate in a sense that she feels that her english or her mother tongue is unique to her, and that the variation of english she speaks to her mother is her mother tongue. Moreover she also uses repition when she uses the words Ã¢â¬Å"brokenÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"fracturedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"limitedÃ¢â¬ as it is shown numerous times throughout the text, these words suggest what other people may view of her mothers english, however Tans use of an antithesis when she uses the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"impeccable broken englishÃ¢â¬ really grasps the readers attention, as the concept of something being broken but yet impeccable is very strange. This phrase may imply that although Tans mothers english might be Ã¢â¬Å"limitedÃ¢â¬ , butÃ in her opinion it does not strike her as being wrong as so many would think; she clearly states this when she says Ã¢â¬Å"Some say they understand none of it, as if she were speaking pure Chinese. But to me, my mothers English is perfectly clear, perfectly naturalÃ¢â¬ . Moreover She uses personification again to emphasize the variation of English she speaks when she says Ã¢â¬Å"the intersection of memory upon imaginationÃ¢â¬ . Towards the fifth paragraph Amy uses many anecdotes or personal experiences to give the audience a bit more of an insight with the troubles she faced when she was younger with her mother and the prejudice she faced. Furthermore Amys use of dialogue throughout the text lets the audience experience her mother tongue. I think that the main purpose of this article is to show people that there is no right type of english, and that english comes in many forms therefore there should be no prejudice. She shows this by putting emphasis on the word Ã¢â¬Å"EnglishÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"EnglishesÃ¢â¬ throughout the text. Tan implies that many people have very narrow minded and misconceived views of people from a different culture or language background, she uses the example of her personal experience and mother to show this, for example people would take her mother seriously due to her Ã¢â¬Å"brokenÃ¢â¬ english, as it suggests that her mother might be uneducated. However Tan also mentions how her mother Ã¢â¬Å"reads the Forbes repot, listens to Wall Street Week, converses daily with her stockbroker and reads all of Shirley MacLaine books with ease- all kind of things i canÃ¢â¬â¢t begin to understandÃ¢â¬ , most of the audience might be quite surprised with this, as it seems very unusual for a women fr om China and who has Ã¢â¬Å"watered-downÃ¢â¬ english to understand things of such complexity. This in itself proves Tans point of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s misconception and generalisation of people with different language backgrounds. In this text we notice that Tan uses very simple and easy to read english, however at the same time we are able to understand the complexity of her argument. The last paragraph emphasis how Tan is more concerned about her audience rather than the approval of critics and she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to write like a professor to get her point across. Moreover throughout the text has a pattern of using a personal experience then expanding on it.
Friday, September 27, 2019
George Orwell's 1984 - Research Paper Example People are not allowed to speak freelyÃ¢â¬âin the press or otherwiseÃ¢â¬âbecause they are afraid of retribution. This is in direct contrast to the United States, where freedom of speech is built into the First Amendment of the Constitution, the founding document upon which U.S. ideals are based. Totalitarian governments donÃ¢â¬â¢t want people to think, live, or do anything without the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s approval. For example, Communist China only allows one child per family. So, even the means of reproduction is controlled in that country, simply because it gives the government power over even peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ private sex lives. Not only this, but the government can claim that it is instituting such a law to have one child per family due to Ã¢â¬Å"the ecologyÃ¢â¬ or some other such reason. This is not the true reason why leaders do not want the Chinese people empowered by having many children. China thinks that by controlling the fact that even these poor citizens of their own country cannot have intimate relations without worrying that the government might execute their childÃ¢â¬âputs them in a state of continual fear. This persistent fear that people would wake up to also include the fear that someone is watching them all the time who may have a higher place in the government than is originally known. That happens a lot in 1984. People are not whom they seem, and there are several shifting sands in this book, leading one to believe that one cannot always blindly accept the simple platitudes of what appears to be reality. Not only this, but Orwell warned against the dangers of giving leaders totalitarian power. One of the ways that this was achieved was that the so-called Ã¢â¬ËwinnersÃ¢â¬â¢ in history would completely and most convincingly erase history. They would do this by incinerating any documents that would show proof of any kind of wrongdoing by the government. Thus, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s actions could only be analyzed through the na rrow view it had of itselfÃ¢â¬âwhich was that it was basically a perfect entity, at least, according to its own records. This is the position in which poor Winston Smith finds himself. He works for the Ministry of Truth (Minitrue), and finds himself having the task of Ã¢â¬ËrevisingÃ¢â¬â¢ history. What is interesting is that Winston starts realizing, as an Outer Party flunky, that the Inner Party is using him as a tool to help manipulate information control so that the top 2% can remain at the top. This reflects something similar which is going on at the Occupy Wall Street protests all over the globe and in riots in the UK, Africa, and the Middle EastÃ¢â¬âpeople are realizing that their power comes from taking back their history, and seeing history as it really is and was as opposed to how it might be or should have been. This leads us to our next topic, which has to do with historical revisionism and its evils. III. The Deliberate Distortion of History The deliberate disto rtion of history is what Winston was in charge of doing. The novel 1984 depicts how detrimental history can be when it is written through the lens of the people who were on the winning side of
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Question discuss and analyse - Essay Example More than five million deaths per year are consequences of using tobacco or intensive smoking. Smoking is the main risk factor for top three causes of deaths in Canada and those are cancer, lung disease and cardiovascular disease.Economic cost of $17 billion was bore by Canadian economy as a result of using tobacco in 2002 and in the same year $404 billion of expense for health care was paid directly by Canadian smokers. But the Canadian society is forced to carry costs such as turnover, work absenteeism and income lost due to early deaths. Over a period of time the number of fires resulted from smoking was 36,125 and it cost the Canadian denizens, in property distortion,$433 million. Likewise, the Conference Board of Canada cohered that to employ a smoker than a non-smoker cost them near to $2,565 per year, in 1997. But it is not the society only that bears the economic burden of smoking but in fact it is the smoker himself or herself who have to bear the costs associated to smoking . Smokers are supposed to pay for life insurance premiums and pay billions of dollars in the name of tobacco taxes. And if this is not enough, then there is also the cost of the cigarettes too. Only in the province of Alberta in 2005,Ã¢â¬ a smoker who smokes a pack a day spends almost $3,650 each year on cigarettes, based on an average price of $10 a packÃ¢â¬ (Economic Cost). Additionally, according to the Conference Board of Canada (2012) lung diseases alone costs Canada $12 billion. Analysts believe that if the Canadian populace and government make no effort to combat the dilemma then it is very likely that the cost will double. The cost can be divided in direct health care as 3.4 million (drugs, hospitals, physicians) and $8.6 billion in indirect costs (such as premature death and long term disability)Ã¢â¬ (Lung Disease Imposes Major Costs on CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s Economy, 2012). According to the
Environmental and social impact from AL-HAMRA tower On heart of Kuwait city - Essay Example The Al Hamra Tower, for the purpose of its construction, has occupied almost 18,000-square meter of space in the East Maqwa district of Kuwait City. Two leading construction companies, Al Hamra Real Estate and Ajial Real Estate that represents the owner, have collaborated together for successful construction of the modern architectural landmark. In addition to the various facilities offered to the national and international visitors, this tower will also comprise a 77-story tower consisting of prime office space and crowned by a spectacular rooftop restaurant, a spa and an attached lifestyle shopping center. The shopping center will include a 10-screen Cineplex which will also have IMAX theaters. Despite the reason that the Al Hamra Tower will prove advantageous for the citizens of Kuwait in many ways and it will also add to the overall aesthetic beauty of the city but at the same time there is no scope to deny that it will also cause a great deal of environmental hazards during the time of its construction. Thus, it is important in this context to receive an overview of the whole situation, before and after construction of the tower. It has also been estimated by the constructing parties of the tower that aftermath its completion, the tower will contribute to a great extent in changing the overall socio-economic condition of the surrounding area. As this tower will be one of the most important centers for business and several other types of jobs, it is expected that after completion of the tower access of common localities to different job and income opportunities will also enhance accordingly. Thus, erection of the tower contains within its scope the twofold aspects of goo d and evil from societal perspective. The main aim of the report is to discuss the environmental and social effects resulted from erection of this project on the surrounding environment (i.e. during construction and after completion) and on the physical life in
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Analyst report Uniliver PLC - Essay Example The industry has the unique quality of having a target market of the entire global population of 7.05 billion people (Census, 2012). Unilever is a company that has achieved great success in the industry with a market penetration of 28.36% or two billion customers. The firm is positioned as one of the leading companies in the industry. This report will provide an overview of the company as well as financial analysis of Unilever for the fiscal year 2011 in order to determine whether the company is worth investing ?1 million. One of the mail analytic tools used in the paper is ratio analysis. Company Profile: Unilever Unilever was founded in the 1890s, but the actual Unilever brand was not created until 1930. The company is dedicated to the nutritional and well being industry. The firm has over 400 branded products. Some of the most popular brands of the company are Dove, Knorr, Lipton, Hellmann, and Axe. The corporate vision of the company is, Ã¢â¬Å"Helping people to look good, feel g ood and get more out of lifeÃ¢â¬ (Unilever, 2012). One of the keys to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success has been its product innovation. Innovation is fostered by investing in research and development initiatives. The company has a network of scientists located across the world. The company spends over Ã¢â ¬1 billion a year in R&D. In 2010 the company was named advertiser of the year by Cannes Advertising Awards. The products of the company are sold across 190 countries. The firm has over two billion customers worldwide. Unilever generates 55% of its sales from emerging economies including China, Brazil, India, and Indonesia (Unilever, 2012). Dove is one of the most successful brands of the company with sales of over Ã¢â ¬3 billion yearly. The organization has 171,000 employees. The firm believes in the use of diversity. A lot of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s products target the children population to increase their quality of life. Financial Analysis Ã¢â¬â Unilever In 2011 Unilever genera te revenues of Ã¢â ¬46,467 million. The revenues of the company increased by 16.68% in comparison with 2009, while it increased by 4.98% in comparison with 2010. The net income of the company was Ã¢â ¬4,623 million in 2011. The net income of the firm went up by 0.54% between 2010 and 2011. The cash account of the company at the end of 2011 had a balance of Ã¢â ¬3,484 million. UnileverÃ¢â¬â¢s total assets at the end of 2011 were Ã¢â ¬47,512 million, while its current assets were Ã¢â ¬14,291 million. In 2011 the total liabilities of the company were Ã¢â ¬32,591 million. UnileverÃ¢â¬â¢s total equity at the end of 2011 was Ã¢â ¬14,291 million. A ratio analysis of the company is illustrated below: Financial Ratios 2011 Net margin 9.95% Operating margin 13.84% Earnings per share (EPS) Ã¢â ¬ 1.51 Return on assets (ROA) 9.73% Return on equity (ROE) 30.98% Current ratio 0.80 Quick acid ratio 0.54 Working capital -Ã¢â ¬3638 million Debt to equity 218.42% Debt ratio 68.60 % The net margin of Unilever during 2011 was 9.95%, while its operating margin was 13.84%. Both financial metrics measure the profitability of the business. The net margin reflects the absolute net profitability of the business. The formula to calculate net margin is net income divided by total sales (Besley & Brigham, 2000). Unilever had earnings per share of Ã¢â ¬1.51. The earnings per share are the portion of a company's profit allocated to each
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Past Terrorist Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction - Research Paper Example Terrorism is a multi-causal phenomenon (Sommer, 2010) and involves a combination of varied factors including psychological, social, cultural, political, economic, as well as religious. Hence explaining the action in a concise and restricted definition would be highly erroneous and disillusioning. For the purpose of this study the term WMD would be defined to include any act of terrorism by an individual or an organization carried out on a large scale using chemical, biological or other weapons intended to cause irreparable damage to the property and lives of human beings; and disrupt the economic and social structure of the targeted region. Researchers have suggested various factors as key causes behind such acts of aggression, in a bid to understand the psyche of the terrorists. These factors range from local ethnic clashes to public outrage and dissent against international forces mainly arising due to differences in religious and cultural ideologies (Cordesman, 1989; DiGiovanni, 1999). Most of the researchers are of the opinion that most of such acts are carried out by individuals or groups belonging to terrorist organizations with a view to achieving their organizational missions (Gambetta, 2006). The use of WMD by terrorists has been in existence for several decades now and continues to remain as a potential threat to the United States as well as rest of the world. This paper aims to assess and analyze the use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorists by way of various case studies.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Case Study - Essay Example Thorough assessment shall be made on the suicidal behavior of the child paying attention particularly on the following major areas: (1) risk for death and repetition, (2) underlying diagnoses Ã¢â¬â if had already been identified as existing, and (3) the promoting factors. The sources of information can be derived through conducting interviews and observations to the child and her immediate family. Teachers and classmates are good sources of information too knowing that the child mentioned as being teased in class. The necessary information that should be gathered to ascertain the probable risk factors that triggered the childÃ¢â¬â¢s suicidal behavior as listed in psychiatric-disorders.com website are the following: (1) a family history of suicide or mental health problems, (2) if the child have runaway from home, (3) physical, emotional, or sexual abuse experienced by the child at home, (4) a recognized psychiatric such as depression, (5) a relationship breakdown, (6) family disturbance such as divorce, (7) bullying in school, (8) poor exam results, and (9) being diagnosed to have a chronic illness. Also, immediate signs and symptoms of suicidal tendencies (e.g. reckless behavior, threats to harm self, becoming distant from friends and family, signs of anxiety and depression, use of alcohol or drugs, giving away possessions) shall be gathered. Information about the childÃ¢â¬â¢s background can also be derived from interviewing the childÃ¢â¬â¢s boyfriend, close friends, peers, and the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s healthcare provider/consultant. Books, journals and other types of publications related to adolescent suicide can be a good source of information that will aid in further understanding and management of this case. In managing adolescent suicide, the child, being the major source of information, shall be assessed through therapeutic communication and proper observation. Direct questions of
Sunday, September 22, 2019
The Role of Food Essay According to my Nutrition through the Life Cycle textbook, food is an essential need for humans and provides nutrients, energy in the form of calories, and other substances that are necessary for both good health and growth (Brown, 2). Even though this concept is very straightforward and well known among everyone, it is important to understand that there is more to food than meets the eye. Besides its vital role in ensuring that the energy demands of the human bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s continuous physiological processes is met, food can be very symbolic and capable of fulfilling a large variety of roles in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. When examining the role of food in terms of the life cycle of an individual, it is important to note that it is always changing and will be different based on the person. In addition to satisfying our personal nutrition requirements, food is capable of revealing our individual characteristics, personal values, or even valuable information about our society as a whole. Out of the many different stages of the life cycle, there will be three stages in particular that I will be focusing on; they are: childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Childhood is often one of the most fun, memorable, and enjoyable stages of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Not only is it a time when an individual begins to build upon the knowledge theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve acquired from toddlerhood; it is a time when a large number of friends can be made. This leads to one of the many roles food can serve in this stage of life, which is its role in the act of establishing and maintaining friendships. One perfect example of this role in action is during lunch hour in school. When it is time for lunch at school, all of the children congregate together and have the opportunity to socially interact and bond with one another while eating. At this time, children may even offer a portion of their lunch to their peers and use that moment as an opportunity to converse with others and establish friendships that may last a lifetime. In addition to having a social role, food can serve as a learning aid for the child when it comes to defining the traditions and heritage of their family. Parents often expose and introduce family traditions or specific items passed down from previous generations to their children; which may involve food. For example, a certain type of food or recipe (such as a special homemade cake or pie) that is significant or symbolic to a family can be passed down from the parents and presented to their child. Once the child is introduced to this specific kind of food, they will obtain and learn valuable information pertaining to the overall uniqueness, identity, history, and values of their own family. This information contributes significantly to the development of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s personal identity in future stages of their life cycle (such as adulthood) as well as their self-worth. Adolescence can be quite a hectic (but memorable) stage in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Just like how the overall way of life around this time has changed, the role food plays in this part of the life cycle has as well. At this point in time, food can often be used to relieve stress or be used as an aid to cope with the challenges life brings. For example, a teenager may binge on chips, cookies, and ice cream to help alleviate the stress of applying to colleges or studying for any upcoming exams that they have. Even though this method of dealing with stress isnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily the best way, I believe it is fairly common. I know I definitely used food as a coping mechanism during my adolescent years; but I have changed my ways and no longer do so. At this stage of the life cycle, not only does food play a role in stress relief, it also can play a role in the expression an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s religious beliefs and faith. Since most individuals at this age still live at home with their parents, most will typically continue to practice their familyÃ¢â¬â¢s religion and depending upon how religious they are, may even chose to follow the dietary customs or guidelines that are specific to their religion. For example, teenagers that are Jewish may consume matzo during the week of Passover. By consuming matzo during this religious holiday, the teenager showcases to others how meaningful the religion of Judaism is to them and their dedication in following its overall customs and beliefs. The last stage of life that I will be discussing is adulthood; which is a rather lengthy part of the life cycle. During this time, the overall quality of life has changed even more and an individual is now in full control of their destiny. Besides the sudden increase in the opportunities and freedom experienced by those in this stage, the number of roles food can have is now abundant. One possible role food has in the life of an adult is a source of fun and entertainment. This can include a celebration for a significant milestone or event achieved by one or more individuals (such as a birthday or marriage), eating contests, parties, and cooking shows on TV. For example, when there is a wedding reception and banquet, a full three course meal composing of extravagant foods may be served and conclude with the ceremonial cutting and consumption of a specially decorated wedding cake. The cake itself not only celebrates the marital bond between a man and a woman; it is very symbolic and a common tradition followed by most in our society. One other role food can serve in an adult is a method of expressing both creativity and artistic skill. Cooking can be viewed as a form of art due to a massive number of ways foods can be prepared or combined. Foods exhibit a large of colors, can be plated or decorated beautifully, and baked goods can even be shaped in unique ways. For example, at the world famous Boudin Bakery in San Francisco, bakers demonstrate their artistic skills by molding sourdough bread dough into the shapes of animals (such as turtles and lobsters) and baking them. Another example includes a pastry chef decorating a birthday cake by adding and shaping the frosting at certain areas of the cake to look like flowers. In my life, food serves a large number of roles with one of the biggest being the fact that it identifies both my family heritage and culture. My grandparents emigrated from Eastern Europe and the Balkan region (specifically Belorussia and Serbia) and brought along with them their knowledge of the various food delicacies that are specific to their cultures. For example, my grandmother from Serbia regularly prepares and cooks traditional Serbian foods such as pita (hand-rolled dough with cheese and meat), stuffed peppers, and sarma (boiled cabbage stuffed with ground beef and rice). In fact, whenever I go back home, she always makes these foods for me to enjoy; even though it takes a lot of time to prepare them. Overall, these specific foods remind me of home, my childhood, and represent my cultural contribution and background to the diversity of our society. In my life, food also serves as a method of celebration and a reward for reaching special milestones or achieving goals. For example, when I received an acceptance letter from the Skaggs School of Pharmacy at the University of Colorado, I enjoyed a fabulous steak dinner with my family and indulged on an enormous slice of chocolate cake. I always watch what I eat and try to make healthy choices, but that day was an exception because I accomplished a major personal goal. As you can see, food serves more than just a physiological and nutritional purpose. It has roles in portraying our personal religious beliefs, culture, family backgrounds, societal traditions, bonds with others, and unique personal skills. Food can even have a psychological role in people and serve as a coping mechanism in times of great stress. While this list or possible roles is rather lengthy, it is tiny compared the possible number of roles food can have to an individual throughout their lives; especially when considering the many different stages of life. Although there may be some role overlap, the role food plays in the life of a child could be different than in another stage of life (such as adolescence and adulthood). With that in mind, the next time you are in a restaurant or eating centre, take some time to observe what people of all ages are eating and how they are acting. You will see first-hand the importance and significance of food beyond the scope of nutrition and physiology in our way of life. Works Cited: Brown, Judith E. Nutrition Basics. Nutrition Through the Life Cycle. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, CENGAGE Learning, 2011. 2-3. Print.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Jungs Theory of Psychological Types Explain C.G. Jungs theory of psychological types as a developmental model As Anthony Stevens (1990) details, JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of psychological types has many precedents in psychology and the philosophy of mind; it can be seen to be connected to such notions as HippocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ concept of the four temperaments, its medicalisation in GalenÃ¢â¬â¢s four humours, the ancient Egyptian systems of astrology and the Chinese binaries of Yin and Yang. Jung, however, in his essay Ã¢â¬ËA Psychological Theory of TypesÃ¢â¬â¢ (1960) despite acknowledging his debt to such systems, stresses the notion that his theory can be distinguished from such intuitive ones through its use of scientific and analytical understanding, as he states: The historical retrospect may set our minds at rest as to the fact that our modern efforts to formulate a theory of types are by no means new and unprecedented, even if our scientific conscience no longer permits us to revert to these old, intuitive ways of handling the question. As this paper shall assert, this image of change and continuity is crucial in understanding how JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theory has and can be used as a developmental model to examine not only childhood development but that of the whole lifecycle. JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theories on this area can be seen as a being constantly adapted by himself and others to widening their theoretical importance and, more importantly perhaps, to broaden their practical application. To this end, this paper is divided into three main sections: the first looks at JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of psychological types as laid out in texts such as Ã¢â¬ËA Psychological Theory of TypesÃ¢â¬â¢ (1960), The Development of Personality (1981) and Psychological Types (1983); the second section looks how this was adapted and altered by Isabel Myers and Katherine Briggs (Myers, 2000; Myers, 1962; Bayne, 1997) and lastly, the third and final section details briefly how each of these has been used as a full developmental model in practical psych ology and developmental science. It is hoped then that this paper represents not only a historical explanation of JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theories but how they fit into a developing discipline. Jung describes the basics of his theory of types concisely in the introduction to the work Psychological Types (1983): In my practical work with nervous patients I have long been struck by the fact that besides the many individual differences in human psychology there are also typical differences. Two types especially become clear to me; I have termed them the introvert and the extraverted types. There are two things of interest in this simple statement: firstly, as we have already stated Jung asserts the scientific method of his research (his theory arises out of observations in a clinical setting) and secondly, as Stevens (1990) details, JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of types aims to accommodate both individual difference and universal similarity. The two basic psychological types in JungÃ¢â¬â¢s framework, the introvert and extrovert, describe the basic relationship the individual has with the world and the objects around them: the extravert is defined by an outward flowing of libido, and as Fordham (1964) states Ã¢â¬Å"an interest in events, in people and things, (and has) a relationship with them and a dependence on them.Ã¢â¬  The extravert draws energy from the world in which they inhabit and as Jung (1983) states, is more likely to have a ready acceptance of external events and happenings. They also show a need to be influenced by events happening to them and will have mo ral and ethical leanings that gravitate towards the collective. The extravert is likely to be more willing to share views, to engage with others and to see their ideas as existing within a network of influencing factors (Shamdasani, 2003: 68). Conversely, the introvert presents us with the opposite view, as Fordham (1964) details: The introverted attitude, in contrast, is one of withdrawal; the libido flows inward and is concentrated upon subjective factors, and the predominating influence is Ã¢â¬Ëinner necessityÃ¢â¬â¢. When this attitude is habitual Jung speaks of an Ã¢â¬Ëintroverted typeÃ¢â¬â¢. The introverted type, then, is happiest alone, Ã¢â¬Ëin their own companyÃ¢â¬â¢ (to use JungÃ¢â¬â¢s own phrase), draws energy from solitude, is more likely to formulate their own ethical judgements and frameworks, has a tendency towards pessimism and anxiety and finds safety and warmth with other people only when security has been established and the relationship boundaries have been fixed (Jung, 1983: 142-5). As we can see here, JungÃ¢â¬â¢s basic taxonomy recognised only two general types and each of these corresponded to the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction with themselves and the world about them. In his work Ã¢â¬ËPsychological TypesÃ¢â¬â¢, however, Jung also characterises Ã¢â¬Ëfour basic psychological functionsÃ¢â¬â¢ that he lists as: thinking, feeling, sensation and intuition. Each of these functions, taken as individual tropes and as two pairs of binaries (thinking/feeling and sensing/intuiting) enables us to frame not only the two basic types per se but how they are manifested in situation and behaviour. The two basic types and the four functions can be combined to form a series of eight major psychological types that serve to define and characterise an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s psychic propensity (Extraverted thinking, Introverted thinking, Extraverted feeling, Introverted feeling and so on). As Jung explains, this grouping was seen more as a flexible framework than a rigid meth od of pseudo-scientifically condensing the richness and breadth of humans as a species. As Stevens (1991) details, although these initial eight types have been expanded upon and used as the basis for psychometric testing, JungÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in them was largely clinical, his writings outline how they can be used to understand the ways in which individualÃ¢â¬â¢s react to their environment and how clinical and pedagogical strategies can be formulated to best work with an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s own behaviour. As Knox (2003) suggests, the eight basic types of Jungian theory can be seen more as a method of classification than a developmental model. Whereas JungÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of the archetypal lifecycle employed similar processes of taxonomy (the notion of life stages for instance) it was Isabel Myers and her mother Katherine Briggs who were to take JungÃ¢â¬â¢s work and fully utilise it as a developmental model. As Myers (2000) details, the Myers-Briggs model expanded on JungÃ¢â¬â¢s original thesis by adopting and adapting the concepts of the Ã¢â¬ËdominantÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬ËauxiliaryÃ¢â¬â¢ functions, this allows for the types to be seen, not so much as a series of binaries, but as a set of dichotomies that can be used to measure the relative make up of personality types within each individual. This resulted in an expansion of the eight types to sixteen, each of which was assigned a series of letters that allowed psychologists to formulate questionnaires and to calibrate results, as Myers herself details: JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theory and the 16 MBTI types do not define static boxes; instead, they describe dynamic energy systems with interacting processes. The Myers-Briggs adaptation of JungÃ¢â¬â¢s original types made it possible for them to be used in more general, non-clinical situations (Waktins and Campbell, 2000). The sixteen types in the Myers-Briggs system have specific characteristic traits that can be used as a developmental model, not only in terms of how the individual may react to the changing life stages outlined by Jung (childhood, adolescence, early maturity, mid-life transition, middle age, late life transition, late maturity, death Ã¢â¬â [Stevens, 1990: 62]) but also in terms of the challenges that face individuals everyday. Myers (2000) for instance outlines the ISTJ individual (Introverted Sensing with Extraverted Thinking) as having: Ã¢â¬ ¦a strong sense of responsibility and great loyalty to organisations, families and relationships in their lives. They work with steady energy to fulfil commitments as stated and on time. They go to almost any trouble to complete something they see as necessary but baulk at doing anything that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense to them. Myers (2000) places such descriptions within a developmental context that highlights problems and potential areas for growth, asserting for instance that ISTJ personalities can Ã¢â¬Å"become rigid about time, schedules and proceduresÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"find it difficult to delegateÃ¢â¬ (Myers, 2000: 14). Alternatively, those classified as ENFP (Extraverted Intuition with Introverted Feeling) can be described as innovative, stimulated by new people, see connections where others donÃ¢â¬â¢t and are likely to be curious, creative, imaginative and spontaneous. In terms of personal development, however, they can become frustrated Ã¢â¬Å"become scattered, have trouble focusing (and) be easily distractedÃ¢â¬ (Myers, 2000: 21). We can see how the Myers-Briggs model not only adapts the taxonomy of JungÃ¢â¬â¢s original classification but also expands its uses Ã¢â¬â employing it far more as a general developmental model than a clinical tool, as Allen and Brock (2003) state: (The MBTI is) a tool for assessing those individual differences and has given millions of people a positive understanding of their own patterns of communication as well as an understanding of the mutual usefulness of differences. As McCaulley (2000) suggests, Myers-Briggs Type Indicators can be used a developmental and psychometric model in many areas of counselling and education to determine such things as teaching styles, lifestyle strategies and methods of dealing with challenges and life situations. The development of type is a process that continues throughout oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life: youth is seen as the stage in which we develop the dominant and auxiliary functions that form a major part of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personality, midlife allows us to develop and set the third and fourth functions and the latter stages of life allow us to adopt a lifestyle that is in conjunction with our own type preferences. As McCaully (2000) states, here JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of psychological types and his theory of the developing lifestyle can be seen to coincide, with the latter being able to be used as a way that individuals can negotiate the former. Psychological types, especially as they were framed and described by Isabel Myers and Katherine Briggs, can be used as a basis with which to formulate strategies that aid in the transition from one life stage to another. As a developmental model then it seeks to be both descriptive and curative. Isabel Myers saw the a whole range of uses for Jungian psychological types as a developmental model, most notably in the area of education and child development, for instance she states that It is particularly important to apply the ethics and values of type to relationships with children. Often in trying to meet a childÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, adults assume that what has worked best for them will also work best for the child. Lack of validation or acceptance of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s preferences as a child can lead to low self esteem, defiance or adaptation of that creates strain. The Jungian based MBTI developmental model has been used by all manner of different disciplines from management practice (Davidson Frame, 2003, Bess, 1995) to education (Morgan, 1997) from organisational theory (Schneider and Smith, 2004) to religion (Watts, Nye and Savage, 2002). Its use by such a wide variety of fields is surly a reflection of its place as a model that seeks to understand both individuated personality and universal archetypes. Also, as we have seen, it is a theory is constant evolution and one that is being utilised by an ever growing range of academic and practical disciplines. References Allen, J and Brock, S (2003), Health Care Communication Using Personality Types: Patients Are Different, London: Routledge. Bayne, R (1997), The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: A Critical Review and Practical Guide, London: Nelson Thornes. Bess, J (1995), Creative R and D Leadership, London: Quorum Books. Davidson, Frame, J (2003), Managing Projects in Organisations, London: Jossey Bass. Fordham, F (1964), An Introduction to JungÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychology, London: Pelican. Jung, C.G (1960), Modern Man in Search of a Soul, London: Harvester. Jung, C.G (1991), The Development of Personality, London: Routledge. Jung. C.G (1983), Jung: Selected Writings, London: Fontana. Knox, J (2003), Archetype, Attachment, Analysis: Jungian Psychology and the Emergent Mind, London: Brunner-Routledge. McCaulley, M (2000), Ã¢â¬ËThe Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in CounsellingÃ¢â¬â¢ published in Watkins, E and Campbell, V (2000), Testing and Assessment in Counselling, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 111-174. Morgan, H (1997), Cognitive Styles and Classroom Learning, London: Praeger. Myers, I (1964), The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, London: Consultant Psychologists Press. Myers. I (2000), Introduction to Type, London: OPP. Schneider, B and Smith, D.B (2004), Personality and Organisations, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Shamdasani, S (2003), Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stevens, A (1990), On Jung, London: Penguin. Watkins, E and Campbell, V (eds) (2000), Testing and Assessment in Counselling, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Watts, F, Nye, R and Savage, S (2002), Psychology for Christian Ministry, London: Routledge. 1 Footnotes  C.G. Jung (1960), Ã¢â¬ËA Psychological Theory of TypesÃ¢â¬â¢, published in Modern man in Search of a Soul, London: Harvester, p. 83  C.G. Jung (1983), Psychological Types, published in Jung: Selected Writings, London: Fontana, p.129  Frieda Fordham (1964), An Introduction to JungÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychology, London: Pelican, p.29.  See for instance JungÃ¢â¬â¢s assertion that Ã¢â¬Å"the extravertÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of life and his ethics are as a rule of a highly collective nature with a strong streak of altruism, and his conscience is in large measure dependant on public opinion.Ã¢â¬ (Jung, 1983: 141)  Fordham (1964), p. 30.  Isabel Myers (2000), Introduction to Type, London: OPP, p.7  Myers (2000), p.14  Judy Allen and Susan Brock (2003), Health Care Communication Using Personality Types: Patients Are Different, London: Routledge, p.7  Myers (2000), p.36
Friday, September 20, 2019
Bartok And His Musical Language Film Studies Essay Bartoks music showed signs of a rejection of traditional tonality and growth in his individual harmonic language, giving a new rendition to tonal principles. This characteristic was very much due to the influence of Debussy, and also affected other composers such as Stravinsky. Additionally, after his several years of studying the German tradition at the conservatory in Budapest, he had picked up a manneristic sympathy towards this German late-Romantic style of composers like Wagner, Richard Strauss and Brahms. His earliest works show several stylistic influences present, for example his Piano Quintet (1904-5) which has a finale unquestionably modelled on that of Brahmss Second Piano Concerto. In time, Bartoks music was somewhat liberated from such influences due to his encounter with Magyar folk music in 1905. In spite of this, some influences remained, like the discovery of new harmonic possibilities in Debussys music which came about in 1907. Bartoks researches, which eventually encompassed the folk music not only of Hungary but the Slavic regions, Turkey, and North Africa, convinced him that the essential folk traditions were those having frequent contact with other cultures, allowing a mutually enriching exchange of ideas1. Bartoks compositional style reveals this outlook, which draws upon various, even seemingly contrasting, sources yet he manages to integrate them within a fully coherent frame while keeping in touch with his personal expression. 4.1.1 Tonal Language in his Piano Music 1 Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth-Century Music (W.W.Norton Company Inc., 1991). p.109Works like the Fourteen Bagatelles and Ten Easy Pieces were described by Bartok himself as experimental, reflecting this influence and revealing a certain affinity with Debussy like the use of parallel dissonant chords; except that the quality and colour of the dissonances in Bartoks music differs significantly from that of Debussy. Moreover, the Fourteen Bagatelles and the Ten Easy Pieces, small and early composed as they are, show stylistic homogeneity within each of the pieces and are more adventurous than, for example, the Debussy Preludes. The first composition which brings to light Bartoks research on folksong is shown in his series of piano pieces called For Children, based on Hungarian and Slovakian folksongs. Harmonies are usually simple but never predictable and conventional, making use of Aeolian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian and Mixolydian melodies, pentatonic and other modal tunes. Bartok comp osed three Burlesques, all of which were composed in different years, and these bring out the typical style of his development. They are slightly unpleasant in mood, with harsh clashes of dissonance and bizarre accents. In his Allegro Barbaro, he had established a complete assimilation of folk elements with authentic Magyar style, unrelated to the pianism of Hungarian characteristics found in Liszt and no signs of the impressionist keyboard music like Ravels. This work had brought out an immensely percussionistic sound through the martellato chords and the hammering rhythms. It marks Bartoks becoming of age, from whence his stylistic progress is outspoken, without trial and no going back to the earlier style in his music. He had recognized the piano as a percussion instrument, with works such as the Sonata, his Concertos, and the Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion abiding by this idea. In his answer to a questionnaire about the Piano problem (1927), Bartok had stated the following : The neutral character of the piano tone has long been recognized. Yet it seems to me that its inherent nature becomes really expressive only by means of the present tendency to use the piano as a percussion instrument. Indeed, the piano always plays the part of universal instrument. It has not lost its importance for concert performances.2 4.2 Mikrokosmos Bartok was quite the innovator when it comes to writing what he wanted on the score, and in his Volumes of the Mikrokosmos, one might encounter special musical notation which indicate a specific sound that he had in mind such as newly devised key signatures (also including the use of two different key signatures at the same time), use of Ã ½ pedal, and the use of the Ã ¯ for the effect of harmonics, an effect generated by playing the selected keys without sounding them and producing harmonics as the other notes are played. Figure 4.1 First 10 Bars from No.102, Vol.4 2 Bartok, BÃ ©la. BÃ ©la Bartok Essays ed. Benjamin Suchoff. (University of Nebraska Press, 1976) p.288The first four books of the Mikrokosmos were specifically written for pedagogical reasons as they propose specific tasks which should prepare students as they take on new problems step by step in their first years of learning. Albeit this, Benjamin Suchoff had stated that: Evidence indicates that the Mikrokosmos was not conceived of as a piano method in 1926, the year of its origin, but as recital pieces to fill the need Bartok had of such material due to the increase in his concert bookings3. The exercises are supposedly put in progressive order according to technical and musical demands, although this order might be manipulated by the tutor with each individual student according to their abilities. Despite this, the value of these volumes lies not so much in the technical demands themselves, but it provides the opportunity for the player to encounter essential characteristics of twentieth-century music, for instance, harmonic practices like: bitonality, whole-tone scale, chords in fourths and major and minor seconds, or counterpoint methods such as: inversion, mirror and free canon, not to mention other devices like syncopation and irregular rhythms. 4.3 Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm Bartok ends his 153 pieces called Mikrokosmos with a set of six dances which he composed and dedicated to the British pianist Miss Harriet Cohen. As the title suggests, they are comprised of dances with folk flavour dominant throughout, containing a variety of rhythms commonly found in Bulgarian folk music. Bartok had already made use of the Bulgarian elements in No.113 and No.115 from the fourth Volume of Mikrokosmos, and he aptly named them Bulgarian rhythm I and Bulgarian rhythm II. This rhythm is frequently found in folk music from Bulgaria, and refers to a rhythm in which the beats within each bar are of dissimilar length, so that the subdivisions of each beat change in number. This set, all composed with quavers as the main beat, would therefore represent the Bulgarian rhythm grouped like this: qzzz qz qzz- corresponding to the time signature of 4+2+3/8, although the whole set of these last six dances exhibits a wide variety of possible groupings. The different rhythmic groupin gs give each of the dances a contrasting character, but still give a sense of a unified work, mostly due to a chromatic characteristic appearing in each piece and the fact that all six dances are full of energy. Figure 4.2 3 Suchoff, Benjamin. History of Bela Bartoks Mikrokosmos from the Journal of Research in Music Education, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Sage Publications Inc., 1959) p.196The first dance opens with a mildly temperate mood, but still full of life as it introduces the main theme. The dance is polymodal, based mainly on the E-Phrygian/Lydian scale, occurring in the two main elements present, which are the melody (Fig. 4.2) using notes of the E-pentatonic scale and the accompanying scalar ostinato passages based on the E major scale (Fig. 4.3). Figure 4.3 This first dance makes consistent use of the 4+2+3 Bulgarian rhythm throughout the piece, and is the only work from the set of six that has the most distinct tempo changes. A variation of the main folk motif (Fig. 4.2) occurs in the slower section marked Meno Vivo (Fig. 4.4), which builds up towards a transitional energetic area, leading to yet another calm variation of the main theme with a sense of direction leading towards the closing of the dance which is contrastingly loud and decisive in mood compared to the previous soothing variations, but it rounds off the dance bringing it well into balance and aims directly towards the complementing second dance. Figure 4.4 Variation of the main melodic motif is marked with the brackets The second dance is lively and bright in mood, introducing itself with the main rhythmic element appearing throughout the piece which is based on the 2+2+3 meter (Fig.4.5). Figure 4.5 Bb.1-3 The first three bars of ostinato-like chords are immediately followed by another motif (Fig. 4.6a) containing a syncopated melody on the C-pentatonic scale which repeats soon afterwards; this time it is transposed a 4th higher on F-pentatonic scale and it is half the length of the previous phrase, almost as if it is getting slightly impatient and increasing in tension (Fig. 4.6b). Figure 4.6a Figure 4.6b Figure 4.7Subsequently, running scales appear (Fig. 4.7), which give a reminiscing sense of some parts from the first dance. This is followed by developing material of both the initial melodic material and of the running scales once again. The scale passages keep occurring against a thick chordal bass until eventually coming to a halt and transitioning to the coda which concludes with the introductory dance rhythm, slowly drifting away to the last to chords. The third dance acts like an extension to the second dance, with a similar energetic drive but with more added force to it. Its meter is marked as 5/8 and the rhythm is subdivided into two groups: 2+3. The first rhythmic motif is divided as shown (Fig. 4.8), using notes from the E-Lydian pentachord with a minor and major seventh degree4. Figure 4.8 The second thematic material that follows is based on a symmetrical 3-bar phrase: Ã Ã ±Ã Ã ±. | Ã Ã ±Ã Ã ¥Ã Ã ± | Ã Ã ±Ã Ã ±. lasting until Bar 19, leading to four bars of ostinato rhythm using chords a 5th apart, based on the dominant (V) of the A-major pentachord5, employed in the second thematic material. Variations with development on both first and second motifs appear following each other with chromatic elements throughout, leading to the close which starts off with the same introduction as the beginning, followed by a short closure using the main dance rhythmic theme, rounded off by the concluding chord (Fig. 4.9). Figure 4.9 The next dance is more upbeat and cheery in mood compared to the previous dances. It has the form of a rondo-variation with the parts generally subdivided into four-bar sections. According to Bartok, this piece is Very much in the style of Gershwins tonality, rhythm, and colour. The American folk song feeling.5 The additive 3+2+3/8 meter grouped as such (Fig. 4.10), occurs in the first movement, second theme, of Gershwins Concerto in F for Piano and Orchestra as 4/4 Ã Ã ¥ q Ã Ã ± Ã Ã ± Ã Ã ¥.6 The first theme (Fig. 4.10), consists of harmonies from the C-Lydian/Phrygian polymode, and the motif is soon repeated an octave higher. The same ideas soon answer in different registers transposed into the left hand almost upside down. Figure 4.10 In discussion to the Gershwin-related tonality as described by Bartok himself, there is a section in this dance where the same melodic motif appears in a slower area (as indicated by the composer; Meno mosso) with a jazzy colour added to it, accompanied by triads ascending in stepwise motion (Fig. 4.11). This area is followed by a brief recapitulation of the melodic introductory motif played in octaves with a small ritardando at the end of the phrase which jumps to a short but very energetic Coda that concludes the dance. 6 ibid. 5 ibid. p.158 4 ibid. 3 Suchoff, Benjamin. Bartoks Mikrokosmos: Genesis, Pedagogy, and Style (Rowman Littlefield, 2004) p.157 Figure 4.11 The fifth Bulgarian dance has a more varied rhythmic schemata, in the sense that it has at least three different sections which consist of diverse rhythmic groupings (Fig. 4.12a; 4.12b; 4.12c), but all under the same meter i.e. 2+2+2+3/8. Figure 4.12a i.e. qz Ã Ã ±z Ã Ã ±z Ã Ã ±zz Figure 4.12b i.e. Ã Ã ± Ã Ã ± Ã Ã ± Ã Ã ± Ã Ã ¥ Figure 4.12c i.e. Ã Ã ±zzz Ã Ã ± Ã Ã ±zz Like the second dance, it has brisk, light steps, but is more playful, slightly more colourful in tonality but less ostentatious in character. The introductory material starts with a short passage of alternating chords between the two hands, eventually leading to a clearer melodic line in bar 7 which serves as the basic material for the entire piece. The middle section consists of brief dense phrases occurring in between short staccato areas, with the thick areas having a fundamental chromatic melodic line which corresponds to the whole element of the six dances. The sixth and final dance of the whole Mikrokosmos automatically shoots off with a jump start as a kind of reaction to the strong intervallic ending of the previous dance. The chordal motifs reflect a Debussy-like influence, with the striking rhythmic elements proving the underlying thoughts of having the piano regarded as a percussive instrument. The chords against a repeated 3+3+2 quaver movement grouped as such: qZZ qZZ qZ switch hands, increasing in thickness of sound the third time it appears, due to the lower register of the keyboard. The chords are the holders of the main melodic line in this dance. Repeated eighth notes occur throughout most of the dance with abrupt accentuated phrasings. Corresponding to the chromatic element of the whole set which links them together is an area full of melodic motifs displaying chromatic movement in both hands, with the phrases running on top of each other constantly, keeping a rhythmic flow (Fig. 4.13). Figure 4.13 The only section in this piece where there are not any running rhythms is in the extremely aggressive chordal area marked fortissimo (Fig. 4.14), halting abruptly on a dissonant chord which is followed by several bars of repeated notes, soon to have the other voice join in once again, both charging towards the flamboyant ending of the piece. Figure 4.14
Thursday, September 19, 2019
George Eliot, Pseudonym of Marian Evans George Eliot, pseudonym of Marian Evans (1819-1880) This article appeared in The Times Literary Supplement and was reprinted in The Common Reader: First Series. Virginia Woolf also wrote on George Eliot in the Daily Herald of 9 To read George Eliot attentively is to become aware how little one knows about her. It is also to become aware of the credulity, not very creditable to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s insight, with which, half consciously and partly maliciously, one had accepted the late Victorian version of a deluded woman who held phantom sway over subjects even more deluded than herself. At what moment and by what means her spell was broken it is difficult to ascertain. Some people attribute it to the publication of her Life. Perhaps George Meredith, with his phrase about the Ã¢â¬Ëmercurial little showmanÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬Ëerrant womanÃ¢â¬â¢ on the daÃ ¯s, gave point and poison to the arrows of thousands incapable of aiming them so accurately, but delighted to let fly. She became one of the butts for youth to laugh at, the convenient symbol of a group of serious people who were all guilty of the same idolatry and could be dismissed with the same scorn. Lord Acton had said that she was greater than Dante; Herbert Spencer exempted her novels, as if they were not novels, when he banned all fiction from the London Library. She was the pride and paragon of her sex. Moreover, her private record was not more alluring than her public. Asked to describe an afternoon at the Priory, the story-teller always imitated that the memory of those serious Sunday afternoons had come to tickle his sense of humour. He had been so much alarmed by the grave lady in her low chair; he had been so anxious to say the intelligent thing. Certainly, the talk had been very serious, as a note in the fine clear hand of the great novelist bore witness. It was dated Monday morning, and she accused herself of having spoken without due forethought of Marivaux when she meant another; but not doubt, she said, her listener had already supplied the correction. Still, the memory of talking about Marivaux to George Eliot on a Sunday afternoon was not a romantic memory. It had faded with the passage of the years. It had not become picturesque. Indeed, one cannot escape the conviction that the long, heavy face with its expression of serious and sullen and almost equine power has stamped itself depressingly upon the minds of people who remember George Eliot, so that it looks out upon them from her pages.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Great Depression and John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath Though most Americans are aware of the Great Depression of 1929, which may well be "the most serious problem facing our free enterprise economic system", few know of the many Americans who lost their homes, life savings and jobs. This paper briefly states the causes of the depression and summarizes the vast problems Americans faced during the eleven years of its span. This paper primarily focuses on what life was like for farmers during the time of the Depression, as portrayed in John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, and tells what the government did to end the Depression. In the 1920's, after World War 1, danger signals were apparent that a great Depression was coming. A major cause of the Depression was that the pay of workers did not increase at all. Because of this, they couldn't afford manufactured goods. While the factories were still manufacturing goods, Americans weren't able to afford them and the factories made no money (Drewry and O'connor 559). Another major cause related to farmers. Farmers weren't doing to well because they were producing more crops and farm products than could be sold at high prices. Therefore, they made a very small profit. This insufficient profit wouldn't allow the farmers to purchase new machinery and because of this they couldn't produce goods quick enough (Drewry and O'connor 559). A new plan was created called the installment plan. This plan was established because many Americans didn't have enough money to buy goods and services that were needed or wanted. The installment plan stated that people could buy products on credit and make monthly payments. The one major problem with this idea was that people soon found out that they couldn't afford to make the monthly payment(Drewry and O'connor 559). In 1929 the stock market crashed. Many Americans purchased stocks because they were certain of the economy. People started selling their stocks at a fast pace; over sixteen million stocks were sold! Numerous stock prices dropped to fraction of their value. Banks lost money from the stock market and from Americans who couldn't pay back loans. Many factories lost money and went out of business because of
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Porter generic strategies this is a strategy on the dimensions of the strategic scope meaning the market penetration and strategic strength referring to the company. For porter an industry is impacted by five forces. (Porter, 1985)Ã This study is going to examine the aviation industry, which is amongst the biggest and competitive industry and highly growing Rivalry In a convectional economic setup, competition among rival companies reduces profits of the companies to nil. However, competition can not be perfect and companies are so sophisticated to counter competition by gaining competitive advantage over their rivals. Competition varies depending on the different industries. In the aviation industry the competition is high as there are many companies offering the same services. In pursing the competitive advantage in the industry, the aviation industry can continue to improve its services by introducing new products. At the same time the industry can innovate new ways of services, and improved its general operations. The aviation industry is very competitive and companies in the industry need to merge to reduce competition while gaining competitive advantage. As it is now several companies has collapsed due to high competition in the industry. (Porter, 1985) Threat of substitutes Substitutes in an industry according to Porter (1985) are products from other industries. A threat of a substitute will occur when the demand of the product is affected by changing of price of a substitute product. The price elasticity of a product is directly affected by the availability of substitutes. Since availability of substitutes will make the demand of a product to be more elastic.Ã In The case of the aviation industry, the industry is getting threats of substitute from the other transportation industry such as road, water and rail transportation networks. Though, aviation industry offers the fastest traveling services, security risks and high air fares have made its customers to opt of these other substitutes. According to Aaker (1984) the industry Ã Ã can wade off fear of substitutes, by building strong and unique services, having good customer orientation and creating attractive marketing strategies to attract more customers and retain existing ones. Buyer power This is the impact that buyers have on a specific industry. Generally if there is a strong buyer power, the relation between the industry and the buyer is termed as Ã¢â¬Å"monopsonyÃ¢â¬ such a condition happens when there is one buyer and many suppliers. On the other hand buyers are weak when they are many or different segmentsÃ Ã and there is no specific buyer who has particular influence on the price of the product. Aviation industry has a weak buyers, the industry canÃ have take advantage of this by setting prices of its services Ã customer friendly and offering a high product-mix on the market to satisfy the demand of various customer segments. (Porter, 1985) Supplier power Porter, (1980) states that, each industry needs raw material, components and labor and other provisions. This need creates supplier-buyer relationships between the companies which provide the raw material and the industry. In cases where suppliers are powerful, the can impact the industry through selling of the raw material highly. However, sometimes suppliers are weak, this happens when there are many suppliers for the same product or if the purchasers are many. In the aviation industry, suppliers are many and the industry is not impacted by the suppliers. Aaker (1984) observes that, the industry can use economic of scale to source for better deals to ensure that it gets the best quality of raw material at the best prices. Barriers to entry Apart from rivals posing threat to existing companies, new entries in the industry also pose a threat the existing companies and increases competition in the industry. In practice any company should be able to enter and leave the market. Nevertheless, aviation industry has features that protect high profits of the companies in that industry and restrain additional competitors from entering the industry. Aviation industry has many regulations and licenses both national and international which anÃ new has to adhere to before entering the industry, this has restricted some potential new comers who can not adhere to this requirements. (Porter, 1980) Conclusion Industry analysis in important in improvingÃ and ensuring the success of a company, in industry analysis there are several tools that are used to analysis the performance of a an industry. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces is one of the tools that are used in industry analysis, to provide vital information concerning the performance of the industry in relation to the five forces which are Rivalry, Threat of substitutes, Buyer power, Supplier power and Barriers to entry.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The Following dialogue is spoken by Duke Vicentio in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËMeasure for MeasureÃ¢â¬â¢, Act 3, scene 1. Duke Vicentio makes Lord Angelo the leader of Vienna temporarily and pretends to leave but instead dresses as a friar to observe the goings in his absence. Angelo is strict, moralistic, and unwavering in his decision-making; he decides that there is too much freedom in Vienna and takes it upon himself to rid the city of brothels and unlawful sexual activity. Claudio is arrested for impregnating Juliet, his lover, before they were married. Claudio is sentenced to death in order to serve as an example to the other Viennese citizens. Vienna already has strict rules against these unlawful activities. But the rules were not being followed strictly. It is true that whoever enforces these rules will obviously become unpopular with the public. Hence the Duke cleverly arranges Angelo to do this enforcement. Hence he tells Friar Thomas, Ã¢â¬ËWe have strict statutes and most biting laws. The needful bits and curbs to headstrong weeds,Ã Which for this nineteen years we have let slip;Ã¢â¬â¢ He refer to Ã¢â¬Ëo'ergrown lion in a caveÃ¢â¬â¢ which is actually a reference to himself. The words like Ã¢â¬ËlionÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËpreyÃ¢â¬â¢ are significant here as they denote the extreme measure the Duke has in his mind. The punishment given by Angelo is already in the mind of the Duke. But fearing unpopularity he makes the latter the scapegoat and achieves his objective. The Duke refers to Ã¢â¬ËterrorÃ¢â¬â¢, which is a little more that what Angelo is capable of. In the following passage, Ã Ã¢â¬ËFor terror, not to use, in time the rod Becomes more mock'd than fear'd; so our decrees, Dead to infliction, to themselves are dead; And liberty plucks justice by the nose; the baby beats the nurse, and quite athwart Goes all decorumÃ¢â¬â¢, one can understand that the Duke has accessed his townÃ¢â¬â¢s situation thoroughly. In spite of knowing all this, what would have made the Duke pretend to leave Vienna under the care of Angelo in the first place? The next question would be why Angelo. This particular passage answers these questions. The Duke is a clever man who knows his moves precisely. He uses Angelo because he is strict and a Moralist. He has judged AngeloÃ¢â¬â¢s credential well enough to know that this man would bring havoc by over stressing on following the rules. The Duke expected an uproar in the town and in the opportune moment he would come and release those in AngeloÃ¢â¬â¢s captivation. This way the Duke plans to enforce the rule Ã and at the same time not get into the bad books of his subject. As per his plan everything turned out well and he gained popularity by releasing Claudio. He also utilized the women to heighten the seriousness of the situation. The passage is also significant in showing the intensity of feeling of the Duke about Justice prevailing in his town. It is an indication that he may take to deception or any other means to make Justice prevail. This passage forms the essence of the attitude of the Duke.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Many critics and literary analysts believe that femininity or to some extent metamorphosis of women constitutes the central theme of StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Dracula. Ã¢â¬ For instance, Kline explains that femininity occurs in two ways: first by the transformation of the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ English women into sexually or intellectually challenging New Women, and then again when their Ã¢â¬Å"potentially revolutionary attributes Ã¢â¬ ¦ are destroyed, one way or anotherÃ¢â¬ either through death, as seen with Lucy, or reduction to a silent (and therefore no longer intellectually challenging) inspirational figure, as occurs with Mina (Kline, 144). Explaining the idea behind women in Dracula Stoker argues that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦for women to deny their traditional role was to deny their womanhood, to challenge the distinctions between women and men upon which the family ~ and therefore society Ã¢â¬â dependedÃ¢â¬ (Stoker, 206). StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"DraculaÃ¢â¬ addresses these concerns regarding femininity as outlined by Stoker and Kline, and contains examples of it, through the Ã¢â¬Å"brute forceÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sexual wantonnessÃ¢â¬ of the vampire women that attack Jonathan, as well as LucyÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation and the Ã¢â¬Å"masculine aggressivenessÃ¢â¬ represented by MinaÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities. The men in the novel are established as representatives of a patriarchal society, but it is the authoritative presence of Van Helsing that is primarily used both to advocate a return to a patriarchal system, and to refeminize women through either denial of their abilities or by repeated insistence that they are objects of chivalric concern. The text is replete with examples where female identity is transformed. This is accomplished through a variety of methods that are, like the vampiric taint from the mixing of blood, interrelated. For example, Mina is transformed into an object of idealization and chivalric concern, and as a result of this Ã¢â¬Å"protection,Ã¢â¬ she is also attacked by Dracula and emotionally altered as a result of her exclusion Ã¢â¬â both of which occur precisely because the men remove her from their counsel and leave her unattended. The text is used to show that these women Ã¢â¬â in a sense Ã¢â¬Å"new womenÃ¢â¬ representatives Ã¢â¬â are dangerous and in need of Ã¢â¬Å"correction,Ã¢â¬ which occurs in the novel through punishment, including death and destruction, and the denial of authority. The sexual aspects of the New Woman are vilified through association with the monstrosity of vampirism, and what vilifies the intellectual woman in the text is her challenge to male intellect and authority. The attack on the sexual woman begins with JonathanÃ¢â¬â¢s assault by the vampire women at Castle Dracula, which then justifies the attack on Lucy when she takes over as their Ã¢â¬Å"modernÃ¢â¬ equivalent; since he gets no retribution against these vampire women, it is necessary in the text to have Lucy punished for her seemingly similar challenge to gender roles as a result of her potentially promiscuous behavior. The attack on the intellectual woman begins with what Johnson calls MinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"discourteous actÃ¢â¬ in first handing Van Helsing her shorthand diary, which he is unable to read. The sexual woman in the text is first represented by the Ã¢â¬Å"weird sistersÃ¢â¬ (Stoker, 80) at Castle Dracula, through both their role-reversing assault on Jonathan and their anti-maternal behavior in feeding on the Ã¢â¬Å"half-smothered childÃ¢â¬ given to them by Dracula when he halts their attack (Stoker, 71). These women symbolize what Griffins calls Ã¢â¬Å"the worst nightmare and dearest fantasy of the Victorian male: the pure girl turned sexually ravenous beastÃ¢â¬ (Stoker, 143), with these vampire women being classified as frightening Ã¢â¬â and by extension, all modern or sexual women ~ in part due to the emotional confusion they create in men. Although they are described by Jonathan as Ã¢â¬Å"ladies by their dress and mannerÃ¢â¬ (Stoker, 68), having Ã¢â¬Å"brilliant white teeth, that shone like pearlsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"a silvery, musical laughÃ¢â¬ (Stoker, 69), their effect on Jonathan is described, through his own reporting, to make him uneasy (69) due to their Ã¢â¬Å"deliberate voluptuousness which was both thrilling and repulsiveÃ¢â¬ and his reaction that he Ã¢â¬Å"felt in my heart a wicked, burning desire that they would kiss meÃ¢â¬ (Stoker, 69). Interpreting JonathanÃ¢â¬â¢s mixed emotions as resulting from a fear of an inability to sexually handle three women presents an interesting parallel later with Lucy, who wistfully speaks of being able to marry three men (Stoker, 91). By presenting womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality as aberrant and monstrous rationalizes the violence that is utilized in destroying Lucy and the vampire women, and the text is therefore suggesting, through this vampiric taint, that all sexual women are dangerous and need to be destroyed. It is this destruction, in addition to physical death, that sends the message that there is no redemption for Ã¢â¬Å"new womenÃ¢â¬ . SewardÃ¢â¬â¢s diary records the event that lets Lucy Ã¢â¬Å"take her place with the other AngelsÃ¢â¬ (253): Ã¢â¬Å"The Thing in the coffin writhed Ã¢â¬ ¦ the sharp white teeth champed together till the lips were cut, and the mouth was smeared with a crimson foam. But Arthur Ã¢â¬ ¦ [drove] deeper and deeper the mercy-bearing stake, whilst the blood from the pierced heart welled and spurted up around itÃ¢â¬ (Stoker, 254). Similarly, Van Helsing records Ã¢â¬Å"the horrid screeching as the stake drove home; the plunging of writhing form, and lips of bloody foamÃ¢â¬ as he Ã¢â¬Å"restore[s] these [vampire] women to their dead selvesÃ¢â¬ (Stoker, 412). From the beginning of the novel Mina is presented as different from the vampire women, signifying that the woman who challenges gender roles through her intellect is different from the sexual woman. JonathanÃ¢â¬â¢s journal distinguishes her from the Ã¢â¬Å"awfulÃ¢â¬ vampire women: Ã¢â¬Å"Mina is a woman, and there is nought in common [with the vampire women]. They are devils of the Pit! Ã¢â¬ (Stoker, 85). Once the sexual woman has been dispensed of through LucyÃ¢â¬â¢s death, the text then attacks the intellectual woman through Mina; and it is not until the former is eradicated that MinaÃ¢â¬â¢s talents are presented as dangerous or threatening. Although Charles Prescott and Grace Giorgio opine: Ã¢â¬Å"LucyÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation and destruction function as cautionary examples for Mina. She learns not only that vampires and transgression must be brutally brought into line but also what can happen to anyone outside the Victorian codes of normalcyÃ¢â¬ (Stoker, 151), it is only after she is stripped of the ability to use her intellect, as she is silenced by Van Helsing and excluded through the presumably chivalric protection of the men, that she becomes sexual. Descriptions of violence against women Ã¢â¬â a retribution for their challenge to gender roles Ã¢â¬â serve to impart the message that there is no redemption for femininity, that despite any atonement or transformation, their transgressions are considered so heinous that they must be destroyed. Interestingly, the eradication of Dracula, described merely as his Ã¢â¬Å"crumbl[ing] into dust and pass[ing] from Ã¢â¬ ¦ sightÃ¢â¬ (Stoker, 418), without the brutality that is levied against the female vampires, serves as proof that the destruction previously described is in reprisal for the female transgression of gender codes, and not a necessity in ending the threat of vampirism. Works Cited Stoker, Bram. Dracula. Ed. Glennis Byron. Ontario: Broadview Literary P, 2000 Kline, Salli J. The Degeneration of Women: Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dracula as Allegorical Criticism of the Fin de Siecle. Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag, 1992
Saturday, September 14, 2019
This paper deals with the implications due to the development in Northern Canada. The effects of these developments in the environment and people are included in this paper. Also, the groups that are established to eliminate or rather reduce the pollutants emitted in the atmosphere due to these developments and their goals are stated in this paper. Northern Canada is the northernmost region of Canada which can also be called as far north that may refer to the Canadian ArcticÃ¢â¬â¢ the portion of Canada which is near to the north of Arctic circle. Canada is known as the largest supplier of crude oil and refined products to the United States. Different explorations are conducted to find oil wells and processed into useful products. Other industrial activities are done to add up into the economic development being raised in Northern Canada. These industrial activities are mineral extraction and processing, forest products and hydroelectric generation. Hence, these developments are the major factors that contribute in destructing the rich land of northern Canada. According to an article these industrial development continued to contaminate the soil in Canada. This contamination leads to denude the land and places that are ecologically significant in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s flora and fauna. Moreover, different test methods are conducted to evaluate this contaminated soils thus, this test methods shows the toxicity of the land. Oil refineries play the foremost destruction of ecosystem. Refining oil leaves a bitumen deposit in soils. Bitumen deposits include extra heavy oils or tar sands and oil sands. Large amount of these sands are can be in Canada. These are dense and viscous form of petroleum which is naturally occurring mixtures of sand and clay. Most of these sands are can be seen in the arctic region of Canada. Accordingly, like all non-renewable resource developments projects, operations related to this mining event have a great impact in polluting the environment. The water used in the separation during the separation process is not dispose properly nor recycled by the processing plant. A large volume of water used in producing synthetic crude oil ends up in ponds. These ponds are connected to Athabasca River which is one of the largest rivers in Canada. Consequently, aside from water pollution, air is also abused in processing crude oil. Most of the petroleum is being burned this action emit carbon dioxide as well as other air pollutant. Of course the huge amount present in the air is carbon dioxide. Aside from this the other pollutants specified are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, particulate matter and sulphur dioxide. These gases are highly toxic in humans it is a major treat in our health based on different studies as well as in our environment. These are the main cause of global warming that we are experiencing right now. Also, hydrogen sulfide and mercury are found to be present in burning fossil fuels and refining oil. Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that naturally occurs in crude petroleum and natural gas. As for mercury, it is associated in burning fuels. Furthermore, lands are also not safe in refining oil because oil sands are used to produce barrels of oil. This oil sands are mined which means that to be able to mine these sands clearing of trees is must be done. Removing of topsoil, sand, clay and gravel that is present in top of the oil must also be done. Climate change bound to be the major effect of these developments. As I have said earlier gases with high toxicity are emitted in land, water and air. These gases are named to be as green house gases which are huge in Canada, thus, making the environment clearly denuded. Effects of these developments vary from agricultural, forestry, infrastructure, industry, transportation, water resources, marine ecosystem and terrestrial ecosystem. Since soils are widely affected a lot of aspects with regards to soil greatly suffered. Soils and climate conditions in the North of Canada are now unfavorable to agricultural production. Somehow, hope has its chance for in some areas in Yukon have been seen that there is a moderate capability in terms of agriculture but this takes a long term of cultivation and longer growing seasons may increased the risk of greenhouse production. Moreover, this production is limited due to soil condition. Forestry is also greatly affected. This deals with the hunting and gathering of people. Although forestry is a small contributor in their economy, it plays an important role for them because there is an interest in the growth of this part. Due to extreme heat that we are all experiencing forest fires particularly in Yukon has been emerging in the past few years. This event is expected to continue if developments do not prioritize our environment also. Excessive heat also triggers the stability of transportation and infrastructures in Northern Canada. In some areas, permafrost melt increase the risk of landslides that can cause unwanted damages. It also threatens the water supply, foundation of old buildings and waste disposal infrastructure. Since it is in the Arctic region, it was quite icy there therefore permafrost melting may cause the buckling of pipes and storage tanks that are used in water and sewage. Roads also rely on the ground stability. Transportation in most areas in north relies in this stability. Warmer winters made transporting goods to the communities more difficult because ice roads are freezing later then suddenly melts earlier during spring. Accordingly, this problem will increase if the temperature continues to rise. Economic Impacts are also inter related in climate change, this phenomena has a deep impact in the commercial and industrial activity of Northern Canada. This unfavorable change in weather could require costly upgrades and redesigning of dams structures in mining industry. This can also hinder explorations of oil well which is somehow good and bad. Good, because it means that there will be a reduction in greenhouse gases emitted in the atmosphere. It is bad, because as I stated a while ago oil exploration and refineries is the major factor in economic abundance of Canada. In addition, water resources are also significant in North Canada. The hydrology of North Canada is at risk because an increase in temperature will also increased the possibility of melting of snow and ice. Peat lands may dry out because of increased evaporation and plant transpiration. This climate change may affect hydropower generation in the Yukon. Effect is uncertain; increasing amount of water runoff may boost the capacity of hydropower, while possible heavy storms may reduce its potential. Also, due to the problems arise together with the developments. Thickness of sea ice is also in line with the devastating threats that these developments brought up. Du to climate change extent and thickness of sea ice are expected to reduce in many areas of the arctic. The victims here are those animals that are dependent or those who are living in these areas. These animals include polar bears, walrus and seals. However it may be an advantage as it becomes open water. But it was very unfortunate to those animals. Thus, this is important to all that are included in marine ecosystem because their entire food chain relies on the abundance of plankton and other microorganisms. If the thickness and distribution of sea ice are affected this will be a vast tragedy in the whole marine food chain. Terrestrial ecosystems are also not safe in these changes. Species composition varies as the temperature continues to warm or suddenly change. Due to this extreme heat, parasites and other insect bone disease continue to promulgate in the land infecting the animals that leads to declination of animal population. In addition, since northern Canada is near arctic region warming the region is not a good sign for those animals that are herbivores. Most of the plants are suddenly dying due unwanted climate change, so an herbivore animal will look for their food in other place making them move in other places where they can get their food. As a result those carnivorous animals follow them because they are their prey. This is not a good sign for a country because they will not able to preserve their wildlife. For birds, it is somehow a good sign for them because they can decrease their chick mortality thus; this may decrease the foraging ability of migrating birds. I suppose these changes in marine ecosystem, terrestrial ecosystem, etc mostly affect the traditional lifestyle of Canadians especially those who are in north. It greatly affects their hunting and gathering practices and threatened their long existing traditions. Uneven increased of temperature makes the animals leave and find a more comfortable habitat. Numbers of these animals in particular fishes and plants species greatly affect those people that rely on these; the indigenous people. These probably leads to their traditional way of living such as hunting and harvesting moreover, those traditional foods they eat or sell might be lost now. These changes however are being taken care of different agencies of the government of Northern Canada and other civilian groups that are concern in preserving our environment. Based on an article, several test methods are used to monitor the toxicity of soil in North Canada. They examine the soils to assess or detect the toxic wastes present in that soil. And they identify them individually. These several tests are done for them to develop a better risk assessment plan to punish those polluters and to maintain the rich resources of Canada. Industry sectors are also mandated to provide effective remediation methods at contaminated areas and to monitor every progress that complies with environmental policies. Arctic Council Action Plan to Eliminate Pollution of the Arctic (ACAP) and Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) are two of the leading bodies that protect the environment. Their goal is to reduce emissions of pollutants present in the environment and they encourage Arctic governments to make preventive actions that relates in reducing pollutants that are released by processing plants. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna is also one the concern of the citizens of northern Canada. This deals with the conservation of Arctic ecosystems and habitats. Its goal is to maintain and enhanced the integrity of ecosystem in the Arctic and to avoid the degradation and fragmentation of habitats. The scope of their goal is not just only the flora and fauna of the Arctic thus, they include the physical environment and the socio economic environment of those people who live there. Another is the Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response (EPPR) Group. This group deals with as they were called, prevention, preparedness and response to environmental emergencies in the Arctic caused by human activities. And the last group would be Protection of Arctic Marine Environment (PAME). This group deals with the protection of Arctic marine environment. It is directed to respond to emerging knowledge of the Arctic marine environment, determine the adequacy of regional or international commitments and promote their implementation and facilitate program and cooperation and support communication, reporting and outreach both within and outside the Arctic Council. Somehow this leads to only one thing, government and industry sector are required to create a strong array in creating methods that appraise the risks that could lead to massive destruction of our environment. Reference Biological Methods Section and S&T Liaison Protecting. CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s Boreal Forests and Northern Ecosystems: Developing Biological Methods to Assess and Preserve CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s Soil Environments of the North. Retrieved: July 5, 2010. From: http://www. ec. gc. ca/scitech/default. asp? lang=En&n=4B40916E- 1&xsl=privateArticles2,viewfull&po=3AB28EB3