Saturday, August 31, 2019

Focus on the learner Essay

A. Learner’s profile Virginia is a 29-year old native Spanish speaker born in Madrid. She is currently studying a professional training course and works as an animal caretaker. She is one of the A2 or Elementary proficiency level students of the Celta Teacher Training Program at International house Language School. She took part of the same program two years ago, but she didn’t continue studying English afterwards. Virginia studied English in primary and secondary school following a traditional teaching method, which used grammar as the starting point and foundation, for the development of all language skills — speaking, listening, writing, and reading, however there was relatively little focus on speaking and listening. As reported by Virginia, she was exposed to explicit information about the structure of the language and to rules that she had to internalize through repetitions and direct translation with little or no opportunity of participating in activities that encourage meaningful communication. This situation hindered the development of her speaking skills, and made her fail in her attempts to attain the necessary fluency and confidence to successfully communicate in English during her trips abroad. Knowledge of grammar without meaningful practice of the language is ineffective, as Jim Scrivener says: â€Å"There is no point knowing a lot about language if you can’t use it (which sadly, has been the experience of many language learners in the past – able to conjugate a verb, but unable to respond to a simple question)† (Scrivener, 2005; 146) As a result of the different frustrating situations she had to face when trying to make herself understand in foreign countries, and due to her love for travelling, she developed an intrinsic motivation to study English. She thinks English is a lingua franca that opens doors to other cultures, on the contrary, she doesn’t have any extrinsic motivation as she doesn’t need to speak English for any other purposes than socializing and travelling. She is a participative student who has never missed a class. Her favorite  activities are the ones that foster speaking skills, especially role-plays or discussions in groups, because they give her the opportunity to interact with her classmates and communicate in real time about real or similar to real life situations. Virginia’s learning style is visual; a technique she uses in order to spell words is seeing the words in her head and she can better understand and remember explanations by writing them down or looking at pictures and diagrams She claims that one of her strengths is her knowledge of grammar rules associated with verbs conjugation; specifically the use of simple present and present continuous and adds that writing is the easiest among the four language skills, because writing tasks provide enough time to brainstorm and choose the correct language to express her ideas. Among her weaknesses she mentioned her lack of fluency, because she has not time to think on the grammar rules when she speaks, especially when talking about a past event, as she hardly ever knows whether the verb she wants to use is regular or irregular. B. Language problems and Solutions Analyzing Victoria’s output in class I could notice that she has two evident language problems; one of them is the use of simple past of irregular verbs, and the other one is the differentiation of the vowel sounds /aÉ ª/ and /É ª/. I find these problems in the grammar and pronunciation areas very interesting to analyze, because both of them are very common in Spanish native speakers learning ESL, therefore, finding engaging and interesting activities to overcome them could be helpful in similar cases in the future. Examples and solutions for the student’s language problems in the different areas are exposed below: Grammar: Virginia struggles with using irregular verbs in the past  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I ´m learning to surf. I buyed a surfboard. I ´m loving it although I’m not very good.† â€Å"The teacher who teach me English when I was a child was not  strict† â€Å"I lose the train this morning† (neither the correct word has been chosen in this case â€Å"miss†, however, I only focus on the verb) In order to help Virginia with her problem in this grammar area, I have decided to use the activities of the lesson â€Å"Girls’ night out†; unit 5, pages 56 and 57 of the Elementary student’s book â€Å"New English File†, Oxford University Press. The subject of the lesson revolves around a group of young female journalist for a famous women’s magazine who are asked to go out for the evening with her girlfriends, and then write a report about their experiences. The topic is engaging, as it suits Virginia’s age, gender, interest (tackles some cultural matters of different countries) and is quite close to her cultural background, considering that Spaniards are very sociable and much of their life is lived in the streets. The material exposes the student to the structure through reading, listening and speaking activities. Virginia will have to deduce which are the past tense of a set of irregular verbs from the text in order to do exercise 3A. Grammar (look at the reports again and find the past tense of these irregular verbs), and then listen and practice the pronunciation of the verbs in exercise 3. B (listen and check, practice saying the verbs). She will also have the opportunity to fill in sentences with the correct form of the same irregular verbs in exercise 3C 1 and listen these verbs within a meaningful context in exercises 4 B and C (Listen to Silvia talking about their girls’ night out). In terms of speaking, the student will have to use the simple past of irregular verbs in the exercise 5C (Think about the last time you went out with friends, look at the questions and plan your answers) Virginia will have plenty of opportunities to see and use the target language as in real life communication. 1: This exercise send the student to the explanation on page 130 (5C) and to the exercise on page 131 (5C) Pronunciation Virginia struggles with discriminating the /aÉ ª/ and /É ª/ sounds. : â€Å"I filled in a registration form for a diving school†: /ˈdÉ ªvÉ ªÃ…‹/ â€Å"The school has wifi† /ˈwÉ ª fÉ ª/  Ã¢â‚¬Å"The school has a library†: /ˈlÉ ªbrÉ™ri/ To help her to differentiate the pronunciation of the vowel sounds /aÉ ª/ and /É ª/. I have chosen the lesson â€Å"Wine, win†, unit 5 of the book â€Å"English Pronunciation in use†, Cambridge University press; pages: 30 and 31. Besides providing explanatory pictures of mouth modulation for a better pronunciation (Section A and B), it offers exercises that focus exclusively on the different pronunciation of minimal pairs, which usually confuse nonnative speakers, as Spanish does not differentiate between long and short vowels. Minimal pairs effectively facilitate pronunciation acquisition. â€Å"When learners compare and contrast discrete sounds in the environment presented in minimal pairs, the importance of these sounds in denoting word meaning is transferred to their mind naturally. Experience shows that ―pronunciation classes†¦ make students more conscious of their own pronunciation and aware of ways in which their pronunciation differs from the model offered† (Rajadurai, 2001: 14) Virginia will have to spot the /aÉ ª/ sound among minimal pairs in exercise A and the /É ª/ sound in exercise B. The student will also have to discriminate and identify the words that have the/aÉ ª/ or the /É ª/ vowel sounds in exercise 11.1. (Make words with these beginnings and endings and write them in the correct part of the table) and in the exercise 11.2 (Read the dialogue. Circle the sound /aÉ ª/ and underline the/É ª/). Despite the fact that this material doesn’t approach pronunciation within a context similar to real life, it offers a lot of practice opportunity, which in my opinion as a nonnative speaker of English is essential for the reason that Spanish phonological system is significantly different from that of English, particularly in the aspects of vowel sounds. Conclusion Virginia’s English lesson at school were focused on talking about the language rather than on talking in the language; as a result, we can deduce that she was not exposed to proper and useful input since these type of classes do not require that teachers be experts or even fluent in the  language. However, her motivation, along with the use of relevant and meaningful materials as the ones presented in this essay can help her to improve her language skills and attain proficiency in English as a result. References Hancock, M (2003) English Pronunciation in Use. Cambridge University Press. Oxenden, C, Latham-Koening, C and Seligson, P. New English File, Elementary Student (2007). Oxford University Press. Scrivener, J (2005) Learning Teaching, A guidebook for English Language Teachers. Second Edition. Macmillan Books for Teachers. Rajadurai, J. (2001). An investigation of the effectiveness of teaching pronunciation to Malaysian TESL students MacMillan Dictionary : http://www.macmillandictionary.com/

Friday, August 30, 2019

Festivals as a Source of Life

The importance of festivals in India, a festival is a celebration of life. Festivals for the general public to bring peace and happiness. They break the monotony of life. Indian festivals are numerous. The three types of national, religious and seasonal are one. Write the first festival. Ie national festivals are celebrated with great patriotic festivals favour. These Republic Day, Independence Day, Gandhi, etc. are included Jayanit. The second type of festivals festival people. These profession reflecting master Parav, Holly, Lohir, Buddhapurnima, Mahavir Jayanit, Dussehra, Diwali, Janmastami, Chath, Navratri, Eid, are included. The changes mark the third season. These festival, Baisakhi, Onam, Pongal, a festival entertainment includes the spring festival Panchanmi etc. , or a certain kind, often a series of performances held from time to time. Festival to break the monotony of life. They bring peace and happiness for the masses. All countries have their religious and cultural festivals. Indian festivals are numerous. They are warm, rich, varied and colorful. Indian festivals are as diverse as people themselves. National or political, religious and seasonal – they divided into three broad categories can be. Most Indian festivals, religions or myths and legends have their origins in popular religions. Some venerable men are struggling with the memory of events and, therefore, in nature monument. They keep alive the memory of the events and personalities and to inspire people to follow their example. Then festivals that punctuate the season of the year. National festivals, Republic Day, Independence Day, like Gandhi Jayanit great patriotism is celebrated with gusto. These days have been declared national holidays and a lot of excitement in all parts of the country is celebrated. Capital, New Delhi, is the seat of national celebrations such occasions. This is a Republic Day parade witness the majestic. Separate †¦

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Hospitality Management Major-Dining Room Operation Class-Memo 3 Essay

Hospitality Management Major-Dining Room Operation Class-Memo 3 - Essay Example One gets ready to attend to the guests and to serve their needs in a customized fashion. This calls for one to understand their guests and to comprehend what their needs are (Holmes, 12). The second part is the attribute of effecting merchandising. This is where one takes the order of the meals. One gets to interact with the guests and get what their orders of the day or the time are. What it is they feel like having at that point in time. The third part of a meal is the action of practically getting to serve the meal. This comes upon getting what the guests would like to have and hence it is done in a fashion that is befitting the desires of the guests at the point in time (Hall, and Schulz, 43). â€Å"Having the chef explain particular items is a good way for the service person to learn the menu† (Strianese and Strianese, 161). The service person needs to be at the beck and call of the guests and hence needs to master the menu. â€Å"Guests often inquire about terms on the menu† (Strianese and Strianese, 164). Finally the last part is getting to present the check to the gusts. This is where they get the breakdown of what the fiscal implications of their service was and they are required to foot their bill before making their

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Antropology Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Antropology - Article Example This is evident in the disparate species of Manzanita shrubs, which thrive, in different altitudes. Another one of the isolating mechanism is behavioral isolation in which potential mates converge but refuse to mate, as they prefer individuals from their own species as evident in the mating rituals of the albatross. This is in contrast to mechanical isolation where mating and copulation is attempted but sperm transmission does not occur. The two-lipped flower, a species of sage, found in California is an example of this (Calow 379-380). 2. Define cephalic index and explain how it originally was used in an ethnocentric manner. Define eugenics and explain two specific ways (one human, one nonhuman) in which it can be used in a non-ethnocentric manner. Explain the relationship between polytypic, continuous variation and the vitamin D hypothesis. The cephalic index was used to determine the intelligence of a person or her behavior based on the measurement of the skull or the cranium. The size of the cranium determined the superiority of the race. Proponents of Eugenics utilized this idea to forward race improvement through government control on marriage and family. The principles of eugenics can be used in non-ethnocentric manner, as to prohibit the marriage of two groups of populations that increases the possibility of genetic diseases (Jurmain and Nelson 118). In dogs or other mammals, such as race horses the principles can be applied for stronger breed. Yet, eugenics limits the freedom of the genes to function freely (Jurmain and Nelson 112). Polytypic species is composed of one population of species and homosapiens are one of them. Phenotypic variations are evident among humans as they exhibit differences in skin color for instance base on the environment or circumstance in which they live. One of these hypotheses the li ghtening of the skin color in higher altitudes, which cause the body to generate more Vitamin D said to prevent diseases such as rickets (Jablonski 585 - 623 ) 3. Explain how the Hardy-Weinberg theory is related to both polymorphisms and balanced polymorphisms. Explain how the terms prions and BSE are related to the terms vector and pathogen. The Hardy Weinberg theory or equilibrium is one of the main theories in population genetics, which also states that relative gene frequency stay constant from generation to the next. This is based on a mathematical model. This theory is related to polymorphism, as this is typified by the constant equilibrium with disparate alleles of the genes which at unvarying relative frequencies in a certain population. Prions are like pathogens because they result to diseases such as the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Hence BSE is a prion, which could be transmitted through a vector, contact or bite of an animal. 4. Explain the difference between acclimatization and adaptation, giving one example in humans for each. Explain Bergmann's Rule and Allen's rule and how they are related to high altitude and ossification of epiphysis/diaphysis. Define biocultural evolution, explaining both the example of lactose intolerance and sickle cell anemia for this term. What are pleiotropic genes and how do they affect sexual dimorphism and transgenerational problems Adaptation is the means humans utilize to meet the challenges of their environment whereas

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Media Relations of McDonald's Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Media Relations of McDonald's - Term Paper Example For several years, McDonald's has been extremely successful for a few distinguished, highly standard conditions. The company with the Golden Arches served a simple menu- hamburgers, French fries, and milkshakes or soft drinks. The food was priced low, its quality was consistent, and it was served speedily from establishments that all looked alike and were extremely clean. However, in recent years, McDonald's has seen its growth rate slow down and its dominant market position slip. There are various reasons for this. The main reason is the numerous accusations made against them by environmentalist and health experts. In 1986 all of this information looked enormously pertinent to the London Green-peace who issued a booklet with the title "What's Wrong With McDonald's" The defamatory pamphlet charged McDonald's for maltreating their employees; alluring their customers with food too high in fat, sugar, and salt, which could lead to cancer and heart disease; causing hunger in the Third World; ruining the rainforest; intentionally revealing their customers to food poisoning; exploiting children through company advertisements; and maltreating animals. Eventually, McDonald's filed a suit against five members of the London Green-peace. The five either had to make an apology or face a long hard trial where they would have to prove every statement in the leaflet to be correct. Three of the five chose to publicly ask for forgiveness. McDonald's collaborated with the EDF (Environmental Defense Fund) to devise a joint waste reduction plan. The result was a highly touted deal that gave McDonald's a reputation as a "socially responsible" business. However, Helen Steel and Dave Morris did not apologize. On one part of the libel case were a $32 billion-a-year corporation and a group of London's most expensive lawyers. On the other side was a pair of activists with a total income of $12,000 a year.  Ã‚  

Monday, August 26, 2019

What makes a great leader in the public sector Essay

What makes a great leader in the public sector - Essay Example This paper focuses on the aspects as well as the attributes that distinguishes a great leader from other sorts of leaders. Leadership can be either formal or informal but both involve getting things done. However, the two leaderships apply different strategies to ensure the set goals are met. Formal leadership relies on ones position in an organization and involves using the mandate apportioned to get things done. Informal leadership on the other hand involves an individual volunteering to offer services or under requisition from those who approve of their leading potential (Shafritz and Russell 371). In this leadership, the leaders apply their charisma to win over people after which they are able to influence them to do things. Whether formal or informal, the task of a leader is to form, preserve, and improve a grouping of people such that they are in a position to realize their goals. Excellent leaders are those who can equally employ both formal and informal leadership. Such leaders are capable of mobilising people as well as exercising prescribed authority if in management positions (Shafritz and Ru ssell 372). A good example of a great leader who will forever remain in the minds of many is President Franklin Roosevelt. Even after contracting polio, Roosevelt retained his great capabilities such that he was able to lead America through the Great Depression of 1930 as well triumph in the Second World War. This is because he had the competence of both a leader and was good in management. He was intelligent, focused, and concerned more on the results other than the exact mean of attaining them. It was out of his desire to give the best even in his health condition that he committed himself to establishing policies that enabled the victory of capitalism (Shafritz and Russell 371). There are a number of different sources of power. Expert power is one where the leader is recognized as being competent in a certain speciality. Legitimate power is based on

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Scientific Misconduct Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Scientific Misconduct - Essay Example lds have laid down principles in common, to monitor the writing practice and avoid mislead and the element of to the scholar among other people using their writings. Peer review refers to the cross checking of one’s scientific writing by experts in the field of writing. This is done to prove the originality of the writer’s idea (whether it’s their own idea or a copy of other peoples work). It is also aimed at establishing the worthy of the material and the reality of the writer’s arguments. The peer review also checks on plagiarism. Peer review is different from endorsements or praise for a work or book In various scientific writings, the writer uses their own ideas. However, various r references and consultations are made from already documented works by other writers. Although they use their own ideas, this consultation is very important as far as scientific writing is concerned. The Witter has to make deep research, apart from their own idea, but based on research done by other writers and already documented. This gives the writer a guideline on the procedure to follow in order to avoid documentation of bias information. The aspect of a writer using already documented scientific writing comes in various ways. The writer may however decide to read the old document, and expand on the ideas and the information there in. This may be referred to as progressive scientific writing. On another perspective, the writer might decide to combine their ideas with the ones already documented to come up with a basically new concept. In very rare cases, writers have also gone contrary to already documented scientific writings, proving the already documented concept wrong and bias. This has been evident in the field of innovation, where already documented theories have been proved inaccurate and unrealistic. The use of already existing document to come up with a basically new document may come in through citations. It may also involve references and quotations.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

JCT Design & Build Contract Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

JCT Design & Build Contract - Coursework Example One other significant change to the payment provisions is the outlawing of the clause ‘pay when paid’. The new act also sets timescales to follow when making payments for contracts. Another change regarding the payments is that if one party fails to issue notice of payment as the contract requires, the other party can step in and issue such notice, extending the date for final payment. Any such payments specified by notice ought to be paid before the final date of payment. Contracts stand to benefit a lot from these amendments. Unlike in the previous law, contractors have an active role in the payment provisions. For instance, contractors can recover some of their funds for the work done when a contract is suspended. This was not possible in the previous legal framework. Contractors can also benefit from the fact that contracts no longer have to be in written. Some of the matters agreed upon by the parties verbally can also be incorporated in the contract. This ensures that the contractors are not shortchanged whenever they make verbal agreements with their clients. Additional works in a contract comprise of variations to the original scope of the building contract. This is a common occurrence in building contracts where variations can occur due various emerging issues in performing contractual obligations. JCT 2011 Design and Build Contract provides various provisions on how contactors should deal with alterations to the original terms of the contracts when valuing additional works. Clause 2.11 of the law, for instance, states that â€Å"Subject to Clause 2.15, the Contractor shall not be responsible for the contents of the Employer’s Requirements or for verifying the adequacy of any design contained within them.†This clause protects the contractor from suffering losses when the client or employer changes terms or requirements of the contract. In a

Friday, August 23, 2019

Employment Law Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Employment Law Assignment - Essay Example The employees should receive this statement not later than two months from the date of commencement of employment. It should contain the names of the employer and employee, date of commencement of employment2; rate and periodicity of remuneration, terms and conditions of the working hours, entitlement to holidays, terminal benefits, length of notice that the employee has to either receive or give if termination of employment is desired, job title of the employee3, etc. There is no restriction on the method of payment to be made to employees. Moreover, these methods are to be negotiated between the employer and the employees. However, if the agreed upon method of payment is subsequently altered by the employer and if such a departure leads to financial loss for the employee, then the employee is entitled to prefer a claim in respect of breach of contract. Nevertheless, the statute makes available to employees, the right to protection from unauthorized deductions from their wages and such protection is applicable even to persons working on a contract basis or as apprentices. Moreover, such protection has been extended to Crown servants and persons working on board a ship registered in the UK. Moreover, employers are well within their rights to make statutory deductions like those relating to income tax or insurance. Further, it is permissible to make deductions in instances of overpayment of wages, judicial decisions and participation in strikes4. In respect of retail work, additional protection has been afforded by the statute. A retail worker is any person carrying out retail transactions selling, which have been defined as the supplying of goods or services5. However, this additional protection has not been provided to those who transact only with companies. Moreover, an employer cannot make deductions in excess of a tenth of the gross wages in respect of shortages or stock deficiencies6. The time limit for making such deductions has been set at twelve months, unless the deduction forms part of a series of such deductions in respect of shortages or deficiencies. Furthermore, such deductions have to be made subsequent to informing the employee the exact amount due from him. Such communication of information has to be in writing and has to be made on a pay day7. Any employee, irrespective of the length of service put up, who is of the opinion that an unlawful deduction from wages has been made by the employer or if the employee has been required to make an unlawful payment may approach the Employment tribunal in order to obtain redressal for such grievance. The time limit for lodging such complaints is in general three months from the due date of payment of the wages or within such period as permitted by the Employment tribunal8. This three months limitation period in respect of payments by the worker to the employer is determined from the date of receipt of payment by the employer. If a series of deductions or payments are involved, then under such circumstances this three months period is to be reckoned from the date of the last deduction or payment in the series. However, this time limit can be extended by a further three more months under specific circumstances as per the provisions of the statutory dismissal, disciplinary and grievance procedures introduced from the 1st of October 20049. Wages have been defined to construe, as per this act as denoting amounts payable to employees

Examination the differences between the ethical and conventional Research Paper

Examination the differences between the ethical and conventional investment mutual funds - Research Paper Example This led to investors’ social awareness; thus, the concept was to make sure that any form of investment followed ethical criteria. This led to the creation of ethically managed investment funds that have been steadily increasing and represent a large amount of money invested in a country like the United States. About 12% of funds that are being professionally managed are part of a socially responsible mutual fund or of other private portfolios. The fact that there is a very large amount of money invested in this manner has led researchers to attempt to answer the question whether these ethical investment mutual funds are more expensive to run and perform better than the other conventional investment mutual funds. Initial research shows that the ethical investment mutual funds do not invest as widely as the conventional ones. However, there is no major difference between the amounts of money earned by the ethical investment mutual funds when compared to the conventional ones (D iltz, 1995). Statistics also showed that there is no difference in the areas that the two types of investment mutual funds tend to invest in (Sauer, 1997). Most of the evidence necessary to make the important comparisons between the two types of investment mutual funds is mostly found in the United States and the United Kingdom. Additionally, there is no pattern of investment that can conclusively determine the differences between the two types of investment mutual funds. However, when the ethical investment mutual funds are compared according to investment in small companies with the other non-ethical ones, a bias is found (Luther & Matatko, 1994). It showed that the ethical funds were the better performing and earned more than the conventional ones in these small companies. A different study that was conducted by Mallin et al. (1995) attempted to erase the problem of the benchmark that was set on the small companies and the investment by the ethical investment mutual funds. In thi s study, they considered the size of the ethical fund and the date that it was created. A method of statistics referred to as the Jensen’s alpha was used to analyze their findings. They concluded that ethical funds outperform the other funds using this criterion. The small cap bias that was cited by Luther and Matatko (1994) and that Mallin et al. (1995) attempted to correct led to further research by Luther and Matatko which concluded that using the size of the fund and applying the 2-factor Jensen’s alpha method; there was no conclusive evidence that reflected a difference in the financial performance of both investment mutual funds and that the small cap bias still existed. The study of the differences between the two types of investment mutual funds was complicated at this point. It was further complicated when Dibartolomeo (1996) and Kurtz (1997) claimed that the better performance of the ethical investment mutual funds was due to â€Å"large-cap growth exposures † and not due to the social factors essentially considered. This presented further biases attributed to sector and style. The purpose of this paper is to examine subsequent research in order to uncover the differences between the ethical investment mutual funds and the conventional investment mutual funds in order to determine whether the former performs better than the latter. This paper will not aim to discredit any research conducted, nor will it seek to be investigative but it will simply

Thursday, August 22, 2019

My Study Plan Essay Example for Free

My Study Plan Essay Im glad that Ive such a determination to France for further study. I do hope you will accept me for higher education in your distinguish college. Â  I was always appeal to the romantic and mysterious culture in France, Especially the state of art. Its really astonished by the world. Personally, one should have artistic mentality even if hes major in Mechanical. But, the main reason for study in France is actually the education. Its a country that pay serious attention to education, and government in France has invested a lot in this field. As for this, our overseas students got a best opportunity for study with the low school fee, the abundant teaching resources and a good learning environment. Its no wonder the best choice for further study as a n overseas student. I have a well foundation in Mechanical as I study Mechanical Engineering in my home country. I had took part in lots of relevant competitions and held the position of assistance in the laboratory, all these experience gave me a valuable assets. I know that its far from enough to be an excellent engineer, so I sincerely hope that I can reach a higher level to further study in France. I love study and have a strong desire for study; I wish to receive your recognition in future. Even though my family is not so wealthy, I hope you can understand me and I will do my best to fulfill my peruses in my study aboard. My study plan is as follow: 1. I will finish the foundation course in home country, and meet the assessment of Language for study in France. 2. The first half year in France, I will go on intensive study in French, and hope to meet the requirement of Language for the subject as early. 3. After finished the Language study, I will spend the rest time for learning the master degree in Mechanical, and minor in the relevant subjects for Automobiles. 4. I will work through the two years study in France, itll not only strengthen my French and also can support me to complete the study. 5. After finished study in campus, Ill spend a period of time for working in France to thank the education Ive got there. 6. During study aboard, I will learn more about French culture and the society, also its scenery, and I will do my best for contribution in the further communication and cooperation between the two countries. I believe Im qualified enough to accept by you, and Ive well prepared. Thanks for reading my plan of study. Wish you all in good health and smooth in work.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Coastal Land Management Outlook: Tokyo

Coastal Land Management Outlook: Tokyo Coastal Land Management Outlook  Of The City Of  Tokyo    Introduction All around the world, the coastal resources are under bringing pressure to bear from population growth and development. More people are placed in coastal areas than in any other type of area, so that putting a strain on beaches, marine plants and animals, water resources, and natural resources. Coastal land management programs strive to protect coastal resources for future generations while balancing todays competing economic, cultural and environmental interests. The shortage of land resources, quality degradation and inefficient use has become an important restrictive factor affecting the ecological security and sustainable development of coastal developed areas. It is likewise a practical problem faced by land use management and planning decision. Many famous coastal cities in the world, such as Perth, Tokyo, Hong Kong and New York City, because of the contradiction between people and land is becoming more and more prominent, and land use becomes more and more complicated. Their c oastal land management is facing a series of issues and opportunities. Tokyo, as one of the coastal cities in the world, is selected to discuss its coastal land management outlook in this report. This report will focus on the following aspects: i) Background discussion in an international and national context. ii) The SWOT analysis for Tokyo. iii) The basic profile of Tokyo city iv) a range of coastal land management issues, opportunities, policies and prospects. v) Methods to solute and improve the current situation vi) Community and business sentiment. Each of these aspects is intricately linked. Background discussion International context It is indisputable fact that the key pressures that impact the coastal land management in the worldwide include population growth, pollution and climate variability. Due to the increasing number of housing, commercial, recreational, industrial and retail, the number of tourism increase and cause the coastal population growth. At the same time, pollution such as chemical, physical and biological waste also increases. For example, more tourism means more demand for hotels and tourist infrastructure in coastal areas, because of this, more trees or vegetation are cut down and used to build these facilities. In this process, trees as barriers may lose and also cause the loss of habitat and biodiversity, which means increasing of the coastal erosion. For this reason, the probability of the occurrence of natural disasters will increase. Therefore, coastal land management issues are interlocking and coastal land manager should pay attention to every problem. In addition, coastal land managem ent has its opportunities in global is an economic benefit. The main positive economic impacts of sustainable coastal tourism are contributions to government revenues, foreign exchange earnings, generation of employment, and business opportunities (WWF-Canon and SIIRLIA, 2008). Moreover, the policies of coastal land management are made as plans to provide non-regulatory policy guidance to coastal land managers in order to protect and manage coastal areas (Queensland, 2016). Cities have already transformed their local environments. So adapting to living with global change will likely usher in a new era of environmental and social transformation in the future (Coastal megacities, 2015). National context Furthermore, in the national contexts of Japan, the contemporary issues of the coastal land management in Tokyo are natural disaster, human utilization and ecology problems. Due to the unique topography, most of Japans coastlines are threatened by flooding and high waves during the typhoon season and earthquake. In addition, Japans coastline is prone to erosion. Thus, prevention of disasters related to typhoons, tsunamis, and erosion is one important functional aspect of coastal land management in Tokyo in Japan. Tokyo Bay area brings a fantastic business opportunity which produces 40% of Japans GDP every year. The coastal land is an extremely important gateway for both people and goods flowing into and out of the Tokyo metropolitan area (jsce, 2017). A basic theoretical framework for an integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) scheme in Japan is introduced. Specifically, it must address the ecological, human utilization, and disaster prevention aspects discussed above. Thus, seekin g a long-term and broad-based perspective in coastal management and creation of a healthy and stable environment foundation is the goal of ICZM (oldsite.nautilus, 2017). The SWOT Analysis for Tokyo Strengths Weaknesses 1. Diversity of tourist attractions and services. 2. Easily accessible location. 3. Improve the efficiency of business. 4. Increase the trade including import and export. 1. High coastal land maintenance costs 2. The density of human activities in coastal areas is too high Opportunities Threats 1. New product development in coastal areas 2. Disaster management 3. Growing economy 1. Flooding and high waves during the typhoon season 2. In the seismic zone Introduction to Tokyo Basic Profile Tokyo is located in the southern tip of the Kanto plain, roughly in the center of the Japanese archipelago. Tokyo is the largest city in Asia, the worlds second largest city, one of the worlds largest economic centers. According to Higashide (undated), the total area of Tokyo is 2,190.93 square kilometres. The area of Tokyo is 0.6% of the total area of Japan. As of October 1, 2015, the population of Tokyo is estimated to be 13.491 million, or about 11% of Japans total population, and it has the largest population among all the 47 prefectures. With a population density of 6,158 persons per square kilometer, Tokyo is the most densely populated prefecture in Japan (metro, 2017). Economic Profile The Tokyo region is Japans leading industrial center, the major economic base of Tokyo is manufacturing base. Heavy industries are concentrated in Chiba, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, while Tokyo proper is strongly inclined toward light industry, including book printing and the production of electronic equipment (city-data, 2017). Transport Profile Tokyo represents one of the most efficient and fast public transport systems in the world. It combines an extensive train network, underground subway lines, a bus system, taxis, and car rentals (tokyo-tokyo, 2017). According to japan-guide (2017), Tokyo is covered by a dense network of trains, subway and bus lines, which are operated by about a dozen different companies. Train lines operated by JR East and the subway lines are most convenient for moving around central Tokyo. Availability of public and green spaces    Tokyo also contains numerous parks and gardens. There are four national parks in Tokyo Prefecture, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, which includes all of the Izu Islands (gojapango, 2017). The percentage of public green space (parks and gardens) is 7.5% in Tokyo (Worldcitiescultureforum, 2017). Issues Tokyo is faced with two major environmental crises. The first one is the threat of damage to health caused by air pollution aggravated with the increase in the number of automobiles on the road and the amount of chemicals released into the atmosphere. The other crisis is the problem of the heat island effect in urban areas caused by enormous energy consumption and global warming due to the increase of carbon dioxide in the air (legcogov, 2017). Opportunities Polices Prospects Sentiment Recommendation As mentioned above, coastal land has brought huge economic wealth to Tokyo. Therefore it is important to save coastal land spaces and use land economic, make every piece of land valuable. The current issues of the coastal land management in Tokyo are natural disaster, human utilization and ecology problems. In order to address its root causes. Perhaps the most effective method of doing this would be for the coastal land managers to set up a coastal management plan. As well as using soft engineering and hard engineering solutions to improve quality of coastal land. Determine the goal of the integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) scheme, follow a good coastal management plan to create a healthy and stable environment foundation in the future. Conclusion Bibliography Coastal megacities (2015) Coastal megacities: Risks and opportunities. Available at: http://www.igbp.net/news/features/features/coastalmegacitiesrisksandopportunities.5.62dc35801456272b46d17b.html (Accessed: 22 February 2017). Higashide, M. (no date) à £Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒ ©Ã†â€™Ã‚ ½Ãƒ ©Ã‚ Ã¢â‚¬Å"à ¥Ã‚ ºÃ…“à §Ã…“Å’Ã £Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ËœÃƒ ¤Ã‚ ºÃ‚ ºÃƒ ¥Ã‚ Ã‚ £Ãƒ £Ã†â€™Ã‚ »Ãƒ ©Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢Ãƒ §Ã‚ ©Ã‚ Ãƒ £Ã†â€™Ã‚ »Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ºÃ‚ ºÃƒ ¥Ã‚ Ã‚ £Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¯Ã¢â‚¬  Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ºÃ‚ ¦Ãƒ £Ã†â€™Ã‚ ©Ãƒ £Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³Ãƒ £Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ­Ãƒ £Ã†â€™Ã‚ ³Ãƒ £Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ °. Available at: http://uub.jp/rnk/p_j.html (Accessed: 22 February 2017). Queensland (2016) Coastal management plan. Available at: https://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/coastalplan/ (Accessed: 22 February 2017). WWF-Canon and SIIRLIA, E. (2008) Impact of tourism in coastal areas: Need of sustainable tourism strategy. Available at: http://www.coastalwiki.org/wiki/Impact_of_tourism_in_coastal_areas:_Need_of_sustainable_tourism_strategy#Benefits_of_Sustainable_coastal_tourism (Accessed: 22 February 2017). Chrome http://wenku.baidu.com/link?url=sHBY68U77eGSkEoJLBDE5TApTx13B6X5e5G4oiYzYVxRC0jngpsyQFvcGTkIS8-fSu_l_HXlHxvYlQF9agbZDCQ9kvZoJJm5tmxQNC48TKK http://ielts.xdf.cn/201207/7007413.html http://enviroeducation.com/resources/coastal-management-academic-requirements-professional-outlook http://www.coastalwiki.org/wiki/Impact_of_tourism_in_coastal_areas:_Need_of_sustainable_tourism_strategy#Benefits_of_Sustainable_coastal_tourism https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coastal_management http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/coasts/coastreforms-act.htm http://www.huaxia.com/hxhy/hyqy/2011/06/2463210.html http://www.cntraveler.com/galleries/2016-06-24/the-25-best-coastal-cities-in-the-world/17 http://www.igbp.net/news/features/features/coastalmegacitiesrisksandopportunities.5.62dc35801456272b46d17b.html https://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/coastalplan/ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114002944 http://www.academia.edu/1477305/The_Issue_of_Tokyo_Bay_s_Reclaimed_Lands_as_the_Origin_of_Urban_Utopias_in_Modern_Japanese_Architecture http://www.azocleantech.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=539 http://www.jsce.or.jp/kokusai/civil_engineering/2007/91-4-1.pdf http://oldsite.nautilus.org/archives/papers/energy/IsobeESENAY2.pdf http://nautilus.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/NakataESENAY2.pdf https://www.insightguides.com/destinations/asia-pacific/japan/tokyo/profile http://www.kouwan.metro.tokyo.jp/jigyo/faq/kisei/hozen/ https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%9D%B1%E4%BA%AC%E9%83%BD#.E6.A6.82.E8.A6.81 http://www.encyclopedia.com/places/asia/japanese-political-geography/tokyo#INTRODUCTION https://www.google.com.au/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instantion=1espv=2ie=UTF-8#q=the+basic+profile+of+Tokyo https://translate.google.com.au/?hl=zh-CN#en/zh-CN/Cities%20have%20already%20transformed%20their%20local%20environments%2C%20so%20adapting%20to%20live%20with%20global%20change%20will%20likely%20usher%20in%20a%20new%20era%20of%20environmental%20and%20social%20transformation%20in%20the%20future. https://www.gojapango.com/location/tokyo/tokyo/ http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr05-06/english/sec/library/0506in30e.pdf http://www.worldcitiescultureforum.com/data/of-public-green-space-parks-and-gardens https://tokyo-tokyo.com/tokyo_transportation.htm http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2017.html http://www.city-data.com/world-cities/Tokyo-Economy.html http://www.metro.tokyo.jp/ENGLISH/ABOUT/HISTORY/history03.htm http://uub.jp/rnk/p_j.html http://www.tokyomap.com/ http://reports.advisorgate.com/swot-t/6552-swot-analysis-tokyo.html http://www.medmaritimeprojects.eu/download/ProjectMitomed/MITOMED%20SWOTanalysis.pdf http://www.glocom.ac.jp/column/1991/07/a_theory_of_integrated_coastal.html#3 Edge web http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-16_u-140_t-414_c-1451/coastal-management/nsw/coastal-management/issues-in-australian-environments/geographical-issues-physical-environments https://www.planning.wa.gov.au/dop_pub_pdf/6_Common_Problems.pdf https://www.environment.gov.au/science/soe/2011-report/11-coasts/2-major-issues http://www.wordhippo.com/what-is/another-word-for/international.html http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-16_u-140_t-414_c-1451/coastal-management/nsw/coastal-management/issues-in-australian-environments/geographical-issues-physical-environments https://www.planning.wa.gov.au/dop_pub_pdf/6_Common_Problems.pdf https://www.environment.gov.au/science/soe/2011-report/11-coasts/2-major-issues

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Introduction to Atmospheric Modelling

Introduction to Atmospheric Modelling Yazdan M.Attaei ABSTRACT An atmospheric model is a computer program that produces meteorological information for future times at given locations and altitudes. Within any modern model is a set of equations, known as the primitive equations, used to predict the future state of the atmosphere [2]. These equations (along with the ideal gas law) are used to evolve the density, pressure, and potential temperature scalar fields and the air velocity (wind) vector field of the atmosphere through time. The equations used are nonlinear partial differential equations which are impossible to solve exactly through analytical methods, with the exception of a few idealized cases [3]. Therefore, numerical methods are used to obtain approximate solutions. In this work, we study the Heat and Wave equations as two important aspects when studying meteorology and atmospheric modeling. We assume an idealized domain with certain boundary conditions and initial values in order to predict the evolution of temperature and track the wave propagation in the atmosphere. Keywords: Atmospheric model, Finite difference method, Heat equation, Wave equation. Introduction: An atmospheric model is a mathematical model constructed around the full set of primitive dynamical equations (equations for conservation of momentum, thermal energy and mass) which govern atmospheric motions. In general, nearly all forms of the primitive equations relate the five variables n, u, T, P, Q, and their evolution over space and time. The atmosphere is a fluid. Therefore, modelling the atmosphere in fact means the numerical weather prediction which samples the state of the fluid at a given time and uses the equations of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics to estimate the state of the fluid at some time in the future. The model can supplement these equations with parameterizations for diffusion, radiation, heat exchange and convection. The primitive equations are nonlinear and are impossible to solve for exact solutions and numerical methods obtain approximate solutions. Therefore, most atmospheric models are numerical meaning they discretize primitive equations. The horizontal domain of a model is either global, covering the entire Earth, or regional (limited-area), covering only part of the Earth [4]. Some of the model types make assumptions about the atmosphere which lengthens the time steps used and increases computational speed. Global models often use spectral methods for the horizontal dimensions and finite-difference methods for the vertical dimension, while regional models usually use finite-difference methods in all three dimensions. Since the equations used are nonlinear partial differential equations, in order to solve them, boundary conditions and initial values are required. Boundary conditions are specified by the assumptions related to horizontal and vertical domain of study. The equations are initialized from the analysis data and rates of change are determined. These rates of change predict the state of the atmosphere a short time into the future; the time increment for this prediction is called a time step. The equations are then applied to this new atmospheric state to find new rates of change, and these new rates of change predict the atmosphere at a yet further time step into the future. This time stepping is repeated until the solution reaches the desired forecast time. The length of the time step chosen within the model is related to the distance between the points on the computational grid, and is chosen to maintain numerical stability. Time steps for global models are on the order of tens of minutes, while time steps for regional models are between one and four minutes. The global models are run at varying times into the future. Approximating the solution to the partial differential equations for atmospheric flows using numerical algorithms implemented on a computer has been intensively researched since the pioneering work of Prof. John von Neuman in the late 1940s and 1950s. Since Von-Neuman’s numerical experimentation on the first general purpose computer, the processing power of computers has increased at a breath-taking pace. While global models used for climate modeling a decade ago used horizontal grid spacing of order hundreds of kilometers, computing power now permits horizontal resolutions near the kilometer scale. Hence, the range of the scales of motion that next-generation global models will resolve spans from thousands of kilometers (planetary and synoptic scale) to the kilometer scale (meso-scale). Hence, the distinction between global climate models and global weather forecast models is starting to disappear due to the closing of the resolution gap that has historically existed between the two [1]. In this work first we solve two-dimensional heat equation numerically in order to study temperature rate of change which is a part of the equation for the conservation of energy in atmosphere. Two different types of sources (steady state and periodic pulse) are applied to simulate the heat sources for a local (small-scale) domain and the results are illustrated in order to investigate results for the applied boundary and initial value conditions. In the second part of this study, two-dimensional wave equation is solved numerically using finite difference technique and certain boundary and initial value conditions are applied for the small-scale idealized domain. The aim is to study the wave propagation and dissipation along the domain from the results which are illustrated for different types of excitations (standing wave and travelling wave). Overall, the aim of this paper is to show the efficiency of numerical solutions particularly finite difference method for solving primitive equations in atmospheric model. Heat Equation: To study the distribution of heat in the domain, we consider following parabolic partial differential heat equation with thermal diffusivity a; Domain: The idealized 2D domain is a plane of the size unity on each side with the following initial values and boundary conditions; Boundary Conditions (BCs): Dirichlet boundary condition is assumed for all the boundaries except at the regions where the source with T=Ts is taking place; T (0,y)=0 , T(x,0)=0 (except at source) T(1,y)=0 , T(x,1)=0 Initial Values: At time zero, we assume temperature to be zero everywhere except at the region where the source is applied to; Finite Difference Scheme: Heat equation can be discretized using forward Euler in time and 2nd order central difference in space using Taylor series expansions and spatial 5-point stencil illustrated below; Figure 1: Five points stencil finite difference scheme which after simplifying it takes the form; If we apply equal segmentation in both directions so that and rewriting the equation in the explicit form we have; where . For stability of our scheme we need hence; Excitation: In order to observe the heat transportation in all directions, we assumed two different types of the source. First, we use a steady state source placed at the corner next to the origin with dimension of 5 grid cells with temperature amplitude Ts=10o . The second source will be the following pulse source applied for 5 time steps and removed for the next 15 time steps (period of pulse function = 20). This will help to visualize the ability of the scheme to evaluate the temperature at the source region when the source is removed (back-transport of the heat). Results: The following figures illustrate the results observed by applying the scheme, the sources described previously and thermal diffusivity of a=2 with grid cells of size (Ni=Nj=50 number of grid points in x and y directions); (a) (b) Figure 2: Distribution of temperature (a) t=0 sec, b) t=20 msec, steady state source of size 5 grid cells in each direction. It is observed that for t>0 while we have a constant temperature at the source, temperature is diffused along the domain in both directions and it will not diverge at any point when time increases since the stability criterion was already applied for the duration of time steps . Also, in the vicinity of the source temperature is remained almost constant or with small variations after a sudden large increase due to the adjacent source cells with Ts=10o and the nature of the scheme in which back grid points are included for approximation. When the steady state source is replaced by a pulse source with certain On and Off duration (period) as it is seen in Figure 3, diffusion continues even in the absence of the source at the whole domain including the source region as in Figures 3(b),(d). This is more visible in Figure 3(c) in the vicinity of the source but compared to the steady state excitation, there is a significant temperature drop due to the fact that the source has been Off for several time steps and temperature drops gradually with its maximum drop just before the source is applied again as illustrated in Figure 3(d). (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 3: Distribution of temperature when Pulse source is applied (period=20 time steps). (a)Initial time, (b)At first Off state, c)Right after second On state, d)Before 24th On state The last parameter to study for the heat equation is the diffusion coefficient. It is the coefficient which affects the rate of diffusion. Figure 4 shows that during equal time period, by larger coefficient heat will diffuse in larger area (dotted circles) of domain compared to when the coefficient is small. (a) (b) Figure 4: The effect of thermal diffusivity on temperature distribution.(a) a=2, (b) a=0.25 Wave Equation: Similar to the heat equation, hyperbolic partial differential wave equation can be discretized by using Taylor series expansion. In this equation, c is the wave constant which identifies the propagation speed of the wave. Our goal is to study the reflection of the wave at the boundaries and the dissipation of the wave due to the numerical solution of the wave equation. Domain: We use the same idealized domain in studying heat equation but in addition to Dirichlet, we also consider Von-Neumann boundary condition in order to study the reflection of the wave at the boundaries. A proper set of initial values will be chosen since this differential equation is of second order with respect to time. Von-Neuman Boundary Conditions: At the boundaries we will assume the following conditions; Source region Initial Conditions: The following initial conditions are assumed since we will use central difference in time and two time steps (current and previous) are used to evaluate the value at the future time; ) Finite Difference Scheme: For the above parabolic differential wave equation, 2nd order central difference scheme in both time and space is used for discretization as follows; and with à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  x=à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  y=h and rewriting the equation explicitly; with , the CFL number which must be less than or equal to since the coefficient of should be a positive (or zero) for stability of the scheme. Hence; Now, back to the boundary condition, by using forward Euler difference for the left and bottom boundaries (i=1,j=1) we can write; and similarly using backward difference at right and top boundaries (i=Ni,j=Nj) ; As we numerically solve for the derived general finite difference equation and illustrate it, we will see that the above boundary conditions are the mathematical representation of full wave reflection at the boundaries. For the second initial value condition we use central difference at t=0 (n=1) and it is derived; Substituting in general difference equation we get; Now, we can apply second order central difference for both temporal and spatial variations for Von-Neumann boundary conditions. Excitation: In this work, in order to study propagation and reflection of the wave using numerical solution of the wave equation, two different sources are applied at the origin with the dimension of 5Ãâ€"5 grid cells for both Dirichlet and Von-Neumann domain boundary conditions; Travelling Wave: Stationary Wave: where and wave numbers . The wave constant c assumed to be c=1 for simplicity, therefore = 0.01 in both x and y direction. Results: For Dirichlet boundary conditions the following figures are obtained for Stationary and Travelling wave sources; (b) Figure 5: Dispersion of Stationary wave in domain with Dirichlet BCs (a) before reflection (b) after partial reflection In Figure 5(a) the wave which is scattered from a stationary source is dissipated through the domain since the source is stationary. In Figure 5(b) the reflections at the boundaries are seen to be weak because of the Dirichlet BCs. Infact, these ripples are mostly due to the nature of finite differencing. However, it is clearly observed in Figure 6(a),(b) that the magnitude of the wave at the boundary is kept zero by Dirichlet BCs. (b) Figure 6: Dispersion of Stationary wave in domain with Dirichlet BCs (a) before reflection (b) after partial reflection, 3D view Figure 7 illustrates the travelling wave propagating in the domain. The ripples have larger magnitudes since the wave itself is travelling and this reduces the amount of attenuation because of the scheme specially after the reflection at the boundaries the weakend ripples are magnified by continuously incoming waves. (b) Figure 7: Travelling wave propagates in domain with Dirichlet BCs (a) before reflection (b) after partial reflection For Von-Neumann BCs, it is expected that for both standing wave and propagating wave we observe full reflection by the boundaries as described during the discretization of these BCs. Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the application of such boundary conditions for standing wave source and travelling wave source respectively. (b) Figure 8: Dispersion of Stationary wave in domain with Von-Neumann BCs (a) before reflection (b) after partial reflection (b) Figure 9: Wave propagation in the domain with Von-Neumann BCs (a) before reflection (b) after partial reflection In the above figures, it is seen that at the boundaries the ripples are fully reflected back to the domain as well as the time when the wave is propagating forward from the source and is reflected at bottom and left boundaries. These would be more visible when showing the figures in three dimensions (Figure 10); (b) (c) (d) Figure 10: Wave propagation (a),(b)standing wave, before and after reflection (c),(d)travelling wave, before and after reflection To sum up, finite difference scheme which is used in this work provides numerical solution of the wave equation well and the results are close to what are expected for the wave propagation in such idealized domain with different boundary conditions. Conclusion: In atmospheric science, heat flow is related to temperature rate of change and the evolution of momentum and energy in atmospheric models are related the gravity waves as they transport energy. In the Earths atmosphere, gravity waves are a mechanism for the transfer of momentum from the troposphere to the stratosphere. Gravity waves are generated in the troposphere, propagate through the atmosphere without appreciable change in mean velocity. But as the waves reach more diluted air at higher altitudes, their amplitude increases, and nonlinear effects cause the waves to break, transferring their momentum to the mean flow. Therefore, numerical solutions of atmosphere primitive equations play an important role for studying the evolution of fundamental variables in atmospheric science especially since these equations are partial differential equations which cannot be solved analytically. In this paper, a brief study over the numerical solution of heat and wave equations was conducted as a basis for a bigger scale atmospheric modelling. The results demonstrate the efficiency of finite difference method to solve these equations (in small-scale domain) when they are compared to the theoretical expectations, therefore, solving primitive equations in atmospheric models by numerical techniques can be a following work to this paper. REFERENCES

Monday, August 19, 2019

Fishing Disaster :: Environment Ecosystem Environmental Essays

Fishing Disaster Background: The ocean around the rocky shores of Newfoundland were once so full of cod that explorer John Cabot marveled in 1497 that they virtually blocked his ship. In the centuries to follow, fish became the one of the only reasons anyone ever came to Newfoundland, or stayed. Cod was the center of life in the Canadian Maritimes from the beginning. Starting in the 1950's, Huge European trawlers began to travel across the Atlantic to fish the waters off Newfoundland. Some refered to these super-ships as "Fish Factories". With the increased effort by these distant-water fleets, catches of northern cod increased in the late 1950s and early 1960s and peaked at just over 800,000 tons by 1968. However, by 1975 the Candian Government realized the devastating effect this was having on its fish populations and closed its waters to foriegn fishing boats. Although this temporarily staved off the growing crisis, European intervention had changed the nature of Canadian fishing, leading to the development of Canadian owned super-trawlers. Disaster Strikes: Throughout the 1980s, the annual catch of Canada's northern cod fishing fleet hovered around the 250,000 tonnes mark, as the Canadian government kept promoting more investment. Newfoundland's small-scale, inshore cod fishermen, however, were voicing concerns long before anyone else that the abundance of the northern cod population was not as healthy as scientists were reporting. Contradictory to scientific data, traditional inshore fishermen in Newfoundland began to notice declining catches before the mid-1980s. By 1986 the scientists also realized that the stock was declining, and by 1988 had recommended the total allowable catch be cut in half. Instead of acting immediately, in a precautionary manner to protect dwindling fish stocks by substantially reducing catch quotas at the first signs of overfishing, the federal government delayed conservation action, choosing instead quite moderate reductions of the total allowable catch beginning in 1989. It wasn't until 1990, following several years of analysis and re-analysis of data from stock surveys (without simultaneously reducing catch quotas) that the Independent Review of the state of the Northern Cod stock concluded that the population, the biomass, the spawning population, and the spawning biomass of the Northern Cod were all in decline and that fishing-related mortality was at dangerously high levels. By 1992, the biomass estimate for northern cod was the lowest ever measured. The Canadian Minister of Fisheries and Oceans had no choice but to declare a ban on fishing northern cod.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Stereotyping :: Psychology Stereotyping Stereotype Essays

Stereotyping Stereotyping is a form of pre judgement that is as prevalent in today's society as it was 2000 years ago. It is a social attitude that has stood the test of time and received much attention by social psychologists and philosophers alike. Many approaches to, or theories of stereotyping have thus been raised. This essay evaluates the cognitive approach that categorisation is an essential cognitive process that inevitably leads to stereotyping. Hamilton (1979) calls this a 'depressing dilemma'. Brown's (1995) definition of stereotyping through prejudice is the 'holding of derogatory social attitudes or cognitive beliefs, the expression of negative affect, or the display of hostile or discriminatory behaviour towards members of a group on account of their membership to that group'. This definition implies that stereotyping is primarily a group process, through the individuals psyche's within that group. A further idea of stereotyping, defined by Allport (1954) as 'thinking ill of others without warrant', is that people 'make their mind up' without any personal experience. This pre judgement about a whole group is then transferred to the stigmatisation of any individuals in that group. It is these ideas that the essay aims to evaluate, through the cognitive process of categorisation and the above definitions that bring about three distinct features of stereotyping, that our cognition can be demonstrated through. The first characteristic of stereotyping is over-generalisation. A number of studies conducted found that different combinations of traits were associated with groups of different ethnic and national origin (Katz and Braly, 1933). However, stereotyping does not imply that all members of a group are judged in these ways, just that a typical member of a group can be categorised in such judgements, that they possess the characteristics of the group. Still, when we talk of a group, we do so by imagining a member of that group. The second feature and characteristic of stereotyping is the exaggeration of the difference between ones own group (the in-group) and the 'other' group (the out-group). This can be traced back to the work of Tajfel during the 1950's - 'the accentuation principle' (Tajfel, 1981). Tajfel's work was specifically on physical stimuli, and concluded that judgements on such stimuli are not made in isolation, but in the context of other factors. Applied socially - a judgement about an out-group relies upon other factors surrounding the judgement in question, as well as making a statement about the in-group and the relationship between the two groups.

Thrre Things Wrong with the World :: social issues

Thrre Things Wrong with the World The first thing I would have to say that is wrong with the world is definitely the drug problem. I mean, it seems that most of the war, famine, & disease that are running rampant through our lives are initially from drugs. For instance, you get a hit of crank from a friend who used the needle on herself & then WHAM, you've got AIDS & never even knew it could happen. Another example would be the wars. In Cuba, there are drug wars going on now that inadvertently have caused many people to die, be left homeless, or even without food or water. So, that would definitely be my first & foremost idea on what's wrong with the world today. The next thing on my list would have to be AIDS itself. Mostly, this is a big problem because there is no cure & many people get this disease every day. Granted, it isn’t always contracted by a needle, but other ways, such as intercourse without protection, are effective in contracting this disease as well. The only real way to prevent this disease would have to be never to share a needle (if you’re doing something stupid enough as doing drugs in the first place), & never have sex. That would have to be the only 100% way not to get this disease, besides knowing your partner is not HIV positive. That is why this disease is affecting so many people. It’s because they don’t realize that they can get it just by doing one of the above mentioned activities, as well as some others I can’t think of. That, & many other reasons, is why AIDS is my number two in my list of three things. My final thing I believe that is wrong with the world would have to be our government. Yes, I said it, OUR GOVERNMENT. It is not as if I am Anti-American, I love my country, but there has to be some sort of line between helping other nations & trying to control other nations. I believe we have not only crossed that line, but have gone so far as to cross several more after it. Take the war on Iraq, for example. Initially, I was all for getting rid of Saddam Hussein & helping the Iraqi people become free & independent. But, now as I think about it more & more, I wonder why we're are still over there fighting & killing those people if they say that we have ridded ourselves of that nuisance already?

Saturday, August 17, 2019

The Elegy in Thomas Gray and Shelley

LYRIC AND THE INNER LIFE COURSEWORK ‘Elegy is about mourning for one’s own condition’ Stuart Curran, ‘Romantic Elegiac Hybridity’, in The Oxford Handbook to Elegy (Oxford, 2010), ed. Karen Weisman, p. 249 Discuss Curran’s comment in relation to the work of Thomas Gray and Percy Bysshe Shelley. ‘One of the major tasks of the work of mourning and of the work of the elegy is to repair the mourner's damaged narcissism'[1]. This quote by literary critic Peter Sacks, flourishes from Sigmund Freud's model of primary narcissism which suggests that ‘we love others less for their uniqueness and separateness, and more for their ability to contract our own abundance, that is, to embody and reflect back that part of ourselves that we have invested in them'[2]. Sacks expands this coalescence in his criticism of elegies such as Milton's Lycidas and Tennyson's In Memoriam. Using this model of narcissism and literary mourning along with key aspects of history, language and critical reviews, I will explicate how an ‘elegy is about mourning for one's own condition[3] in Thomas Grays' Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard and Percy Shelley's Adonais, Before delving straight into how the poems serve as elegies to the poets themselves, I will first discuss how the poems appear and attempt in their best capacity not to do so. Samuel Johnson famously commented on Gray's Elegy saying that ‘The Churchyard abounds with images which find a mirror in every mind, and with sentiments to which every bosom returns an echo'[4]. The portrayal of such a literary universality springs from the poem's apparent mourning of the common man. Gray laments a ubiquitous sense of mortality, paying homage to the archetypical ‘weary plowman'[5] who falls prey to ‘dumb Forgetfulness' (85) and lies forgotten in his ‘lowly bed' (20). This notion that the poem ‘is life in its most general form, reinterpreted so as to speak to mankind generally, where all men are comparable and consciousness seeks a universal voice'[6] can be understandably gathered from a superficial analysis of the poem. The poem is not just an elegy, but a pastoral elegy, a literary form that encompasses idyllic rustic life with death, a technique employed by Gray to enhance his mournful depiction of the common, simple man who labours away unfulfilled only to die unremembered. Phrases such as ‘mopeing owls' (10), ‘twitt'ring swallows' (18) and ‘ecchoing horns' (19) create the image of a bucolic and generic place, one where villagers engage in rural and generic activities – ‘oft did the harvest to their sickle yield' (25) and ‘how bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke' (28) The constant use of third person plural pronouns such as ‘they', ‘their' and ‘them' allow the reader to merge these villagers into one, once again echoing the universality of the poem. Although the title tries to deliver a place for the poem, ambiguous descriptions such as ‘the glimmering landscape' (5), ‘the distant folds' (8), ‘the upland lawn' (100) and the ‘custom'd hill' (109), accentuate the poem's attempt to be nowhere and everywhere. Marshall Brown in his essay Gray's Churchyard Space' suggests that â€Å"everything and nothing is shared with all and none in a world that is nowhere and everywhere†[7]. This displacement coupled with the fact that the poem refers to no one in particular, creates a sense of timelessness in keeping with it's universality, thereby supporting Johnson's credo that ‘The Churchyard finds a mirror in every mind'[8]. Marshall Brown further reveals that the ‘poem evokes the possibility of a language and a consciousness beyond station, beyond definition and beyond identity'[9]. Gray accomplishes this by the illustration of an all-encompassing world. The poem drifts from a ‘solemn stillness' (6) to the ‘cock's shrill clarion' (19), from a ‘blazing hearth' (21) to a ‘frozen soul' (52), from ‘parting day' (1) to the ‘incense-breathing morn' (16), from the ‘desert air' (56) to the ‘smiling land' (63), etc; creating an image of the world that comprises all heights, weather, feelings and time. Gray's exploration of the opposite poles of class, the ‘pomp of pow'r' (33) and ‘simple annals of the poor' (32), and his empathy for the poor rather than the rich – ‘nor you, ye Proud, impute to These the fault, if Mem'ry o'er their Tomb no Trophies raise' (37-38), heightens this indiscriminate sense of inclusion and the all-embracing voice of his elegy. Thus we see how Gray tries to attribute a sensitivity that amplifies the appeal of his apparently universal elegy, as seen by this uote from Stephen Cox's essay, Contexts of Significance: Thomas Gray – that ‘the individual self [in the Elegy] is significant even when it lacks any visible signs of significance, such as power, wealth, or social recognition'[10]. Thus, we see how it can be interpreted that Thomas Gray's elegy focuses on a common condition rather than his own, but a closer analysis reveals that the all-embracing attempts made by Gray in the poem is part of a manipulation to create a n image that adequately appeases his own narcissism. Firstly, although he paints a generic and timeless world he also places himself far away from it. The poem is seeped in an isolation that springs from Gray's differentiation of himself from the world he's creating – ‘The curfew tolls the knell of parting day, the lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea, the plowman homeward plods his weary way, and leaves the world to darkness and to me' (1-4). From the start of the poem itself we are plummeted into the poet's segregation from the rural, rustic all encompassing world, and into the image he creates of himself as the poetic lonely outsider. Wallace Jackson in his essay Thomas Gray and the Dedicatory Muse, supports this when he says that ‘Gray's ideal self is situated like a melancholic outcast and the village oddity. He is constellated in a poetic heaven, in any event, alone'[11]. While Gray spends the first 23 stanzas expounding his sensitivity for the ‘unhonored Dead' (93), the next 9 stanzas are wholly based on him and the image he tries to further enhance of his ‘mindful' (93) and ‘lonely' (95) self. Howard Weinbrot in his essay Restoration and the Eighteenth Century, points out that ‘no one in particular is being mourned as the elegy opens, but it soon become clear that the speaker is mourning his own repressed potential'[12]. The shift between referring to himself as ‘me' (4) in the 1st stanza to ‘thee' (93) at the start of the 23rd stanza, elucidates a respect he demands for his shallow efforts to praise the common man. Andrew Dillon in his essay Depression and Release, includes a reference by Ketton-Cremer, Gray's biographer – ‘the man of reading and reflection often feels an envious admiration for the man of physical skill'[13], and this is seen in the parallels Gray draws between himself and the villagers, who in death resemble the same ‘fame and fortune unknown' (118) of Gray. However, he shatters this connection through his elaborate and verbose epitaph for himself. While the simple ‘bones' (77) of the forgotten ‘plowman' (3) rests beneath ‘some frail memorial erected nigh' (78), Gray's memorial is far from ‘frail' – ‘Large was his bounty, and his soul sincere' (121). Jackson confirms this in his essay, when he says that the poem's ‘motive is grounded in a further, yet concealed, rendering of the self-image, present especially at the close of The Elegy'[14]. Freud's belief that melancholia is a consistent form of mourning can be seen in his epitaph for himself – ‘melancholy marked him for her own' (120) and ‘he gave to misery all he had' (123). This coupled with the undercurrent of still sadness that permeates the poem places Gray in a constant state of mourning. On a simplistic level, the epitaph echoes his application of a universal mortality unto others and himself, but what is more haunting is the thread of fatalism that laces these last few stanzas. Dillon writes, ‘the Elegy can be read as a journey of recognition conceived in dusk and worked out – not in a miasma of depression – but in the light of symbolic self-destruction'[15]. The quiet acceptance Gray achieves seems to transcend the idea of everyman's mortality, and is rather an active realisation of his own. In the line ‘Ev'n from the tombs the voice of Nature cries, ev'n in our Ashes live their wonted Fires' (91-92), Gray moves away from the constant grouping of the villagers (they, their and them) to include himself (‘in our ashes') tilting the poem towards his own self-destruction. Dillon explores this in his essay when he contemplates ‘whose ashes are these? They are those of the safe dead, yet they also form a melancholic, personal estimation of the poet – alive but in the ashes of an entombed self'[16]. Thus we see that Gray is aware of the image he is creating of his own condition. His reference to himself in third person in the words of the Swain divulges his yearning for a posthumous sympathy. This along with his concern with the way he is perceived, his reconstruction of himself in death and his self-appointed social position in his glorious epitaph, all seal the idea that in fact he is trying to repair a ‘damaged narcissism'[17] and in doing so is ‘mourning his own condition'[18]. Unlike Gray, whose poem appears to mourn the common man, Shelley's Adonais remembers one man in particular – John Keats. However, this specificity does not detract from the idea that, similar to Gray, Shelley's elegy is intwined ith his own condition as well. The disquieting refrain ‘weep for Adonais – he is dead! ‘[19] is instrumental in diverting the readers attention from Shelley onto Keats, constantly reiterating the idea that the elegy is about Adonais – a name he assigned to Keats that amalgamates the Greek myth of Adoni, and Adon ai, the Hebrew word for God. However, our first instinct that the poem isn't just about Keats springs from its historical background. Shelley, upon hearing of Keats death, was convinced that Keats was killed by the envenomed reviews of Keats' longest poem, Endymion. This belief is reflected in the classical allusion to Adoni, a youthful man who met an early and untimely death when he was killed by a wild boar, an event symbolic of Keats' apparent death by cruel reviews. In Nicholas Roe's Keats and History, he reveals that on the 8th of June 1821, Shelley requested his publisher Charles Ollier to ask Keats' friends the exact circumstances of his death, and ‘transmit to me any information you may be able to collect and especially as to the degree in which, as I am assured, the brutal attack in the Quarterly Review excited the disease by which he perished'[20]. Roe uses this letter to suggest that although this request ‘may arise from Shelley's characteristic attention to historical detail', it also reflects something else: an appetite for a history already conceived, a history the outlines of which applied to Shelley himself, for the Quarterly had also taken aim at his poetry and character'[21], thus proposing that Shelley's own wounded narcissism is tied to his portrayal of Keats' death. Stanza 37 of Adonais reveals this bitterness towards the critics – ‘And ever at thy season be thou free to spill the venom when thy fangs o'erflow: remorse and contempt shall cling to thee! ‘ (329-31). Shelley, who even now is closely associated with Keats, was an avid admirer of Keats' work. The godly portrayal of Keats in his poem reveals this reverence – Shelley calls him a ‘star' (494) and places him in league with Thomas Chatterton, Sir Philip Sidney and Marcus Lucan, poets who died young and never received the chance to flourish to the maximum of their literary prowess. Though Shelley considered himself a lesser poet, he felt they shared a common thread. In regard to Adonais, he is known to have written, ‘the total neglect and obscurity in which the astonishing remnants of his mind lie, was hardly to be dissipated by a writer, who, however he may differ with Keats in more important qualities, at least resembles him in that accidental one, the want of popularity'[22]. This connection that Shelley felt they had explains his outrage at the critics' reviews, as they dashed the growing popularity of Keats and Shelley many a time. Eleanor Hutchens in her essay Cold and Heat in Adonais says ‘the earlier part of Adonais suffers from an artificial chill, cast over perhaps by Shelley's primary intention not of mourning Keats but of using a fellow poets death as an occasion for expressing certain attitudes of his own'[23]. This belief isn't entirely true; although it is certain that Shelley uses Keats' death to battle the critics that scorned them, there is a significant difference in the two acts – that of mourning and that of expressing his opinions – as they are inevitably and exclusively related with each other, as seen in Clewell's credo that ‘By resuscitating the other in memory, the mourner attempts to reclaim a part of the self that has been reflected on to the other'[24]. To Shelley, Keats is a part of him and he is a part of Keats, as seen when he says ‘I have lately been composing a poem on Keats, it is better than anything I have yet written, and worthy both of him and of me'[25]. Shelley believes that in writing the elegy and in mourning Keats they are both experiencing a sense of liberation and resolution. This idea is seen in the first stanza itself when Shelley says ‘with me died Adonais' (6-7) and recurs throughout the poem, especially in stanza 34 when Shelley describes one of the mourners at Keats' grave – ‘All stand aloof, and at his partial moan smiled through their tears; well knew that gentle band who in another's fate now wept his own' (300). In the case of Shelley's elegy, the major disquietude of its reflection on his own condition lies in the fact that it acts as elegy for him without meaning to. It transcends Shelley's narcissistic intentions, echoing beyond even the time of composition. In Roe's Keats and History he says that ‘Indeed one of the posthumous fates of Adonais itself was its retrospective (or uncannily prophetic) application to Shelley'[26]. Adonais was an elegy for Shelley himself in that it foreshadowed his own early and untimely death. Peter Sacks stated that ‘Shelley's conclusion to the poem is ‘profoundly disturbing' when we remember, as we must, that Shelley died a year later at sea'[27]. Some believe his death wasn't accidental and a product of years of depression that lead to his eventual self-destruction, a theory perhaps encouraged by the suicidal tone in the last stanzas of Adonais – ‘What Adonais is, why fear we to become? ‘ (459). But whether this is true or not, Shelley's association with Keats is undeniable, especially considering that a book of Keats' poems was found in the pocket of Shelley's jacket that confirmed the corpse was his. After Shelley's death, his wife Mary is known to have said ‘Adonais is not Keats's, it is his own elegy'[28] and his dear friend Leigh Hunt confirmed that Shelley himself said the poem was ‘more an elegy on himself than the subject of it'[29]. Shelley's cousin, Thomas Medwin beautifully wrote in Memoir that ‘there was, unhappily, too much similarity in the destinies of Keats and Shelley: both were victims of persecution, both were marked out by the envenomed shafts of invidious critics, and both now sleep together in a foreign land'[30]. Thus, we see how both poems reflect a situation stemming from the poet's own condition. While Andrew Dillon believed that ‘the Elegy works because of the exquisite beauty of its language and the psychic complicity of the minds of readers with that of Thomas Gray'[31], critic Katherine Duncan-Jones felt that ‘Adonais is fundamentally an elegy on one poet by another, a poem whose force comes more from the problems and concerns of the living poet, than from the precise character and circumstance of the dead one'[32]. Both poems exhibit a damaged narcissism that the poets try to appease or console through the act of mourning, whether it is Gray's desire to be remembered in a perfect melancholic image of himself, or Shelley's to chastise the embittered critical reviews that plagued his career and Keats'. However, the sense of isolation, fatalism and admiration in their poems evokes a posthumous and timeless sympathy in readers that cannot be disregarded, particularly in the case of Shelley, even if we are aware that they mourn themselves. Bibliography: Bieri, James, Percy Bysshe Shelley: a Biography (Massachusetts: Rosemont Publishing, 2005) Brown, Marshall, â€Å"Gray's Churchyard Space†, in Preromanticism (California: Stanford University Press, 1991), pp. 42-8. Clewell, Tammy, ‘Mourning Beyond Melancholia: Freud's Psychoanalysis on Loss', Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association, 52. 1(2004), p. 46-48. Cox, Stephen, â€Å"Contexts of Significance: Thomas Gray†, in The Stranger within Thee: Concepts of Self in Late-Eighteenth Century Literature (Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press, 1980), pp. 2-98. Curran, Stuart, ‘Romantic Elegiac Hybridity', Oxford Handbook to Elegy (Oxford: Oxford Printing Press, 2010) Dillon, Andrew, â€Å"Depression and Release†, North Dakota Quarterly, 60. 4 (1992), pp. 128-34. Duncan-Jones, Katherine, â€Å"The Review of English Studies†, New Series, 22. 86 (1971), p. 75-171. Gray, Thomas, Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard: with the complete works of Thomas Gray (Virginia: Peter Pauper Press, 1947) Hutchens, Eleanor, â€Å"Cold and Heat in Adonais†, Modern Language Notes, 76. 2 (1961), p. 24. Hurtz, Neil, The End of the Line (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009) Jackson, Wallace, â€Å"Thomas Gray and the Dedicatory Muse†, ELH, 54. 2 (1987), pp. 277-98. Roe, Nicholas, Keats and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995) Shelley, Percy Bysshe, The Selected Prose and Poetry of Shelley (Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1994) Weinbrot, Howard, â€Å"Restoration and the Eighteenth Century†, Studies in English Literature 1500-1900, 18. 3 (1978), pp. 537-551. ———————– 1]Tammy Clewell, ‘Mourning Beyond Melancholia: Freud's Psychoanalysis on Loss', Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association, 52. 1(2004), p. 48. [2]Clewell, p. 46. [3]Stuart Curran, ‘Romantic Elegiac Hybridity', Oxford Handbook to Elegy (Oxford : Oxford Printing Press, 2010), p. 249. [4]Neil Hurtz, The End of the Line (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009), p. 73. [5]Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard: with the complete works of Thomas Gray (Virginia: Peter Pauper Press, 1947), line 3 (all subsequent references will be made in the body of the text). 6]Marshall Brown, â€Å"Gray's Churchyard Space†, in Preromanticism (California: Stanford University Press, 1991), pp. 42-8. [7]Brown, pp. 42-8. [8]Hurtz, p. 73. [9]Brown, pp. 42-8. [10]Stephen Cox, â€Å"Contexts of Significance: Thomas Gray†, in The Stranger within Thee: Concepts of Self in Late-Eighteenth Century Literature (Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press, 1980), pp. 82-98. [11]Wallace Jackson, â€Å"Thomas Gray and the Dedicatory Muse†, ELH, 54. 2 (1987), pp. 277-98. 12]Howard Weinbrot, â€Å"Restoration and the Eighteenth Century†, Studies in English Literature 1500-1900, 18. 3 (1978), pp. 537-551. [13]Andrew Dillo n, â€Å"Depression and Release†, North Dakota Quarterly, 60. 4 (1992), pp. 128-34. [14]Jackson, pp. 277-98. [15]Dillon, pp. 128-34. [16]Dillon, pp. 128-34 [17]Clewell, p. 48. [18]Curran, p. 249. [19]Percy Shelley, The Selected Prose and Poetry of Shelley (Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1994), line 1 (all subsequent references will be made in the body of the text). 20]Nicholas Roe, Keats and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 23. [21]Roe, p. 23. [22]Roe, p. 33. [23]Eleanor Hutchens, Cold and Heat in Adonais, Modern Language Notes, 76. 2 (1961), p. 124. [24]Clewell, p. 47. [25]Roe, p. 33. [26]Roe, p. 36. [27]Katherine Duncan-Jones, â€Å"The Review of English Studies†, New Series, 22. 86 (1971), p. 75. [28]James Bieri, Percy Bysshe Shelley: a Biography (Massachusetts: Rosemont Publishing, 2005), p. 239. [29]Bieri, p. 239. [30]Roe, p. 36. [31]Dillon, p. 128-34. [32]Jones, p. 171.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Study of Starbuck Coffee and Gloria Jean Coffee

1. 0 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background of the assignment Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages. Some claim it is the most widely consumed liquid in the world aside from water. Coffee is more than a beverage, however. It is a memory, anticipation, a lifetime of consoling moments of modest pleasure woven into our lives. Coffee's success as a beverage undoubtedly owes both to the caffeine it harbors and to its sensory pleasure.Coffee lovers come to associate the energizing lift of the caffeine with the richness and aroma of the beverage that delivers it. Coffee is produced from the seeds of a small red (sometimes yellow) fruit that grows on plants halfway in size between shrub and tree. The process that turns these seeds into beverage is a long and complex process, perhaps the most complex process associated with any major beverage.It is also a very labor intensive process involving a vast intercontinental collaboration that starts with the coffee grower, moves from there to th e picker, then to the mill workers who meticulously remove the fruit and dry the beans, then to those who clean and grade the beans, to those who roast them, to those consumers and baristas who finally grind the beans and prepare the beverage. Every act along the way can be performed either with passion and precision or with careless shoddiness.It is the cumulative quality of all of these creative contributions that together make the difference between a lackluster cup and a fine and distinctive one Starbucks, a corporation that has grown since its retail inception in 1982 to reach global stardom with over 6,000 shops worldwide, it is truly one of the most successful business ventures to-date. Starbucks purchases and roasts high-quality whole bean coffees and sells them along with fresh, rich-brewed, Italian style espresso beverages, a variety of pastries and confections, and coffee-related accessories and equipment – primarily through its company-operated retail stores.In ad dition to sales through our company-operated retail stores, Starbucks sells whole bean coffees through a specialty sales group and supermarkets. Additionally, Starbucks produces and sells bottled Frappuccino ® coffee drink and a line of premium ice creams through its joint venture partnerships and offers a line of innovative premium teas produced by its wholly owned subsidiary, Tazo Tea Company. The Company's objective is to establish Starbucks as the most recognized and respected brand in the world.To achieve this goal, the Company plans to continue to rapidly expand its retail operations, grow its specialty sales and other operations, and selectively pursue opportunities to leverage the Starbucks brand through the introduction of new products and the development of new distribution channels. The competitor is Gloria Jean’s Coffee was franchising in 1998, and opened 185 stores within 6 years where all are locally owned and operated by more than 100 franchisees. By 2003, Gl oria Jean’s Coffee has established stores in every state of Australia.The company has opened 906 stores and signed 34 Master Franchise agreements across 33 countries worldwide, its strength is built upon a strong recognized brand synonymous with coffee quality and industry leading franchise systems. Gloria Jean’s Coffees has played a major role in the development and growth of the retail coffee market in Australia. Our team of Franchise Partners is passionate about the brand and its products, and has the dedication and determination to succeed. To meet the rapid global expansion, the corporation unwillingly had compromised on some of its key success factors.This paper will examine these factors from the customer’s point, and how essential are they for Starbucks and Gloria Jean’s Coffee to retain its current customers. 1. 2 Objectives of the assignment The objective of this assignment is to achieve: 1) Analyze company A background STARBUCK COFFEE 2) Analyz e company B background GLORIA JEAN’S COFFEE 3) Compare and analyze between two company services retention. 4) Compare and analyze between two company services recovery strategies. 1. 3 The important of the assignment ) The output of this report will give us the clear view of both company perspectives in the customer retention strategic program. 2) Revile both company service marketing plan In addition to sales through our company-operated retail stores, Starbucks sells whole bean coffees through a specialty sales group and supermarkets. Additionally, Starbucks produces and sells bottled Frappuccino coffee drink and a line of premium ice creams through its joint venture partnerships and offers a line of innovative premium teas produced by its wholly owned subsidiary, Tazo Tea Company.The Company's objective is to establish Starbucks as the most recognized and respected brand in the world. [pic] 2. 0 STARBUCK COFFEE – COMPANY A 2. 1 Introduction Starbucks purchases and r oasts high-quality whole bean coffees and sells them along with fresh, rich-brewed, Italian style espresso beverages, a variety of pastries and confections, and coffee-related accessories and equipment – primarily through its company-operated retail stores. Starbucks is primarily known for selling coffee, but also sells other hot and cold beverages, pastries, sandwiches and other snacks.A â€Å"Skinny† line of drinks rolled out in 2008, offering  lower-calorie  and sugar-free versions of the company's offered drinks which use  skim milk  and are sweetened by a choice of artificial sweetener or one of the company's  sugar-free  syrup flavors 2. 2 Company background Starbucks, named after the first mate in Herman Melville's Moby Dick, was founded in 1971 at Seattle's Pike Place Market by three atypical businessmen, Gordon Bowker, Jerry Baldwin, and Zev Siegel. Starbucks mission is to â€Å"inspire and nurture the human spirit one person, one cup, and one nei ghborhood at a time. † Starbucks, founded in the 1970s, opened heir first location in 1971 in Seattle’s Pike place. In 1982, Seattle’s Best began to sell to restaurants and coffee bars. In 1987, the company’s name became Starbucks. The same year, stores in Chicago and Canada where opened. In 1988 Starbucks began mail-order sales of their products. Today Starbucks sells hot and cold beverages, complementary food items, coffee-related accessories and equipment, teas and other non-food products through retail stores in 37 countries. The company operates primarily in the US, is headquartered in Seattle, Washington and employs about 204,000 people.Starbucks has experienced expansion globally, and has created licenses throughout Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and the Americas, and maintains a 40% market share internationally. The goal of the company is to create brand awareness through the â€Å"Starbucks Experience. † This experience translates well, hel ping folks start their day with an aromatic cup of coffee, pleasant customer service, and each person’s finding a niche while enjoying their favorite drink and listening to music or reading a book. The first Starbucks location outside North America opened in Tokyo, Japan, in 1996.Starbucks entered the U. K. market in 1998 ,UK-based Seattle Coffee Company, re-branding all the stores as Starbucks. In September 2002, Starbucks opened its first store in Latin America, at Mexico City. In 1999, Starbucks experimented with eateries in the San Francisco Bay area through a restaurant chain called Circadia . These restaurants were soon â€Å"outed† as Starbucks establishments and converted to Starbucks cafes. In April 2003, Starbucks completed the purchase of Seattle's Best Coffee and Torrefazione Italia from AFC Enterprises .The deal only gained 150 stores for Starbucks, but according to the Seattle Post-Intelligencer the wholesale business was more significant. In September 20 06, rival Diedrich Coffee announced that it would sell most of its company-owned retail stores to Starbucks. This sale includes the company-owned locations of the Oregon-based Coffee People chain. Starbucks converted the Diedrich Coffee and Coffee People locations to Starbucks, although the Portland airport Coffee People locations were excluded from the sale In August 2003, Starbucks opened its first store in South America in Lima, Peru.In 2007, the company opened its first store in Russia, ten years after first registering a trademark there. In March 2008 they purchased the manufacturer of the Clover Brewing System. They began testing the â€Å"fresh-pressed† coffee system at several Starbucks locations in Seattle, California, New York and Boston. Starbucks has always been a place where you can find the world’s best coffees. But in 1971, you would have had to travel all the way to our only store in Seattle’s historic Pike Place Market. [pic] |[pic] |[p|1970s | | | |ic|The first Starbucks opens. The name comes from Herman Melville’s Moby Dick, a classic | | | |] |American novel about the 19th century whaling industry. The seafaring name seems | | | | |appropriate for a store that imports the world’s finest coffees to the cold, thirsty | | | | |people of Seattle. | | |[pic] |[pic] |[p|1980s | | | |ic|Howard Schultz joins Starbucks in 1982. While on a business trip in Italy, he visits | | | |] |Milan’s famous espresso bars. Impressed with their popularity and culture, he sees | | | | |their potential in Seattle.He’s right – after trying lattes and mochas, Seattle | | | | |quickly becomes coffee-crazy. | |[pic] |[pic] |[p|1990s | | | |ic|Starbucks expands beyond Seattle, first to the rest of the United States, then the | | | |] |entire world.After becoming one of the first companies to offer stock options to its | | | | |part-time employees, Starbucks becomes a publicly traded company. | |[pic] |[pic] |[p|20 00s | | | |ic|The Starbucks phenomenon continues. As of this writing, Starbucks has more than 6,000 | | | |] |locations in over 30 countries.In addition to our excellent coffees and espresso | | | | |drinks, people now enjoy for Tazo ® tea | Logo description In 2006, Valerie O'Neil, a Starbucks spokeswoman, said that the logo is an image of a â€Å"twin-tailed mermaid, or siren as she's known in Greek mythology†. The logo has been significantly streamlined over the years. In the first version, which was based on a 16th-century â€Å"Norse† woodcut, the Starbucks siren was topless and had a fully visible double fish tail.The image also had a rough visual texture and has been likened to a melusine. ] In the second version, which was used from 1987–92, her breasts were covered by her flowing hair, but her navel was still visible. The fish tail was cropped slightly, and the primary color was changed from brown to green, a nod to Bowker's Alma Mater, the University of San Francisco. In the third version, used between 1992 and 2011, her navel and breasts are not visible at all, and only vestiges remain of the fish tails. The original â€Å"woodcut† logo has been moved to the Starbucks' Headquarters in Seattle.At the beginning of September 2006 and then again in early 2008, Starbucks temporarily reintroduced its original brown logo on paper hot-drink cups. Starbucks has stated that this was done to show the company's heritage from the Pacific Northwest and to celebrate 35 years of business. The vintage logo sparked some controversy due in part to the siren's bare breasts,] but the temporary switch garnered little attention from the media. Starbucks had drawn similar criticism when they reintroduced the vintage logo in 2006. The logo was altered when Starbucks entered the Saudi Arabian market in 2000 to remove the siren, leaving only her crown, as eported in a Pulitzer Prize-winning column by Colbert I. King in The Washington Post in 2002 . The company announced three months later that it would be using the international logo in Saudi Arabia. In January 2011, Starbucks announced that they would make small changes to the company's logo, removing the Starbucks wordmark around the siren, enlarging the siren image, and making it green. [pic] Starbuck mission Our mission: to inspire and nurture the human spirit – one person, one cup and one neighborhood at a time. Here are the principles of how we live that every day: Our Coffee It has always been, and will always be, about quality.We’re passionate about ethically sourcing the finest coffee beans, roasting them with great care, and improving the lives of people who grow them. We care deeply about all of this; our work is never done. Our Partners We’re called partners, because it’s not just a job, it’s our passion. Together, we embrace diversity to create a place where each of us can be ourselves. We always treat each other with respect a nd dignity. And we hold each other to that standard. Our Customers When we are fully engaged, we connect with, laugh with, and uplift the lives of our customers – even if just for a few moments.Sure, it starts with the promise of a perfectly made beverage, but our work goes far beyond that. It’s really about human connection. Our Stores When our customers feel this sense of belonging, our stores become a haven, a break from the worries outside, a place where you can meet with friends. It’s about enjoyment at the speed of life – sometimes slow and savored, sometimes faster. Always full of humanity. Our Neighborhood Every store is part of a community, and we take our responsibility to be good neighbors seriously. We want to be invited in wherever we do business.We can be a force for positive action – bringing together our partners, customers, and the community to contribute every day. Now we see that our responsibility – and our potential for good – is even larger. The world is looking to Starbucks to set the new standard, yet again. We will lead. Branding strategies Three components to this experiencing branding strategy: ? First, coffee itself – offering the highest-quality coffee in the world,    coffee standards by controlling the supply chain as possible and the distribution to retail stores ? Second, service – customer intimacy ? Third, atmosphere. To make customers want to stay.Based on human spirit, a sense of community, the need for people to come together. Channels – Broad distribution strategy ? Want to reach customers where they work, travel, shop, and dine ? Good Location: Company-operated stores located in high-traffic, high-visibility settings ? Product mixed tended to vary depending on a store’s size and location non-company-operated retail channels, food-service accounts, domestic retail store licenses Good starbuck partner ? All Starbucks employees were called  "partners† -Most hourly-wage employees ? Generous policy of giving health insurance and stock options High partner satisfaction rate (80% to 90%), well above the industry norm. ? Lowest employee turnover rates in the industry (just 70%, compared with fast-food industry averages as high as 300%) ? Lower managers turnover rates & encouraged promotion from within its own ranks Delivering on Service and good measuring service performance ? Training: hard skills and soft skills ? Treated as a valuable customer (75%), friendly staff (73%) and highest quality coffee (67%). ? A variety of metrics, including monthly status reports and self-reported checklists. ? â€Å"Customer Snapshot† measurement toolLess competition ? A variety of small-scale specialty coffee chains (regionally concentrated). independent specialty coffee shops & Donut and bagel chains Strategic for supply ? Part time employees- Starbucks had lowest employee income rate of any restaurant or fast-food company b ut Starbucks offering health insurance and modest stock options to part-timers. ? Increased consumer participation- Starbucks does a nice job of encouraging this through its integrated marketing communications efforts. For example : has questionnaires in its stores urging customers to send in feedback about their experiences Facilities for future expansion The company's efforts to greatly increase its sphere of strategic interest by its joint ventures with Pepsi and Dreyer's, its move to sell coffee in supermarkets, and the possibility of marketing fruit-juice drinks and candy under the Starbucks label represented In order to sustain the company's growth and make Starbucks a strong global brand, that the company had to challenge the status quo, be innovative, take risks, and alter its vision of who it was, what it did, and where it was headed. 2. 3 Customer Retention Strategies When Mr.Schultz founded Starbucks and created its unique service experience which is based on a customer-d riven marketing strategy, fully understood the strategic importance of segmenting his target market, differentiating his products and thus achieving a successful positioning for Starbucks not only in its traditional markets, but globally. These strategies are to protect their current customers from deserting to competitors and to capture new markets. Starbucks’ unique blend of relaxing ambience and innovative coffee drinks positioned it as a leader in its category, and made it an all time favorite for millions of devotees around the world.The third place theme highlighted that Starbucks surpassed a place for just a cup of coffee, but instead it gave its customers the comfort of a home, excellent customer service, quality products and the feeling of being special. These elements made the Starbucks experience key in retaining its customers. Starbucks' overall retention strategy has cleverly covered the 5Ps, among others, as we will see below. Product Quality Starbucks trademark was the unique features of the coffee-based beverages. These innovative drinks have attracted new customers to experience luxury coffee drinks at affordable prices, in a very cozy environment.Starbucks created a coffee culture, educating its customers on the coffee types, origins, and the roasting process, thus building brand credibility and gaining clients’ trust in the brand and quality of products provided. Consistency Starbucks’ major coffee priority is the consistency of the product taste and quality assurance. Starbucks whilst priding itself as the best quality coffee in the world tries to control much of the supply chain for quality control and product assurance. Starbucks’ reliability and product consistency is driven by the super-efficient coffee maker machines.Besides making the same drink shot, it is noise-dampening, making sure the customer’s ‘experience’ is not disturbed by the blenders’ noises. Customized and Seasonal Pr oducts Starbucks’ brand name and popularity came through customizing the beverages to the consumer’s desire through offering flexible drink options such as extra cream, caramel syrup etc. Starbucks also introduces various and new seasonal products to differentiate themselves from its competitors and to capture new clients. The new drinks add to the overall experience of loyal clienteles and this specialization increases its competitive edge over other players in the market.Convenience Through Location Starbucks applied the first rule in opening a store i. e. a successful and strategic location, and for thousands of its stores worldwide, credit should be given to their sharp foresight in store-site strategy to reach its target customers and eliminating its competitors. Starbucks' store-site strategy is to have high visibility, high traffic and convenient location like shopping malls, bar districts and populated business towers, so a daily commuter will be delighted to s top everyday at the store for his Latte.The stores’ high visibility, convenience and accessibility in terms of its locations and amenities provided (comfy furniture, grand amount of seating, clean restrooms, etc) attracts attention and increases brand recognition and reputation, thus diminishing customer defections and increasing the stores’ traffic and sales. Strong Brand Equity The unique earthly-colored walls of the each store, innovative product display and cozy atmosphere, seasonal themes, promotions etc makes Starbucks a strong brand that allows for brand recognition and consumer retention.In addition, Starbucks promotes the idea of supporting the local communities by being a good neighbor, and aims to involve its partners in the decision making process. The image of Starbucks sustaining local coffee farmers and helping in grooming their crops builds the customer’s trust in the coffee bean superiority and Starbucks as a socially responsible corporate brand looking after the long-term benefits of the local community with the aim of growing together and not to exploit. (www. tarbucks. com). The store’s clean and hygienic image has added very much to the strong image of Starbucks; a survey states that 83% of the sampled clientele rated a clean store as highly important, a reputation which is equally important for Starbucks’ overall image. Customer Bonds and Loyalty Programs Starbucks recognized that one of the ways to obtain customer satisfaction is by manipulating their perception of equity and fairness in gaining maximum return for their money and loyalty.So, Starbucks introduced the Starbucks Loyalty Card which gives great benefits to its customers; ranging from syrup and milk options on their drinks free of charge, complimentary coffee refills and free beverage with whole bean purchases. The Starbucks Card or the Duetto Visa Card (a reloadable prepaid card/Visa credit card) binds the customer whereby they feel that the y are gaining more value for their money, being treated fairly by Starbucks and feeling appreciated by a better quality service in being a loyal and a regular client, thus preferring to stay devoted to the brand and gaining further benefits with their future purchases.Starbucks also created its own world culture by innovating new proprietary language for its products, to the extent of publishing a booklet for such vocabulary for its clients. This syntax enabled customers to choose the drink that suits them the most, thus creating a customization bond with Starbucks’ beverages and products. The mastering of this language is essential for the customer to get exactly what he wants, and since this lingo cannot be found out of Starbucks, it will refrain the regulars from flocking to other coffee shops.In addition to the customization of the drinks, Starbucks’ interior store design was carefully studied and aimed at reaching the human inner-soul, sending subliminal messages making the customer comfortable and at ease in enjoying his ultimate coffee experience. An Affordable Experience Starbucks market entry and key success was in providing high-end quality coffee drinks at affordable prices. This clever blend of unique quality drinks with a great ambiance and an excellent service made their pricing reasonable and fair for millions.The customer satisfaction on the overall package in exchange for the price paid is reflective in their patronage. Sustaining their prices is essential for customer contentment and retention. The Relationship with Customers Employees of Starbucks are a critical factor since they interact directly with the client. Starbucks’ strategy of creating a personalized service that is vital for the customer’s satisfaction is pivotal in ensuring his loyalty; personalized services include personal greeting, flexible changes to the drink/order and memorizing the favorite order of each customer, all with a genuine smile and fr iendly spirit.The human touch and customer intimacy is an essential element in the overall Starbucks experience by making each client feel special and well looked after. This point clearly marks Starbucks’ acknowledgement of creating relationships and having personal bonds with their clientele to deter them from changing stores. 2. 4 Services Recovery Strategies Starbucks interacts with customer in two ways. The first way is at the Point of Sale (POS). The interaction with the customer begins with the greeting, followed by taking the dink/food order, money exchange and leaving.Pleasant conversation is encouraged the regular customer. This build the idea of the third Starbuck phase for its ambiance meaning that a person has their house, work and Starbuck to make them comfortable. The second interaction is taken place over the phone or by email concerning question comments, or any complaint that they might have. During the first set of interactions, the customer has a high leve l involvement. The customer has all the choice in how they would like their drink made. There are no self-service or technology used in these interactions.The second interaction has medium involvement with the customer and has no face time. If a situation does arise, Starbuck has several different ways to rectify the situation. The first way is with their guarantee. This guarantee is that the customer drink should be made right in time and particular item needed by the customer. If not, let the â€Å"barista† know and Starbucks will give a remake it for the customer. This is also called within company â€Å"a right now recovery†. This allows the â€Å"barista† to remake the drink to any specification that was missed in the previous attempt for free.If the â€Å"right now recovery† is not enough to fix the situation, the supervisor will give the customer a recovery certificate. This is a coupon that allows the customer to receive any drink of their choice for free. Finally Starbucks also has the store managers as well as the district managers lave their business card in the store. This allows the customer to have direct communication with the management if any situation become out of hand. Online feedback at www. starbucks. com from one customer reads that â€Å"The licensed stores never had a conception of the â€Å"heart† of the business to start with.They are exemplary of everything that is wrong with current store operations. † [pic] 3. 0 GLORIA JEANS COFFEE – COMPANY B 3. 1 Introduction As one of the world’s leading providers of specialty-flavored whole bean coffees, Gloria Jean’s has been providing the ultimate coffee experience for over 29 years. In 1979, Ed and Gloria Jean Kvetko purchased a small gift shop in a quaint little town just north of Chicago. Deciding to share their secret for great tasting coffee, the store soon developed a loyal following as people came from all around to experi ence Gloria Jean’s gourmet coffees.Due to increasing demand and popularity, Gloria Jean’s began franchising stores in the mid-1980’s to entrepreneurs in the Chicago market who shared their passion for specialty coffees. Today Gloria Jean’s has grown to be one of the largest mall-based retailer of specialty coffees in North America. Committed to quality and selection, Gloria Jean’s is the premier destination for people who know and crave gourmet coffee. Each of our flavored coffees receives utmost care from harvest to cup. We meticulously roast and flavor to exacting standards, making Gloria Jean’s coffee the finest you can buy.Gloria Jean’s Coffees is known for its signature range of hot and cold coffee drinks including traditional espresso and ice blends; coffee beans, specialty teas, pastries and coffee accessories. (Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia 2008) 3. 2 Company background In 1979, Gloria Jean Kvetko founded Gloria Jea n’s Coffees with her first outlet opened in Chicago, USA, selling coffee and gifts. 1n 1996, Jireh International Pty Ltd, founded by NabiSaleh and Peter Irvine, purchased the rights to franchise Gloria Jean's Coffees in Australia.With stores in over 30 countries world, Gloria Jean's Coffees is one of Australia's leading coffee specialists and one of the fastest growing franchise organizations in the world. The company has opened 906 stores and signed 34 Master Franchise agreements across 33 countries worldwide, its strength is built upon a strong recognized brand synonymous with coffee quality and industry leading franchise systems. Gloria Jean’s Coffees has played a major role in the development and growth of the retail coffee market in Australia.Our team of Franchise Partners are passionate about the brand and its products, and have the dedication and determination to succeed. Gloria Jean’s Coffees is one of the top 30 fastest growing franchises in Australia a nd is also listed as one of Australia’s top 1,000 companies and top 500 Private Companies (Source: BRW 2007/2008). The company has been recognized for their systems, most recently winning the ‘Food Franchisor of the Year 2007’ in the PricewaterhouseCoopers Excellence in Franchising Awards and ‘2006 International Franchisor of the Year’ awarded by the Franchising and License Association, Singapore.Passionately committed to creating the ultimate coffee experience for every guest from bean to cup, the Gloria Jean’s Coffees difference comes from a true dedication to handmade coffee – from hand picking beans to handcrafting each individual cup. Gloria Jean’s Coffees is driven by a desire to be the most loved and respected coffee company in the world. They are committed to leaving a positive net benefit to both the communities from where they source their coffee and those communities they serve. With the sale of each cup, Gloria Jeanâ €™s Coffees helps to support local and international communities through their partner programs.Over the last year Gloria Jean's Coffees has made a huge investment in new resources, systems and tools that will take their franchise model to the next level globally. The team has put in place leading-edge platforms, systems and tools that have strengthened their business and created a robust model that can be implemented successfully and consistently across their overseas markets. Gloria Jean's Coffees provides ongoing management and support from the moment new Franchise Partners join the Gloria Jean's family. The Gloria Jean's Coffees  business model  is a  franchising  system similar to many fast-food chains.Franchise owners have to pay franchise fees and royalties on their sales as well as operating costs. The organization’s board consists of chairman Nabi Selah, and directors John Dwight, Peter Irvine and Andrew Tyndale. Product Coffee houses serve and sell a ran ge of espresso coffee drinks, cold drinks, blended and estate whole bean coffees and specialty teas along with pastries and coffee accessories. Gloria Jean's Coffees recently purchased through auction an allocation of the whole coffee bean that came fifth in Brazil's Cup of Excellence awards, Niche/Small Target MarketGloria Jean’s Coffee is currently targeting small market segment, young adults segment, which comprises people age 18 to 25 years old, compared to Starbucks, 15 to 64 years old. Besides that, Gloria Jean’s mainly focuses on female customers, where half of the sales came from that particular gender. Customers Are More Demanding Nowadays, customers are more knowledgeable towards coffee. Besides, there is no switching cost to other competitors. They know what different types of coffee taste like and what kind of beans came from where. Thus they only drink those that they prefer and they like.Customers are price sensitive, where a slight change in price might lead to change in preferred brand due to the low switching cost. This means that if customers do not get what they want from a brand, they will have no obligations to switch to the other brand, or they might as well buy coffee beans from supermarkets and brew themselves, which is one of the reason why sales is declining. Highly Competitive Industry There are a lot of brands that selling the same product, which is coffee. Most of it is already well established. Thus it is a highly competitive industry where all are fighting for a share in the industry.The reason for many companies being in the same industry is because of a profitable market and low entry barrier. Growth in specialist coffee shops such as Hudson’s Coffee and Starbucks Coffee took up a huge portion of the share in the market. Selection of Franchisee/Partners Gloria Jeans is very particular in selecting franchisees or partners. The company stands by their values, which is â€Å"Our partnerships are based on inte grity and trust†. They only choose those that they prefer and they feel good with. Logo description Gloria Jean's coffee  logo colors  are two  shades of brown, orange, yellow, and silver.The logo itself is a coffee cup with steam coming out of it. The motto is â€Å"escape the daily grind† are full of meaningful in a coffee lover life. [pic] 3. 3 Customer Retention strategies Operations Gloria Jean’s Coffees strive to develop their operations in retail business environment by using several channels. One of their distribution strategies is having a very well known third party companies that basically shares their beliefs, values, and commitment to quality. Gloria Jean’s Coffees also expanded their coffee business by making their coffee and coffee-related products available via mail order and the World Wide Web.This suits their main slogan, which is, â€Å"Making It Glorious† (Gloria Jean’s Coffees n. d. ). Donate / Joint venture with so ciety Our success is thanks to the communities that support us, and in return we aim to give back whenever possible. We strive to have a positive impact, both on the communities from where we source our coffee and the communities we serve. Gloria Jean’s Coffees’ core value of â€Å"Belief in People, Building and Changing Lives† Gloria Jean’s Coffees in Singapore has collaborated with World Vision International by sponsoring seven children through the Child Sponsorship Programmed.The Child Sponsorship Programmed supports the world’s less fortunate children from various countries by addressing the root causes of poverty and diseases, helping these children, their families and communities break the cycle of poverty, and empowering them to help themselves in the future. A Bean for a Dream for our sponsored children. When you buy a Happy Cookie at our outlet, part of the proceeds will go towards the outlet’s sponsored child. The bean represents t he dreams that you will help fulfill, and the card shows your support for the Child Sponsorship Programmed.Customer Service Due to the company’s ‘family spirit’, they tend to take customer service as an important role and expect their partners would share these values in the area. Since Gloria Jean’s Coffee houses around the world are known for providing a very friendly environment and offers a personalized service. Therefore, Ian Martin, group chief executive of Gloria Jean’s Coffee franchise said that, â€Å"At Gloria Jean's we don't talk about customer service because we don't have customers, we have guests. This is more than emantics – we don't see ourselves as retailers, but as a coffee house, serving guests, and you treat guests differently from customers† (Franchise Business 2007). This is one of Gloria Jean’s Coffees strength as it is proven that they do take their consumers seriously. Production-Operations Gloria Jeanâ €™s Coffees stores are typically more like a gift shop concept than a specialty coffee outlet. Stores vary in size and located in a variety of settings, including overlooking parks and gardens, the beach, and main thoroughfares. Most of the location chosen for their outlets usually is a metropolitan area which most of people usually go.They believe in the concept of higher volume, higher chances of having customers. The product mix varies between each store based on the size and location of the store. It was a take-away concept, which is totally un-Australian. Marketing Gloria Jean’s Coffees positions their products on quality and experience, rather than just offering coffees. A comparison of specialty drinks with its competitors reveals very minor differences. Gloria Jean’s Coffees’ image is one of the key elements to their success. The company has realized that people don’t only come for the coffee; they come for the atmosphere.People socialize, rea d, study, dine, or just enjoy the music while drinking their coffee. By knowing this, Diedrich Coffee try to make their stores unique in some way or another that will create a vibrant store atmosphere. Research and Development Gloria Jean’s Coffees consider research and development (R) as one of the main factor to be successful in the market thus they constantly urge their employees to be innovative and creative. This is evident through the continuous developments of new and exciting products, being the various drink flavors and coffee related products.By introducing more and more new products and by developing new distribution channels, it coincides with Gloria Jean’s Coffees goal of becoming the most loved and respected coffee company in the world. 3. 4 Services Recovery Strategies Caring for Upset Customers Now and again there are bound to be problems. A customer may be dissatisfied with his meal or may find the quality to be below his standards. There are special t raining for server and they have to attend it, in able to get confirmation of services. At Gloria Jean’s Coffee they are 100% sure servers know the best ways to handle customer complaints.Retaining upset customers can be a challenge. By putting in the effort and respect to recover distressed customers, usually Gloria Jean’s may be able to convince their customer to return to in the future. Customer Comment Cards Customer comment cards are recently use and most type of way in evaluating the customer experience. Customer comment cards are typically set out on the table or delivered by the server at the end of the meal. Customers can rate qualities of the Gloria Jean’s Coffee cafe, such as food presentation, menu pricing and server friendliness. 4. 0 COMPARATIVE ANALYSISThe definition of comparative analysis are the item-by-item comparison of two or more comparable alternatives, processes, products, qualifications, sets of data, systems, or the like. In accounting, for example, changes in a financial statement's items over several accounting periods may be presented together to detect the emerging trends in the company's operations and results. 4. 1 Comparisons Starbuck Coffee and Gloria Jeans Coffee in term of Customer Retention Strategies In order to maintain the customers for both companies in this industry, there have to make sure that their customers always satisfied with their product.The definition of customer retention strategy are helps the organization to keep their sales up, to create social and structural bonds and build engagement to delight the customers. The top strategies to retain customers are: market to the existing clients, connect with the customers, ask for feedback and input, share resources, reward customers for staying, be consistent in the approach and interactions, and follow through on the commitments, and keep learning. It is well documented that optimizing customer loyalty has a direct and positive impact on a co mpany’s financial performance and strategy.Increasing customer loyalty through improved customer experiences can be driven by the insight gained from a comprehensive customer feedback program. Below are comparisons table for both company. 4. 2 Comparisons Starbuck Coffee and Gloria Jeans Coffee in term of Services Recovery Strategies Service recovery has drawn the attention of researchers and academicians recently. The concept of service recovery is seen as both business practice and focus of  marketing study which has developed over time.Perhaps the strongest single factor  that causes service failure is the nature of service products themselves, which increase the possibilities of errors, or service failures, and therefore the need for recovery. Most scholars point out that the difference between tangible products and intangible services has increased customer awareness of the possibility of service failures either  from the operational perspective or from the custome r’s viewpoint and it’s difficult for marketers to understand and to meet customer  expectations. Besides, service variability has been identified as ongoing problem both for marketing and quality managers.Below is the table of both companies for services recovery strategies. 5. 0 CONCLUSION 5. 1 Conclusion for Starbucks and Gloria Jean’s As one of the famous coffee brand shop, the coffee shop does well in the field of marketing. According to the analysis of the shop’s situations concerning the marketing mix and positioning, a clear picture of the shop’s competitive advantages can be achieved. Generally speaking, there are some important factors that help the shop to achieve business success, which include convenient location, guaranteed high quality of both coffee and service and the Starbucks and Gloria Jean’s brand itself.On the other hand, this research also gives some recommendations to help to solve problems found during the course of research. For example, the shop should pay more attention to create a more comfortable environment in the guest area, and be more positive to introduce the â€Å"Member Card† which can help to build more stable and loyal customer relationship. 5. 2 Recommendation for Starbucks Coffee Based on the analysis, there are some issues should be taken into considerations to make further improvements for the Starbucks coffee shop.First one is based on the customers’ expectation survey. Some customers suggest that Starbucks should offer more comfortable armchairs and coaches, canopy and replace the outdoor floor with the wooden floor as same as the indoor decoration. In service industry, customers often look for tangible clues, namely physical evidence which can influence customer’s evaluation of service quality. In this case, there is knowledge gap between the service providers and the customers perceived service quality.More comfortable environment can help create frie ndlier atmosphere, which enhance the supplementary services by adding values to customers. It is more attractive to customers, especially when they want to have a relaxed time in this Starbucks shop except for a cup of coffee. Besides that, many customers were surprised when they heard that Starbucks also offer a reward card called â€Å"Starbucks Card Visa†, which, however, is not introduced to customers by staff, compared to the Gloria Jean’s positive attitude to introduce their discount card to customers.Loyalty reward programs can offer existing customers incentives to remain loyal and perhaps even increase their purchases. In this case, the coffee shop appears negative to reward their customers, which is easily resulting in customer defection because customers will feel like being defected when they get to know the truth. The shop should realize that existing customers are more profitable while winning new customers are costly. Thirdly, should pay more attention t o educate its customers about Starbucks’ coffee culture. Starbucks does well in brand building.Besides good coffee, it also provides its customers a very particular type of experience called the â€Å"third place†, a place away from their home and work, where people can meeting friends and business partners or just get relaxed by reading a book with a cup of gourmet coffee. This is the Starbucks’ positioning, the selling point. However, according to the survey results, no one knows it. The shop should realize that differentiation is most of the time why people buy. A clear concept of what the difference is will directly pull customers to come in. There should be a complete consideration about the cost issue before taking action. 5. Recommendation for Gloria Jean’s Coffee Product Uniqueness Gloria Jeans should opt for better coffee beans or a variety of coffee beans from around the world. Beans could be obtained from areas such as South America and Indones ia. These are the places that venture into to obtain variety of beans that suits the consumers. By doing so, consumers will definitely have a variety of brew that they could choose from, besides, the special beans could even provide a better taste of coffee for different types of consumers. Using low fat milk, creamer and artificial sweetener could benefit those whom are worried about obesity and have obesity problem.This specially caters to them as it is less fattening and less sweet, thus it could comply with World Health Organizations agenda of providing healthier food and beverages. Product Differentiation Gloria Jeans should provide food to customers instead of only cakes and pies. This is because walk in customers would find it convenient to dine in instead of just buying coffee from the outlet. Menu such as breakfast sets and set lunch should be provided besides serving light food such as sandwiches and cakes. Raising standards Most walk in customers look for a cozy and warm place to hangout when they enter the outlet.Gloria Jeans could provide a better environment for them by using comfortable sofas and furniture, warm ambience with music and also providing handicap facilities. This will improve consumers’ perception towards the outlet. Modern equipment such as The Clover, which is a specialized brewing machine that allows a barista to quickly deliver one freshly brewed cup of coffee at a time, would be useful. It takes quite some time for a freshly brewed cup of coffee to be served to customers with traditional equipments, thus it might lose some customers whom could not wait.Many people patronize coffee outlet is because it is a neutral place for people to talk about business and do their homework and assignment. This means that internet connection is very useful for them, including students whom usually do their assignments and homework at the outlet. Providing Wi-Fi service to them might benefit Gloria Jeans, as more people will patronize th e outlets for usage of Wi-Fi, which will indirectly linked to purchasing of coffee in the outlet. Increase baristas standards Providing further training such as entrepreneurship skills and management skills to baristas might improve their services.Baristas will feel more knowledgeable in handling situations that might occur. Giving baristas extra incentives such as entertainment allowance and company trips might boost up their morale, which might indirectly increase their productivity level and decrease the turnover rate. Widen the target market Gloria Jeans target market in considerably small, where there only target people aged 18 to 25 years old compared to other competitors. They could widen their target market to cater students as well as corporate business people.This can be done by widening the operation to hotels and resorts, healthcare, college and university campus environments and business and industry cafeterias. Besides that, they could provide kids menu, which could be favorable to those families that brings their children together to Gloria Jeans’ outlet. Increase Customer Awareness Gloria Jeans hardly did any advertising and promotions. They should advertise in local newspaper on their special promotions and their new products to gain customers awareness. Celebrity endorsement could also be useful in the sense that Gloria Jeans is their choice of coffee.This will gain attention of the fans of the celebrity and also people in public. Local celebrities such as Nicole Kidman is prove to be useful as a marketing strategy in the sense of celebrity endorsement. Social and environmental effort can be seen as a good way to increase customers’ awareness towards the brand name. Doing charity work such as funding the coffee bean farmers, building schools and clinics could be seen as a useful tool to gain worldwide attention towards what Gloria Jeans is doing for the world. They could also be part of Governments plan of reducing the consumpti on of electricity and water by doing so in the outlets itself.Customer incentives Gloria Jeans should reward their loyal customers with membership card or loyalty card to encourage them to stay loyal to the brand and also continue patronizing. These rewards will be beneficial to them and make them feel happy and treasured. They could provide them with discounts coupons and free refills for them who have the membership card, and encourages those that have not sign up, to sign up for these benefits. Franchisee Criteria Gloria Jeans has a strict policy in choosing franchisees for their business. This causes a lot of potential franchisees withdrawn from franchising for Gloria Jeans.The company should be more lenient towards the requirement in selecting franchisee or partners. But then also they have to do adequate power research on the background of the franchisee before choosing them. This is because they reflect the brand image of the company when they are operating under Gloria Jeans ’s name. Choosing the Right Partner From the problem regarding funding Mercy Ministry against anti-gay society, Gloria Jeans should discontinue the funding of it in order not to interfere with serious issues that could jeopardize the business.Instead, they should fund beneficial organizations such as Red Crescent Society and World Wildlife Fund. This will also help promote Gloria Jeans name worldwide, as a form of consumer awareness 6. 0 REFERENCE ? http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Gloria_Jean's_Coffees ? http://www. gloriajeans. com. sg/our-drinks/ ? http://www. starbucks. com. my/ ? theentrepreneurshipjournal. wordpress. com/†¦ /customer-retention-strategies ? www. slideshare. net/Spartanski/starbucks-case-analysis ? http://www. ukessays. com/essays/marketing/gloria-jean-coffee. php