Friday, May 31, 2019

Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Nature of Religious Language Essay -- Languag

Ludwig Wittgenstein once believed that languages function was to name objects and the meaning of language was found in the objects for which it stands. He later rejected this and centred on how language works and is utilise, believing that problems of spectral language come from misunderstanding its usage. Wittgenstein was no longer concerned with the truth or falsity of language but the way it is used and the functions that it performs, as he said Dont ask for the meaning ask for the use. Wittgenstein recognised that language is equivocal as words have many different meanings, such as the word pen whose meaning changes in different contexts. He saw language as a game, which like all games had its own set of rules. Different contexts or forms of life be like different language games with their own self contained rules. Those not involved in a particular language game effectively become non-players and so the language holds no meaning for them, howe ver, this does not give the non-believer the right to dismiss unearthly language as meaningless. Wittgenstein used the example of soul to illustrate the problems of trying to use words in the wrong language game. He felt that the problems stemming from the word soul are caused because people try to see it as a physical object. Such problems would disappear if people realised that the physical object game didnt apply in this case. It was argued that language is a social product, therefore individuals could not have their own private language as one could not be certain that language was being used correctly. Wittgenstein therefore rejected Descartes ... ... Religious believers are also involved in other language games because they are involved in other aspects of life. This means that religious language is not totally isolated and there will be some common ground with other language games. This may suggest that the non-believer may be able to unde rstand religious language and decide if it holds any meaning for them. It is also argued that if anything, non-believers may be able to understand religious language cleanse than a believer, as they can be more objective about it. It seems that Wittgenstein was mistaken as seeing religious language only being transparent in the context of religious belief. Many religious statements entail a truth which is not dependent upon context, but statements such as Jesus died to bring salvation are though of as true for everyone.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Imagery in The Jungle :: Upton Sinclair

The scenes that I encountered when reading about the meat packaging industry in the early 1900s were very graphic. Some images were more graphic than others. The offshoot scene that comes to intelligence when I think about the passage The Jungle was the huge iron wheel with pigs on it. This scene sticks out in my mind because I can almost see the pigs squealing as they are ripped away by their feet up higher and higher into the air. I can in like manner see the massive river of hogs awaiting their turn to be chained up by the burly Negro. Another scene that is easy to describe is the scene where the knockers struck the oxen on the head with a sledge hammer. In this scene all I can imagine is worn out man who has swung a sledge all day. This man would have to be worn out in a couple of years due to the physical demand. The next scene im dismission to describe is the scene in the steaming room. This is probably one of the most disgusting scenes in the entire text. Knowing all th e germs that could possibly be in that respect and the fact that there was new germs brought in every hour. The odor those custody had to have worked in would have been gut wrenching. The bubbly creek was the part of the wampum river into which all the blood, lard, hair, and any other possible thing that came off of a pig or cow was swept into. The idea that a man came on and collected the film that formed on the top and sold it as pure lard is appalling. And to think that unsuspecting families purchased the waste and then cooked with it. One of the jobs the men in the manufacturing plant could apply for was the knocker. This was the man who would knock out the cows before they were slid out of the killing bed. Another job there was in the factory was the butcher this guy was the one who was to flow out the cow. The way in which he did this was to make one swift stroke to the cow. After which the cow was hung to bleed out. The headsman was one of the other jobs men had in the f actory. It was his job to make two or three swift strikes to the neck and severe the head in the fastest manner possible.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

A Good Man is Hard to Find, by Flannery OConnor :: Good Man Is Hard to Find Essays

A Good Man is Hard to Find, by Flannery OConnor In the short story, A Good Man is Hard to Find, by Flannery OConnor, every object including the characters are symbols. The Grandmother, who is the one and only dynamic character, represents all of us who have repented. The story is, as Flannery OConnor has suggested a spiritual journey because of the Grandmothers Plight. In the beginning of the story the Grandmother is obsessed with everything worldly and superficial. She cares far too much about how others perceive her, Her collars and cuffs were white organdy trimmed with lace and at her neckline she had pinned a purple spray of cloth violets containing a sachet. In case of an accident, anyone seeing her dead on the highway would know at once that she was a lady (OConner 138).She gets dressed up for a car trip so that, on the off chance that they would be in a car crash and that in that wreck she would be thrown from the car and laying on the pavement, she would be happy becaus e the people passing would think that she is a lady. This represents us as humans because daily we choose to be way too self-conscience. Think about females and make-up. Make-up is a perfect example of us caring a great deal about what others think of us. She is also very selfish in her endeavors. Instead of caring about what is best for the family, she wants to go to Tennessee because she has friends there whom she would alike(p) to see. There are three phases of thought for the Grandmother. During the first phase, which is in the beginning, she is completely focused on herself in relation to how others think of her. The Second Phase occurs when she is sermon to The Misfit. In the story, The Misfit represents a quasi-final judgment. He does this by acting like a mirror. He lets whatever The Grandmother says bounce right off him. He neer really agrees with her or disagrees, and in the end he is the one who kills her. His second to last line, She would of been a good woman, The Misfit said, if it had been somebody there to shoot her every turn of her life, (OConner 152). might be the way OConner felt about most of us alive, or how she felt that God must feel about us.

Capital Structure :: Economy, The Trade-Off Theory

The trade-off theory and the pecking order theory suggest a negative recounting in the midst of leverage and business risk. However, supported by literature Bennet and Donelly (1993), Huang and Song (2003), Booth et al. (2001), and Deemosak et al. (2004) the results presented display a strong and signifi thunder mugt positive relation between them for all the measures of leverage. This relation can be justified by suggesting that idle firms will t close to use more debt since they cannot transfer wealth from bondholders to shareholders (Bennet and Donelly, 1993) or that firms with risky investments will use higher levels of debt (Huang and Song, 2003). Additionally, a firm can increase its levels of risky investment if the costs and risk of entering into a liquidation function is low (Deemosak et al., 2004). As the Latin American firms volatility of earnings increases, they tend to rely in debt for their future investments. Focusing to the models including macroeconomic indicat ors (columns market as II) it can be seen that inflation has a strong and significant positive relation with leverage. The results, though, contradict with literature Booth et al. (2001), Barbosa and Moraes (2003) and Jorgensen and Terra (2003). Latin American countries have experienced high place of inflation at the end of the 1990s however, since 1995, inflation has been decreasing. Despite the latter, internal and external financial crisis has led inflation to rise again at the end of 1990s and at the beginning of 2000. The results suggest that Latin American firms increase their debt levels when inflation rises because in inflationary periods nominal liabilities, such as debt, depreciate in value, thus, become more attractive to the borrower. The ratio of stock market metropolisization to GDP has a negative relation with all the dependent variables, as the capital market develop become a viable alternative firms will tend to use less debt. On the other hand, the ratio of de posit money bank to GDP displays a positive relation with leverage - as the banking sector increases, firms will have more incentive to use more debt. For two variables, the results concur with Booth et al. (2001) and with Agarwal and Mohatadi (2004). Booth et al. (2001) argue that higher economic growth tends to increase debt ratios, however, the results illustrate that in Latin American countries economic growth is negatively related with leverage (except for the long-term debt ratio indicating that firms will choose low debt levels during expansion in the business cycle).

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

The Role of Fear Depicted in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible Essay

The play The Crucible is an allegory for the McCarthyism hysteria that occurred in the late 1940s to the late 1950s. Arthur millers play the crucible and the McCarthyism time demonstrates how maintenance can begin conflict. The term McCarthyism has come to mean the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, which is the basis of the Salem witch trials presented in Arthur Millers play. The revere that the trials generate leads to the internal and external conflicts that some of the characters are faced with, in the play. The towns people disquietude the consequences of admitting their displeasure of the trials and the character of John invigilate faces the same external conflict, simply also his own internal conflict. The trials begin due to Abigail and her friends fearing the consequences of their defiance of Salems puritan society.The witch hunt in the crucible is initiated when Abigail and her friends fear the consequences of their dancing in the forest. This connects to McCarthyism as the HUAC is represented by the judges and the accuses (the girls) are representatives of Elia Kazan and others like him. The theocratic society of Salem is what the girls fear as the forest is seen as the devils resting place and the puritan nature of the town forbid dancing as it was seen as vain enjoyment which as Miller himself states at the beginning of the novel to not be allowed. The character of Mary Warren begs the girls to just admit they were dancing as youll only be whipped for dancin, but as Abigail is questioned and Parris mentions the kettle and how he believed there to be some movement- in the soup, the devil becomes prominent in the conversation. This is due to Abigail fearing that she will be blasted for devil worshipp... ...h, his wife, does not want to admit her husbands deceit, proctor is accused of lying to the court. When Proctor confesses his sin of lechery he feels better and his internal wrong is freed. This is different to the end of the p lay where he signed the confession to witchcraft. He later rips it up as could not live with himself if he were to allow Abigail to let down away with her lies, through confessing to something he did not do. In ripping up the confession he is also able to keep his good name which he says at the end is all he has left, his name, and he does not want to give it away.In conclusion, the fear generated by Abigail and the other girls, which began initially with their own fear of punishment, caused the towns fear and lead to John proctors external and internal conflict. Therefore making true the statement the prime initiator of conflict is fear.

The Role of Fear Depicted in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible Essay

The play The Crucible is an allegory for the McCarthyism hysteria that occurred in the late 1940s to the late 1950s. Arthur Millers play the crucible and the McCarthyism era demonstrates how fear can begin conflict. The term McCarthyism has come to mean the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, which is the innovation of the Salem witch trials presented in Arthur Millers play. The fear that the trials generate leads to the interior(a) and external conflicts that some of the characters atomic number 18 faced with, in the play. The towns people fear the consequences of admitting their displeasure of the trials and the character of John Proctor faces the same external conflict, but also his own internal conflict. The trials begin due to Abigail and her friends fearing the consequences of their insubordination of Salems puritan society.The witch hunt in the crucible is initiated when Abigail and her friends fear the consequences of their leap in the forest. This connects to McCarthyism as the HUAC is represented by the judges and the accuses (the girls) are representatives of Elia Kazan and others like him. The theocratic society of Salem is what the girls fear as the forest is seen as the makes resting place and the puritan nature of the town forbid dancing as it was seen as vain enjoyment which as Miller himself states at the beginning of the novel to not be allowed. The character of Mary Warren begs the girls to barely admit they were dancing as youll only be whipped for dancin, but as Abigail is questioned and Parris mentions the kettle and how he believed there to be some movement- in the soup, the devil becomes prominent in the conversation. This is due to Abigail fearing that she will be blamed for devil worshipp... ...h, his wife, does not want to admit her husbands deceit, proctor is accused of fraud to the court. When Proctor confesses his sin of lechery he feels better and his internal guilt is freed. This is different to the end of the play where he signed the confession to witchcraft. He later rips it up as could not live with himself if he were to allow Abigail to get away with her lies, through confessing to something he did not do. In ripping up the confession he is also able to keep his good name which he says at the end is all he has left, his name, and he does not want to give it away.In conclusion, the fear generated by Abigail and the other girls, which began initially with their own fear of punishment, caused the towns fear and lead to John proctors external and internal conflict. Therefore making true the statement the prime instigator of conflict is fear.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Internal And External Factors Effect The Levels Of Management Essay

How Internal And External Factors Effect The Levels Of Management For a play along to be successful in the long term today, they must(prenominal)iness be diverse. The political party demand to be able to adapt to changes. The need for these changes whoremonger present themselves from many another(prenominal) angles. Some would include changes in the economy, marketing, or raze a change in the target audience. A high society has to look at more than just the four levels of management. Organizations must look at how privileged and away factors plunder affect the four levels of management, and adjust accordingly for these changes to be successful in todays world.DiversityThere are many types of diversity, racial, ethnic, cultural, age, gender, and geographic. But diversity stand also include experience and skills. A guilds ability to survive depends on their ability to adapt to real changes. The diversity within a fraternity must be taken into consideration during the f our cultivates of management. The most successful companies will be those that recognize the mogul of diversity in their workforce and in the product mix, and effectively create products and services that appeal to their increasingly diverse customer base. By including diversity in the externalisening stage, Amazon. om would reflect diversity in their argument.This would results in better products and a wider range of consumers giving them an advantage over competitors. The company must understand its organizational structure, and the social and cultural perspectives of its employees in regularise to be effective, efficient, and promote an environment suitable for fare. Employees who are diverse in skills, experience, and background help to builds a significant organizational foundation. Increasing globalization requires companies to energize more interaction with diverse cultures and backgrounds.Organizations must be prepared to teach themselves and their employees to valu e multicultural differences. Management must motivate their employees to attend diversity training in send to be educated on diametrical cultures and traditions and to respect these differences. Diversity is critical to a companys success. We are part of a worldwide economy with global competition. Diversity can increase productivity, marketing opportunities, recruitment, and the organizations image which, in turn, can increase profits (Leading With Diversity, nd). Globalization Globalization has changed the face of stage business.In todays business market, international business is necessary in order to gain an advantage. Amazon. com understands this requirement. With the formation of the Internet and Internet marketing, globalization was a beneficial perk which changed the business market, providing a way for companies to reach businesses and customers from around the globe at the click of a mouse. Amazon. com was created to work in the global business environment through the I nternet. The company handles B2B and B2C relations and transactions. Amazon. com uses an online customer data base to keep up with the demands of customers.The company created an Internet e-business model, and built up from these based on information obtained from customers. The companys strong infrastructure supports its mission to be the leader in e-commerce, (A Conceptual Analysis f the Key success of Business in terms of Internet Marketing, 2012). Customers are always looking for convenience in todays global economy. Amazon. com uses technological innovation to drive growth and deliver convenience to its customers. An online business, such as Amazon. com, bases goals for Planning on these factors.In order to deliver strategic value, a company such as Amazon. com works to extend globally to reach customers and retailers internationally. Amazon. com began with a B2C platform, but management saw the potential difference to be an online global leader by handling B2B relations as we ll. When Organizing, management adds software, e-commerce capabilities, and access for businesses to use the online companys resources. Amazon. com has created a global online business through proper planning and organizing that delivers strategic value. Management Leading can mobilize and motivate employees.Amazon. com has extended its sales and products through extended branches in different parts of the world to add services anytime and anywhere through the Internet and globalization. Through the Controlling process of management, online companies such as Amazon. com have continuously modify and expanded services to all over the world. As a result of success through correctly utilizing the four functions of management, Amazon. com is a leading fortune calciferol company who uses globalization through the World Wide Web to deliver fast, successful services to customers and retailers.Without the possibility of globalization through technology, e-commerce would not be sufficient for the company to stay on top. Technology Technology is constantly changing and considerably hard to keep up with. Be act of these changes, managing at Amazon. com would definitely be a challenge. Managers must start with the planning phase by evaluating and determining consumers needs for buying, selling, using, and shipping which can show both internal and external growth. individualised data is shared online and is protected to ensure safe transactions. Amazon. com ensures that identity theft is never an option through their technology.Organizing all the data gathered from technology can also help management keep track of trends, sales, and possible returns. Once this information is shared among management, they are then able to lead employees with training on how to implement new-fashioned technology like software, security protection on servers. Amazon. com also ensures employees are adhering to company policy with the use and access of services online. The tyrannical phas e of management is completed by watching over the progress of smart phone applications, Internet home use, and shipping sales.By watching progress and being sure initial goals and challenges are being met, the security of consumer information and products are not being put to risk, and if a problem arises, management can catch it early enough to take care of the situation. With technology making access to Amazon. com so much easier for consumers, the management of this constant changing technology can be a huge challenge with so many options for access and keeping the information protected with encryptions. Innovation With an ever changing market, a not bad(p) business has to be able to become what the consumer needs at any given moment.This requires innovation. Innovation involves any new idea, product, process, technology or service that a business introduces to its consumer. When it comes to innovation and the planning process, a business needs to be aware that factors such as t he market, the customers current needs, and even what products competitors have released, can affect the current business plan. There needs to be flexibility in the business plan to account for these changes. A business needs to have leaders who are able to understand how their business is being currently run and how it can be run in the future.This allows them to see ow changes in the business plan might affect all aspects of the business. A business manager needs to be open-minded and encourage its employees to share their ideas on new business models, new ways to make a profit and even ways to improve existing business methods so that the current business plan is both innovative and effective. When it comes to innovation and the organizing process, a company needs to be aware of the current business plan at all times. The need for a business to be innovative and adapt to the changes in the market can cause all four functions of management to need adjusting frequently.If the busin ess plan is changed, the company needs to re-gather and assign all its resources, employees and finances to ensure that the new plan can be implemented fully and in an organized manner. Innovation affects this function of management in a more indirect way by changing the planning process, the directing process changes. When a company decides to change their business plan, they have to re-direct the staff. When evaluating the staff, the manager needs to be sure that they are on track to meet the goals outlined in the planning process.Innovation can cause the goals to change, thus causing managers to re-evaluate the employees to be sure they are still on track. Ethics Every business is run by a set label of ethics. Ethics are different for every person, as they are an individuals personal take on what is right and what is wrong. A business uses a code of ethics to ensure that every employee abides by the same set of standards and upholds the values of the organization with which they work. When it comes to the planning process, ethics play a key role. The company needs to know how they want their business to appear to the public and develop their plan around that.If a company wants to appear ethical and trustworthy to its customers it has to provide great customer service at all times. This meant that Amazon. com had to create a safe site, a quality product, and be sure to deliver the product promptly. When it comes to organizing and ethics, Amazon. com had to be sure to keep all resources, employees, and finances in order to keep their word on the quality of both their product and their delivery times. For the customer to commit that Amazon. com is an ethical and trustworthy site requires employees and resources to be organized at all times.When it comes to leading their employees, it is important to be sure that they are not only on task but also following the companys code of ethics. If having a safe site, a quality product, and prompt delivery is important to Amazon. com it needs to be important to all their employees as well. When analyzing the progress being made, the manager needs to also be sure that the staff is remaining diligent in their efforts to ensure quality customer service. Ethics are found in every facet of a company and therefore they need to be monitored regularly. resultantThere is so much more that goes into maintaining a successful business in todays competitive marketplace than just the four levels of management. The company must always be aware of and be able to adapt to many changing factors. These factors come from many places in the marketplace. Some are external and the company will have little to no control over these and must simply adapt. However the internal factors can be controlled by the company through monitoring and policy changes. The company that can notice the changing factors and integrate and adapt to these changes will be successful in todays competitive marketplace.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Fdi in Aviation

New Delhi, Sep 21 (IANS)Civil Aviation MinisterAjit Singh Friday said the governments open-sky constitution for contradictory investment in domestic airlineshas positively bear on sentiments in theaviation industry, but it is too early to say how much investment the sector would attract. The sector is going through difficult times and is set about financial stress due to the overall economic slow calibrate. But the mood is upbeat now after we (government) allowed 49 percent FDI in airlines, Singh told reporters on the sidelines of an Assocham takings here. Time will tell how manyforeign airlinesare interested, Singh added a day after the government notified that the foreign airlines green goddess now pick up 49 per cent s recall in domestic passenger carriers. Foreign carriers pay back so far not been allowed to directly invest in Indian carriers for security reasons, although 49 percent FDI by non-airline players was allowed. TheIndian airlinessector has been going through a tough operating environment as high give notice and interest cost lease hurt it. The government expects that the decision will help bring in more funds to the airlines who comport been cold bring up by banks.The decision is particularly expected to help airlines like Kingfisher to gain capital and resume full overhauls. Other Indian carriers require funds for intricacy and to gain market share. International airlineshave wel motherd thegovernment move. Ccarriers like Singapore Airlines, Emirates and theInternational Airlines Group(IAG), which owns British Airways and Iberia, have said they do not have any immediate plans to invest in India. Virgin Atlantic and Lufthansa also said they were not keen on investing in India at the moment.Middle atomic number 99 airline Etihad Airways has said it will wait for all the modalities of the new reforms are clear. Several such overseas carriers contacted by IANS and aviation watchers said high sooty fuel cost, an extremely price-sensi tive market, huge debt of the carriers and contracting domestic passenger traffic are the reasons deterring them to invest. Fdi in aviation pic After allowing foreign airlines to buy stake in domestic carriers, the civil aviation ministry is considering issuing around 30-40 licences for non-scheduled operations. A top ministry official said that many aviation ompanies have shown interest in offset non-scheduled operations, which do not have a fixed schedule. accord to sources, some of these companies have come up with renewed proposals to the ministry. This has renewed the interest of the ministry, which is now working on issuing some licences. Officials said that regional connectivity will get a boost following the decision on allowing 49 per cent foreign direct investment in the sector. Till of late, we were not convinced with the feedback we got from DGCA (Directorate General of Civil Aviation).Now, we can think of issuing licences to non-scheduled Indian aviation companies w ho have come to us with foreign tie-ups as nearly. We are sure the new tie-ups in non-scheduled operations will definitely bring in good technology and impressionin better maintenance of aircraft, said a senior official. Non-scheduled operators are carried on mostly by VIPs or flying schools, and corporate as well as government organizations. They largely have major safety losss, which has deterred the ministry from issuing such licences.Their operations remain largely free from surprise safety audits. According to Planning Commission estimates, non-scheduled operations could involve 300 business jets, 300 small planes and 250 helicopters during the 12th Plan (2012-17) owing to increasing demand. Many regional airlines that have either departed or will begin their operations soon include G. R. Gopinaths Deccan Shuttle, which would offer connectivity within Gujarat. The present has good regional airport network and has non-scheduled operations being carried by like Air Mantra, ow ned by corporate groups.Until now, foreign airlines were allowed to participate in the equity of companies operating cargo airlines, helicopter and pilot services but not in the equity of an air transport undertaking operating scheduled and non-scheduled transport services. Banks which were unwilling to provide funds to the airline industry due to the prevailing financial distress are slowly opening up to non-scheduled operations paving way for more investment. The government is ill looking at expanding nonscheduled operations as scheduled airlines are unwilling to fly to tier-II and tier III towns and cities as it is not economically viable. At least, we can kick-start operations with NSOPs (nonscheduled operations) initially. There is a great potential for airlines to exploit the non-metros cities and smaller towns. We are hopeful that expanding NSOPs to these places would work and scheduled operations will also piecemeal pick up, said an official. Recently, civil aviation mini ster Ajit Singh had said that the government would come up with a new aircraft-acquisition policy to deal with airlines acquiring a single type of aircraft, which is causing problem in providing connectivity to smaller towns and cities.Read more athttp//indiatoday. intoday. in/story/aviation-ministry-eyes-non-scheduled-operations/1/222442. html Issues It is good news that half a dozen regional airlines want to start operations even in these difficult times. The government would do well to help with an appropriate policy and better infrastructure to go with the many concessions already made available to smaller aircraft. Regional airlines have had reasonable success in peninsular India, but not so much in the hinterland or in the poorly connected east.The biggest policy constraint affecting regional airlines is the route dispersion norms. Scheduled carriers have to deploy a certain percentage of their capacity on category II and III routes such as the northeast and Jammu Kashmir. The translucent intent is to ensure availability of certain minimum level of air connectivity to these destinations. But being mostly short-haul routes with less traffic, these are generally loss-making for big airlines that would typically lock in large aircraft such as A-320. These regions are better suited for regional carriers with small jets and turbo-props.The forced presence of the big airlines, however, makes it difficult for such carriers to operate in these regions. A phased withdrawal of the route dispersal policy would create a more conducive regime for regional airlines. In the US, too, regional airlines which have a far more robust business than regular big carriers took off only when the big carrier shrank operations, post 9/11. The other issue is the lack of or costly aviation infrastructure in the metros. It increases costs and reduces operating capacity, as turnaround time at these airports is long.Regional airlines typically have few aircraft, but keep them i n air longer, allowing them to have high frequency or serve more destinations. The poor infrastructure makes such operating efficiency difficult to obtain. The government must think of providing smaller secondary airports in big cities from where such airlines can operate. Besides, India has nearly 450 unused/under-utilised airstrips, which could be pressed into service to open more destinations to air travel, thereby helping improve the case for regional carriers.The government must increase the FDI limit in the sector from the authorized 49%, and also open it to foreign airlines. G. R. Gopinath The Indian aviation sector may be in turbulence mode, but that hasnt shaken the animate of G. R. Gopinath, the father of low-cost air travel in India. Gopinath, who sold Indias first low-cost airline Air Deccan to Vijay Mallya, the owner of Kingfisher Airlines, is gearing up for act once again. I have been preparing for a national launch for the past year, and I hope to be ready next yea r, an upbeat Gopinath told India emailprotectedThe provocation for Gopinath to take to the skies again is simpleKingfisher is in a financial mess. The airline is running a sharply reduced service, and if it does not manage to raise funds, it could shut down anytime. Gopinath, who sold Air Deccan to Mallya in 2006, sees this as an opportunity for his re-entry into the sector. He points out that when Kingfisher bought out Air Deccan, the two brands together had 36% market share. I rely that the market is still largely untapped. This is an unfinished story, and I see a huge opportunity still there. In the meantime, he has reentered the skies with a differentavataar. Gopinath recently launched Deccan Shuttle, a regional airline in the state of Gujarat in Western India. Gopinath points out that apart from the big cities and towns that are connected by the Airbuses and the ATRs, India has around five hundred small airstrips which are not well connected. Gujarat, for instance, has nine a irports. While all of them are linked to Mumbai (Indias financial capital in the neighboring state of Maharastra), they are not linked to state capital Ahmedabad, or to each other.My idea is to open up a new market. I am lusty about providing easy access and connectivity. Gopinath has launched Deccan Shuttle under the banner of Deccan Charters, an aviation services firm that he set up in 1995. This was his first jeopardize in the aviation sector. It currently has 20 aircraft (helicopters, turboprops and business jets) and operates out of 16 locations. Under Deccan Shuttle, Gopinath will begin by deploying around six 10-to-18-seater aircraft in Gujarat. oer the next three years, he plans to have 25 such small aircraft across five states.Gopinathsplanis primarily to offer intra-state connectivity. But in routes where there is significant demand due to cultural or trade reasons, he will also look at inter-state connectivity. Other recent freshmans in this berth include Air Mantra, a unit of the Religare Group. Air Mantra launched in July, connecting Amritsar and Chandigarh in North India. Spirit Air, which operates in Eastern states like Jharkhand, Bihar and Orissa, is planning to start operations in the Southern states soon. Air Pegasus, from Decor Aviation, an airport ground handling agency, is expected to start operations later this year.Analysts are watching the space keenly. There is a lot of potential in the regional airlines business provided the states offer the required infrastructure and policies, and the companies have the appropriate business model by way of routes, pricing strategy, etc. , says Vishwas Udgrikar, senior director and partner, infrastructure and transport at consulting firm Deloitte. He warns, however, that given the current environment in the republics overall aviation sector, players need to be cautious and enter the regional airlines sector with the right preparation. Jasdeep Walia, an analyst at Kotak Institutional Equities, s uggests that running a regional airline could be tough. For distances of around 250-300 kilometers, the demand will be limited, especially if the roads are good and people can cover it by car. And for distances of 500 kilometers to 600 kilometers, there is always the risk that as the demand picks up, bigger airlines will step in. Gopinaths comeback is also evoking interest. Udgirkar points out that any new entrant at the national level, despite prior experience, will find it rattling challenging. There are inherent challenges in this sector and formidable competition, too. Walia adds This space is very competitive, and the government policies are not at all conducive. And Gopinath could not sustain his earlier venture. Gopinaths Air Deccan changed the face of aviation in India, but as a business per se it got grounded. His foray into logistics with Deccan 360 also ran into trouble. Whether or not he can take off this time round remains to be seen. pic pic

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Women and the Effect of Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution was a great time of change for men, the economy, domestic life, and brought the change in the utilisation of women in society to the forefront. As time evolves, so must the lifestyles we as a society lead. This was no different during the industrial revolution in Britain and France. Throughout this paper I will begin to discuss how the impact of industrialization effected the switch in wear down from domestic to factory, the new role of the mother in an industrialized family and the issue of education in the lives of ordinary people, as discussed in the memoirs we have read in class.One of the main make of industrialization was the switch in labor from the women working at home in a domestic milieu to that where her labor brought in wages to the family. Suzanne Voilquin speaks of this in her memoirs A Daughter of the People, And so, at the end of the first week, we were very proud to to deposit on our fathers mantle piece the eighteen francs we earned as wages.(Voilquin, 112). Throughout her story, she tells of how done the ability of her and her sister being able to work, they were able to support the family while her father was infirm. Without this opportunity, the family may have been put out onto the streets. It is through these two womens effort that the family survived.With the women now being able to earn wages out of the home, the role of the mother greatly changed within the home of the industrialized family. in the lead the revolution, children were raised on the plantation with the mother, father, and siblings as discussed in Agricols, Memoirs of a Compagnon. In regards to his fathers plantation moreover he made good use of his childrens labor. He wanted to make us hard workers rather than gentlemen and ladies, and in this he did right.(117). We have also learned form this era that when women moved to factories, newborn children no longer had the opportunity to pillow with the mother. Infants were sent off to a wet nu rse, so that the women could return to work as soon as possible after the birth. This provided a new environment in which children were raised however the pros and cons of this new lifestyle varied.This brings me to my final point of the issue of education in the industrial revolution. It seems that throughout the memoirs the common theme is that labor was valued over education. Most children had no education at all and went to the factory as soon as they were able, while children who had a little training rarely went beyond the third grade. Jeanne Bouvier speaks of this in My Memoirs, after her first communion Its a shame you can non leave her longer. Shes very gifted. She even works hard when it comes to manual tasks.(34).It is shown here that girls were not inferior to boys and were just as capable in school. This did nothing for the stigma that was already set on women. Many times the father was not spontaneous to pay for his daughters to go to school just the sons were worthy of the cost of education. My motherpaid the fees for her daughters with the money she earnedmy father paid only for his sons.(Perdiguier 119). Obviously, the emphasis was set(p) on manual labor during this revolution, for it brought in money that the family may so desperately need.The industrial revolution placed the ordinary worker into a mirade of new, enterprising, and but sometimes compromising situations. Workers were faced with new problems, but also with opportunities that had never been available before. It is through their struggle that we are the society we know today. It is through the historical that we can mold our future.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Reading Response to Ode to a Nightingale

In Ode to a Nightingale Keats introduces the reader to his discontent with the void of feeling he is experiencing. In the first line Keats says how his, heart aches which the reader would interpret as pain however the second half of the first line he describes, A drowsy numbness. This verbalizes me that Keats is uncomfortable with the numbness he experiences. In the second line Keats says, as though of hemlock I had drunk. Norton foot notes tell us that hemlock is a poison that acts as a tranquilizer in mild doses.Sedatives cause a euphoria that could be described as drowsy numbness. In the first line Keats repeats the A sound with aches, and a drowsy numbness pains. In the second line Keats repeats the H sound with Hemlock I had drunk. This alliteration and assonance creates a sort of euphoric musical quality, further emphasizing Keats chemically induced omit of feeling described. Continuing with the idea of drug induced emptiness in the third line Keats speaks of some dull opiat e to the drains.Also continuing the use of assonance Keats repeats the D sound with emptied some dull opiate to the drains. Again the feeling produced by this repetition mimics the numb sway of a high. However this line is still more straightforward than the first two because Keats mentions opiate which is a much more well-known drug that produces a numb sort of euphoria. The fourth line of the poem introduces a unused dynamic to the first stanza. Keats says, Lethe-wards had sunk Norton tells us that Lethe is a mythological river in Hades that causes forgetfulness.With this line Keats intention in the first stanza can be spread out from a euphoric void of feeling to one that causes him to forget. Because of this and Keats later references to intoxication (see stanza 2) as well as references to death (see stanza 3) the reader could infer that Keats desired the forgetful, euphoric, lack of feeling. Though Keats opens the poem in line one with My heart aches one could debate just ho w much his heart really aches.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Disposable Society: Capitalism and Consumerism Combined?

It was an interesting sidereal day of picking up otherwise unimportant things, noting my ca give urges to save dispose of varied materials, and observing my precious living environment. At the end of the day, it was time for sorting out other peoples thrash and noting my own habits plus reflecting on these various liquid items that I am supposed to learn from. These are what I have seen and what I have realized. Food items and their case materials come at the top of the list. Second in line, I found office and school materials paper clips, ballpen caps, paper, etc.Then there were the miscellaneous home and in-person items, various odds and ends including Styrofoam pieces from certain packaging materials, plastic containers bolts and nuts and various unidentified metal pieces, pieces of colored cloth, cigarette butts, an old plastic toy top, a CD, and a torn magazine. There are other small items not include in the list here but basi augury these are my categorizations of the d isposable or disposed items collected in a day of walking and observing around.From one angle, it is a most convenient, socially constructed environment that we havethe supposed modern society with all its technology and other trappings. Part of the convenience lies in the disposability of many, if not all the items, that we see around us and which we utilize for meaning(prenominal) survival on the planet. For example, how would we be able to store and therefore distribute food across great distances without the modern techniques of food packaging?The sanitary discourse of food through these technologies however have an implication after the packaged food has been consumed where goes the inedible packaging? There is a need for food manufacturers to component in this question in their development of packing and packaging technology. Everyday, everyone eats, and the more we consume, the more we throw away. In 2004, a University of Arizona study indicates that forty to fifty dollar bill percent of all edible food never gets eaten. Every year $43 billion worth of edible food is estimated to be thrown away.(US wastes half its food, 2007) What lot be done about this? To eat less? Joking aside, we have to be more responsible consumers. Theres a hungry world out there. Moreover, developing biodegradable packaging and eating utensils could be the simple long-term solution perhaps so that environmental contamination is lessened. Or how about edible utensils for a species that is constantly on the go? Perhaps someday. Ours is a society that does not sleep. 24-7 we say. party moves every second, every day and the more we move, the more be create garbage, the more we develop disposables.Ours has become a disposable society. Even many relationships today seem disposable short and cold. In the coldness of many offices and supposed institutions of learning, many items are disposable. Containers, small items that make work less tedious like those yellow sticker-like n otepads, pens, and computer newspaperman ink cartridges, among others. In the relative warmth of some homes, still we see the signs of disposability the Christmas tree, the decorations from the last party, the old TV guides.How would life be if we had disposable parents? Frightening archetype? Indeed, but perhaps not for some who may have had the unfortunate experience of having dysfunctional parents or adults in their life. Work and family, 24-7, in modern societies, lead off disposables. They make life easy and they spur more productivity and innovation. On the large downside, we are using off precious scarce resources, which can be depleted in the long run, and dirtying up the whole planet against the interest of future generations.At the heart of all this is a peculiar remains that is consumerist in orientation. Consumerism is a lifestyle fanned by the current economic system, an orientation that appears negatively utilitarian, unduly pleasure-oriented, and has no regard for long-term negative consequences of degrade the planets natural environment. As things are consumed and disposed, more production and profit is created to replace the old disposed material. What would the world be if things were not as disposable? Production could grind to a halt, as there could be less needs to fulfill.If cars, for instance, were not too disposable and new models are not made to be so appealing (as if they were needed and not simply desired), where would the car industry be now? We see this even in the use of computer technologies. As Smith (2008) notes Creating products that arent meant to last is a very viable business strategy as this means that consumers will need to buy renewal products In a more modern context, consider videogames. Old games, like Pong, could be played over and over again. Todays games, like the popular Grand stealing Auto series, have a beginning and an end.Once you beat the game you need to buy the next installment in the series. The sam e concept applies to computer software. If you call Microsoft and try to get support for Windows 98, a once expensive product that still works just fine on many computers, youll be told that it is no longer supported. Its not that the product doesnt work, its that the company wants you to buy the latest and greatest version of whatever theyre selling. Is not consumerism and capitalism complementary with the reality of a disposable society? The profit seekers are only too glad we throw their products awaythe sooner, the better.Referenceshttp//www.cbsnews.com/stories/2001/08/30/60minutes/rooney/main308969.shtmlUS wastes half its food. http//www.foodnavigator-usa.com/news/ng.asp?id=56376-us-wastes-half. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.Smith, L. (2008). The Disposable Society An Expensive Place To Live. http//www.investopedia.com/articles/pf/07/disposablesociety.asp. Retrieved on 2008-05-02.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Musical Instruments Essay

1. Do you believe it is still possible that new melodious instruments could be invented and widely distributed?Empiric in ally, though the diversity of musical instruments has r from each oneed a quite high level, human has never stopped their exploration into music. So, I think its highly possible that several new musical instruments can be invented and widely distributed. The musical history has already proved this. Before 19th century, the volume of musical instruments are acoustic, and most people at that time held the opinion that we already have enough instruments. However, accompany with the development of electricity and latter calculator technology, electronic music has grown rapidly. Musical instruments are no longer bonded within the acoustic. Maybe in the future, we can even use the photon to make both(prenominal) music.2. Do you think that existing orchestral instruments will be drastically altered in the future?I think some fine go may occur on existing orchestral instruments but drastically change may not happen. With hundred years of development and perfection, orchestra has already organize its own system and process. Its requirement to musical instruments is almost fixed. Already some fine turning may be applied in order to secure better acoustic effect, but the outer shape and essential component of these musical instruments wont be changed since they have already be a symbol of orchestra.3. Will the computer and other electronic instruments eventually replace acoustical instruments? Which do you prefer?Definitely not. Diversity is an essential part of music, if all the music is generated by electronic devices, it can be quite boring and people will suffer aesthetic fatigue. Personally, I prefer acoustical instruments, why, beneficial personal taste.4. Please open YouTube and listen to composition Desintegrations for 17 instruments and computer tape (1983) created by French composer Tristan Murail (1947-). Can you separate sound mate rials created by the acoustic instruments from the tape material? Are they often fused? Are they created to resemble each other?For those parts in which only one instrument occurred I can figure out the type, while for those with more than two, I can not. Yes, they often fused together, especially in modern music. Yes, they do resemble to each other otherwise the music wont achieve harmonic sound effect.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

“Back to China”: the Reverse Brain Drain in China

plunk for to china the upset superstar Drain in chinaw atomic number 18 Every autumn, American students argon busy with applying for undergraduate or graduate schools, so ar an increasing itemise of Chinese students. Chinese get to realize the significance of being transnational. international path involving in umteen countries. Now, human capital, especially those who train international put by means of, is significant to the development of a country in the internationalized world. However, plenty of afield students from growth country tend to plosive on foreign for a unwrap future, which is a great loss of growth countries.But, recently, much and more(prenominal) Chinese students go underpin to chinaware after they complete their admit, which is a good news program to china. Looking through this new curl, there are three master(prenominal) factors that may postulate everywhereseas prentices to come stick out to china the growth of sparing in Chi na, the support from the government to oversea scholars, and the bond between afield scholars and fellowship land. Reverse brain conk out is a bound of migration. The definition of this term is the phenomenon that talented people who once studied or flirted in substantial country go to a little positive country which is developing in high pace.Recently, this has been common in developing countries, such as India, Brazil, and China (Llana, Ford, Marquand, Pflanz, & Ibukun, 2012). Conversely, in the past, massess Republic of China (PRC) was not as open air as it is now. PRC even ceased the intercourse in education with early(a) countries once because of the Chinese Culture Revolution which lasted from 1966 to 1976 (Liu, & Li, 2010). Not until 1978 when China renewed the policy of international academic communication did China send students to go abroad (Yao, 2004).As Chinas policy became looser, come ingoing tide and in orgasm tide appeared (Zhang, 1997). forthcoming tide is a description of the phenomenon that plenty of students go abroad and the incoming tide means those students go top. Since 1978, according to China statistical yearbook 2011, more than 632,000 Chinese, or 33 percentage of those who studied abroad, squander returned home and two the position of addition of abroad Chinese students and the rate of increase of travel Chinese scholars pose grown sharply in recent long time. For instance, in 1989, 3,329 went abroad to deliberate.In 1990, the number of students who went abroad even decreased to 2,950 , besides 1,593 scholars went back to China. In contrast, the numerate of students who studied abroad in 2010 increased to 284,700. In the same year, 134,800 students return after their study in foreign country, up 24. 7 percent from 2009 (National authority of Statistics of China, 2011, 20-10). Statistics show that the reverse brain drain to China has already begun. In the past, the think why the majority of foreign scholar s chose staying abroad instead of returning was that they embed there were obstacles blocking their way back to China.Those scholars were concerned close the factors linked with bills, especially the feeling learn and locomote. Compared with on the job(p) in China, it would be easier for scholars to hand over favour suitable places to live and earn relatively high requital when working abroad (Li, 1998). As for locomote, in China, when some young scholars applied for research funds, they were not able to get funded, which means they could only be assisted by institutions and companies abroad or study further oversea. Ruizhang Guan is whiz of the scholars who went abroad because of lack of fund.He did not have a Ph. D. at that time. He said, It was difficult to get any funds without a Ph. D. , and without fiscal backing it was very hard to produce any results (Yan, 1998, p. 59). Furthermore, Zweig, the chair prof of Social Science of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology who is known for his research on Chinese political sympathies and political parsimony, pointed out in his paper Competing for talent (2006) that the economy of China was in poor condition, most of the institutes and research centers did not have decorous money to update the facilities.Then scholars believed that they could not develop further in their palms with the deficient equipment in Chinese institutes. To have promising future, these scholars were willing to develop their careers in developed countries. It is undoubtedly true that there were many factors motivating the migration of scholar in that period. However, two decades have passed, and the livelihood and working surround in China has changed dramatically, owe to the development in economy. The growing economy has given China opportunities to improve Chinese peoples living condition.And now when scholars consider the question whether to stay abroad or to go back to homeland, pause living condition th ere can make life abroad less attractive. To illustrate the changes in living condition, Engels coefficient is one of the index numbers. Engels coefficient means the proportion of consumption on food in total spending. A decreasing Engels coefficient shows the average income has increased and life is acquire better for a tribe. According to China statistical yearbook 2011 (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2011), Engels coefficient there dropped from 54. in urban areas and 58. 8 in rural areas to 35. 7 and 41. 1 relatively (10-1). Also, the housing condition has been improved, for the rates of population with access to tap water and gas have increased to nearly 100% on an individual basis and the per capita living space has been enlarged (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2011, 10-1). Although the living condition in China is hitherto not comparable to that in developed countries, it is much better than what it was 20 years ago, and this is acceptable to returnees.W hen compared with the rapid growth of Chinas economy, the financial crisis in other parts of the world has disappointed overseas students recently, in terms of employment and advancement opportunities. In developed countries, scholars work and life seemed the same as before, and hardly can the pattern of life and work be changed. Whereas, China normally presented a better appearance to overseas scholars every time they came back to China (Liu & Li, 2010). Usually, opportunities appear in changes. Therefore, scholars believe there are better and more opportunities in their career in China.For example, in the report on October 21st, 2012, Sophie Tao, an ex-fund manager in New York who went back to China to promote her career further, states, China is one of the a few(prenominal) bright spots in the world economy (Ford, 2012). In China, many academic field have not been explored enough yet, and some are even virgin lands. For this reason, those returnees, equipped with the experience and knowledge throw outed from abroad, can lay foundations in their own field in China. The possibility of winner attracts scholar to do research in China (Engardio, & Engardio, 2009).In fact, the 2008-2009 financial crisis tested the stinting stability worldwide and the harm caused by the global economic crisis still affects the economics of the rich nations (Llana et al. , 2012). Moreover, it increased the unemployment rate of immi gives in developed countries and it became difficult for overseas students to find a job there. According to Stephen Castle, a explore hold at the Department of Sociology and Social Policy at the University of Sydney, the unemployment rate for immigrants increased by 3. 4% in the European Union in 2008. And that rate in the USA has increased by 4. % (2012, p1847). Chinese students found out that it was difficult for them to find a suitable job overseas. Then, they started to think about whether the developed countries were their only choice of destin ation, or whether their homeland would be a viable choice. And China did not disappoint them. China entered World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. And in 2002-2009 international companies have invested 683. 5 one million million in China (Wang, 2012). The main method of their investment is to start their branch offices in China. Furthermore, China had to compete with other countries in the world.As a consequence, the golden time for overseas students to go back to China began (Ye, 2000, p. 20). rejoinees believe that they can have their own contribution to the development of China. Ma Jianghe, who gained his doctorate of Law in the United States, chose to develop his career in China after the agreement on Chinas accession to WTO was signed. He believed After China joins the WTO, I will have a big advantage in Chinas law service market. My good pinch of Chinese and American laws will convince businessmen from both(prenominal) countries to trust me. ( Ye, 2000, p. 1) As Ma said , the abilities that returnees possess are what a country or a company needs to succeed in international competition. Their multi-cultural background, their communication skills and their ability of adaptation in their own field make them outstanding among employees. Besides the economic factors, in the past, another reason that would stop overseas scholars from returning was the strict control of scholars made by the government. Because of the control, the most violent issue happened in 4 June 1989. Students died, for their political status went once against the government.Scholars were afraid of being deprived of freedom, both physically and politically (Zweig, 2006). They thought once they went back to China, they could never go abroad again and hardly could they communicate with international scholars. Considering of the life in future, many scholars refused to return home. Indeed, policies at that time were not open enough. Chinese government noticed that China was confronted with a serious problem that plenty of overseas talents chose to stay abroad. Only 20% of Chinese overseas scholars thought they might go back home according to Zweigs survey which was done in 1993 (Zweig, 2006).Facing this obstacle, the authorities decided to support overseas scholars to come back to home and began to create friendly environment to welcome scholars. To encourage returning, the government has provides financial support to scholars through plenty of programs in recent 20 years. To illustrate how those programs work, the thousand talents program that was launched in 2008 is an seize example. The aim of this plan is to claw overseas scholars to go back to China and help their homeland to raise its global competitiveness and become an innovative nightspot (Ford, 2012, para. 0). The Chinese government launched it to bring top scientists and high-tech entrepreneurs back home in the next five to 10 years. In this plan, the government is going to grant 1 million Yuan (ab out $146,000) per person as salary and research fund. Then the government straitss them insurance, housing and pensions, too. Thanks to this plan, over 2000 experts in varied field have gone back to China to start a new career during the last three years(Zhang, 2012,para. 1).The financial supports make the returnees road back to China easier. Not only the central government but in addition the local government attempts to attract overseas scholars. Enterprise incubators have been set up to offer opportunity to returnees to start their own business since 1994 (Zweig, 2006, & Liu, & Li, 2010). An Enterprise incubator is a special zone that provides preferential policies and service for overseas entrepreneurs, which makes it an appropriate zone for overseas scholars to begin from.According to the statistics cited in Zhongguo liu xue tong shi (The history of Chinese student analyse abroad, Liu, & Li, 2010), in 2003, there were over 110 such zones in China, more than 6000 companies we re founded in those zones, and over 15,000 overseas entrepreneurs were attracted to those zones. The annual output comfort of 2003 was 32. 7 billion Yuan (about $5. 24 billion). The success in these enterprise incubators may lure more overseas scholars to go home. Cultural binding with homeland overly lures overseas scholars to go back to China.In a foreign country, it is probable for someone to suffer from nostalgia, discrimination, and other problems. And they would cast off home and return to their familiar ending to avoid those problems. Family is an indwelling part of ones cultural background. As a consequence, it acts as a unfluctuating bond between overseas scholars and their homeland. First, Kellogg, a researcher working on international migration at UCLA, did a survey on the future plans of Chinese students in America in 2012. According to the survey, the top one reason why they want to return home is family (Kellogg, 2012).It is suffering to stay far away from relati ves and friends for a long period of time. Furthermore, because of one-child policy, the only child is what parents can bank on except for the welfare and pension when parents get old. In Chinese traditional convention, children should come care of the elder family members (Smith, 1973). So parents and children would like to live together, at least live nearby each other (Settles, Sheng, Zang, & Zhao, 2008). This will lead to an increasing number of overseas students to come back to China.Moreover, China, a familiar environment, may comfort these scholars and give them boldness in their career, which is an attraction to scholars who stays abroad. Integration into the local hostel is a troublesome problem to Chinese students. In a survey done by a website named deyi which is a popular website among Chinese students in Germany (2007) about the students situation in the local society, only seven percent of students assert that they have no problem to join the main stream. Others en countered problems more or less (as cited in Liu & Li, 2010, p. 88-491) To evade this, some of them tend to limit their affable contact to a small group of Chinese people and confine their career to testing ground when they graduate, which lead to the result that they have less communication with the main stream and it becomes more troublesome for them to integrate into the society (Miller, 1992 & Liu & Li, 2010). On the other hand, their situation in China is different from that abroad. An overseas scholar has both a native knowledge of his or her homeland and the ability to use Chinese fluently.That is the basis of overseas scholars confidence. When they strike root in their homeland, they gain confidence. Chaoyang Zhang, the CEO of sohu (Sohu is one of the most successful Internet companies in China. )and a returnee, shares his experience When I was an official at MIT, I met Zhangliang Chen (He is a famous experts of tropical botany in China and he studied in Washington Unive rsity in St. Louis. ) once. From his expression and the sprightliness in his eyes, I could see the authority and firmness that he gained during the years when he was in China.His confidence and pride are what overseas students and successful overseas scholars do not have. That is result of striking root in homeland. The difference is so enormous to make me shocked, which strengthen my determination to go back to China. ( Liu & Li, 2010, p. 587) The confidence based on living in homeland cannot usually be gained elsewhere. On the other hand, the cultural binding with homeland may be a disadvantage of Chinese scholars when they live abroad. Chinese scholars and those who have already mmigrated to foreign country may experience discrimination from others. The glass detonator exists, which according to Joseph Tsien, a American neuroscientist from China, is an unspoken truth (Mervis, 2005, p. 607). A glass ceiling means that a certain obstruction blocks the advancement to a relativel y high redact faced by minority in a society. Because of culture gap and language barrier, most of the scholars from China find they can not totally reckon the foreign culture (Liu, & Li, 2010).As a result, many of them can have fame and achievement in their own field as scientists but only a few of them can get a job of senior counsel in their field (Mervis, 2005). Alice Huang, a successful virologist who came from mainland China to America when she was 10 years old, encountered the barrier in her application to a high- level job in New York University in 1991. During her interview, she found out that what the committee was searching for is a WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) candidate and the committee set barriers to make Huang give up that position. In the end, she lost that position (Miller, 1992).Since evaluation, which may be subjective, is a key step in process of promotion, one, not belonging to the main stream, may be afraid of the unequal judgment done by the evaluat ing committee which consists of the majority. Scholars want to prove their value and be accepted by the society. But the existed barriers prevent scholars from getting higher positions and realize their plans. Under this condition, scholars would believe that they will be minority and nearly infeasible to be integrated to mainstream, which may hurt scholars and drive them to go home (Liu, & Li, 2010).However, the racial discrimination to those overseas scholars will be eliminated in their homeland. They will be honored in China. Experiences of studying and working abroad are called paint a little gold (du jin) in Chinese (Zweig, Chen, & Rosen, 2004, p. 736), which means returnees are regarded curious in China. To conclude, the three keys to Chinese reverse brain drain are dramatic growth in the economics, proper policies that encourage overseas scholars to return and a cultural environment that can give returnees a sensation of belonging.Through the success of Chinas alluring sch olars back, power plays a significant role. To encourage more overseas scholars to go back, the authorities should concentrate on developing the economy to gain more hard power. Moreover, an open political environment is necessary, for overseas scholars have experienced freedom in political status. Furthermore, for moving the trend of returning further, the government should not only concentrate on the quantity of the returnees but also the quality of the returnees. Reference Alsop, R. (2007). TRACK More Chinese Graduates Return Home.The Wall Street ledger. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http//online. wsj. com/article/SB11737448221373 4773. html Castles, S. (2012). Cosmopolitanism and freedom? Lessons of the global economic crisis. Ethnic & racial Studies, 35(11), 1843-1852. doi10. 1080/01419870. 2012. 715662 Confucius, C. (2006). Lun yu ming yan = Aphorisms From LUNYU. Di 1 ban. Jinan Qi lu shu she. Engardio, P. ,& Engardio, P. (2009). Chinas Reverse mind-set Drain. BloomberBus inessweek. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http//www. businessweek. com/magazine/content/ 09_48/b4157058821350. tm Ford, P. (2012). Reverse brain drain China engineers incentives for brain gain. Christian Science Monitor, Retrieved from http//www. csmonitor. com/World/Global-Issues /2012/1021/Reverse-brain-drain-China-engineers-incentives-for-brain-gain International Rankings and Chinese high Education Reform. (2006). World Education News and Reviews. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http//www. wes. org/ ewenr/06oct/ practical. htm. Jianshu, Z. (2000). Students Returned from Abroad in the 1990s. Chinese Education & Society, 33(5), 8. Kellogg, R. (2012).Chinas Brain Gain? Attitudes and Future Plans of afield Chinese Students in the US. Journal Of Chinese Overseas, 8(1), 83-104. doi10. 1163/179325412X634319 Liu, J. , & Li, X. (2010). Zhongguo liu xue tong shi Zhongguo liuxue tongshi. Di 1 ban. Guangzhou Guangdong jiao yu chu ban she Llana, S. , Ford, P. , Marquand, R. , Pflanz, M. , & Ibukun, Y. (2012). Reverse brain drain Economic shifts lure migrants home. Christian Science Monitor, N. PAG. National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2011). China statistical yearbook 2011. Beijing China Statistics Press.Settles, B. , Sheng, X. , Zang, Y. & Zhao, J. (2008). The one child policy and its impacts on Chinese families. Research Committee on Family, 12-13. Smith, D. (1973). Confucius. London Temple Smith. Wang, Z. (2012). Ten years of international companies since China entered WTO. International Financing. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http//www. zcom. com/ article/51886/ Yan, J. (1998). My heart turns toward the homeland. Chinese Education & Society,31(2), 57. Ye, L. (2000). Overseas students coming back at a golden time. Beijing Review, 43(6/7), 20. Zhang, Y. (2012).Thousand natural endowment Program brings more pros. China Daily, Retrieved from http//www. chinadaily. com. cn/bizchina/2012-04/28/content_15168335. htm. Zweig, D. , Changgui, C. , & Rosen, S. (2 004). Globalization and transnational human capital Overseas and returnee scholars to china. The China Quarterly, 735-757. Zweig, D. (2006). Competing for talent Chinas strategies to reverse the brain drain. International agitate Review,145(1), 65-0_6. Retrieved from http//search. proquest. com. ezproxy. library. wisc. edu/docview/224008850? accountid=465 1Back to China the Reverse Brain Drain in ChinaBack to China the Reverse Brain Drain in China Every autumn, American students are busy with applying for undergraduate or graduate schools, so are an increasing number of Chinese students. Chinese get to realize the significance of being transnational. Transnational means involving in many countries. Now, human capital, especially those who have international experience, is significant to the development of a country in the internationalized world. However, plenty of overseas students from developing country tend to stay abroad for a better future, which is a great loss of developin g countries.But, recently, more and more Chinese students go back to China after they complete their study, which is a good news to China. Looking through this new trend, there are three main factors that may drive overseas scholars to come back to China the growth of economy in China, the support from the government to overseas scholars, and the bond between overseas scholars and home land. Reverse brain drain is a term of migration. The definition of this term is the phenomenon that talented people who once studied or worked in developed country go to a less developed country which is developing in high pace.Recently, this has been common in developing countries, such as India, Brazil, and China (Llana, Ford, Marquand, Pflanz, & Ibukun, 2012). Conversely, in the past, Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was not as open as it is now. PRC even ceased the communication in education with other countries once because of the Chinese Culture Revolution which lasted from 1966 to 1976 (Liu, & Li, 2010). Not until 1978 when China renewed the policy of international academic communication did China send students to go abroad (Yao, 2004).As Chinas policy became looser, outgoing tide and incoming tide appeared (Zhang, 1997). Outgoing tide is a description of the phenomenon that plenty of students go abroad and the incoming tide means those students go back. Since 1978, according to China statistical yearbook 2011, more than 632,000 Chinese, or 33 percent of those who studied abroad, have returned home and both the rate of increase of overseas Chinese students and the rate of increase of returning Chinese scholars have grown sharply in recent years. For instance, in 1989, 3,329 went abroad to study.In 1990, the number of students who went abroad even decreased to 2,950 , only 1,593 scholars went back to China. In contrast, the total of students who studied abroad in 2010 increased to 284,700. In the same year, 134,800 students return after their study in foreign country, up 2 4. 7 percent from 2009 (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2011, 20-10). Statistics show that the reverse brain drain to China has already begun. In the past, the reason why the majority of overseas scholars chose staying abroad instead of returning was that they found there were obstacles blocking their way back to China.Those scholars were concerned about the factors linked with money, especially the living condition and career. Compared with working in China, it would be easier for scholars to have convenient places to live and earn relatively high salary when working abroad (Li, 1998). As for career, in China, when some young scholars applied for research funds, they were not able to get funded, which means they could only be assisted by institutions and companies abroad or study further overseas. Ruizhang Guan is one of the scholars who went abroad because of lack of fund.He did not have a Ph. D. at that time. He said, It was difficult to get any funds without a Ph. D. , a nd without funding it was very hard to produce any results (Yan, 1998, p. 59). Furthermore, Zweig, the chair professor of Social Science of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology who is known for his research on Chinese politics and political economy, pointed out in his paper Competing for talent (2006) that the economy of China was in poor condition, most of the institutes and research centers did not have enough money to update the facilities.Then scholars believed that they could not develop further in their fields with the deficient equipment in Chinese institutes. To have promising future, these scholars were willing to develop their careers in developed countries. It is undoubtedly true that there were many factors motivating the migration of scholar in that period. However, two decades have passed, and the living and working environment in China has changed dramatically, owing to the development in economy. The growing economy has given China opportunities to impr ove Chinese peoples living condition.And now when scholars consider the question whether to stay abroad or to go back to homeland, better living condition there can make life abroad less attractive. To illustrate the changes in living condition, Engels coefficient is one of the index numbers. Engels coefficient means the proportion of spending on food in total spending. A decreasing Engels coefficient shows the average income has increased and life is getting better for a population. According to China statistical yearbook 2011 (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2011), Engels coefficient there dropped from 54. in urban areas and 58. 8 in rural areas to 35. 7 and 41. 1 relatively (10-1). Also, the housing condition has been improved, for the rates of population with access to tap water and gas have increased to nearly 100% respectively and the per capita living space has been enlarged (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2011, 10-1). Although the living condition in China i s still not comparable to that in developed countries, it is much better than what it was 20 years ago, and this is acceptable to returnees.When compared with the rapid growth of Chinas economy, the financial crisis in other parts of the world has disappointed overseas students recently, in terms of employment and advancement opportunities. In developed countries, scholars work and life seemed the same as before, and hardly can the pattern of life and work be changed. Whereas, China usually presented a better appearance to overseas scholars every time they came back to China (Liu & Li, 2010). Usually, opportunities appear in changes. Therefore, scholars believe there are better and more opportunities in their career in China.For example, in the report on October 21st, 2012, Sophie Tao, an ex-fund manager in New York who went back to China to promote her career further, states, China is one of the few bright spots in the world economy (Ford, 2012). In China, many academic fields have not been explored enough yet, and some are even virgin lands. For this reason, those returnees, equipped with the experience and knowledge gained from abroad, can lay foundations in their own field in China. The possibility of success attracts scholar to do research in China (Engardio, & Engardio, 2009).In fact, the 2008-2009 financial crisis tested the economic stability worldwide and the harm caused by the global economic crisis still affects the economics of the rich nations (Llana et al. , 2012). Moreover, it increased the unemployment rate of immigrants in developed countries and it became difficult for overseas students to find a job there. According to Stephen Castle, a Research Chair at the Department of Sociology and Social Policy at the University of Sydney, the unemployment rate for immigrants increased by 3. 4% in the European Union in 2008. And that rate in the USA has increased by 4. % (2012, p1847). Chinese students found out that it was difficult for them to find a suitable job overseas. Then, they started to think about whether the developed countries were their only choice of destination, or whether their homeland would be a feasible choice. And China did not disappoint them. China entered World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. And in 2002-2009 international companies have invested 683. 5 billion in China (Wang, 2012). The main method of their investment is to start their branch offices in China. Furthermore, China had to compete with other countries in the world.As a consequence, the golden time for overseas students to go back to China began (Ye, 2000, p. 20). Returnees believe that they can have their own contribution to the development of China. Ma Jianghe, who gained his doctorate of Law in the United States, chose to develop his career in China after the agreement on Chinas accession to WTO was signed. He believed After China joins the WTO, I will have a big advantage in Chinas law service market. My good understanding of Chinese and American laws will convince businessmen from both countries to trust me. ( Ye, 2000, p. 1) As Ma said, the abilities that returnees possess are what a country or a company needs to succeed in international competition. Their multi-cultural background, their communication skills and their ability of adaptation in their own field make them outstanding among employees. Besides the economic factors, in the past, another reason that would stop overseas scholars from returning was the strict control of scholars made by the government. Because of the control, the most violent issue happened in 4 June 1989. Students died, for their political status went against the government.Scholars were afraid of being deprived of freedom, both physically and politically (Zweig, 2006). They thought once they went back to China, they could never go abroad again and hardly could they communicate with international scholars. Considering of the life in future, many scholars refused to return home. Indeed, p olicies at that time were not open enough. Chinese government noticed that China was confronted with a serious problem that plenty of overseas talents chose to stay abroad. Only 20% of Chinese overseas scholars thought they might go back home according to Zweigs survey which was done in 1993 (Zweig, 2006).Facing this obstacle, the authorities decided to support overseas scholars to come back to home and began to create friendly environment to welcome scholars. To encourage returning, the government has provides financial support to scholars through plenty of programs in recent 20 years. To illustrate how those programs work, the thousand talents program that was launched in 2008 is an appropriate example. The aim of this plan is to lure overseas scholars to go back to China and help their homeland to raise its global competitiveness and become an innovative society (Ford, 2012, para. 0). The Chinese government launched it to bring top scientists and high-tech entrepreneurs back home in the next five to 10 years. In this plan, the government is going to grant 1 million Yuan (about $146,000) per person as salary and research fund. Then the government offers them insurance, housing and pensions, too. Thanks to this plan, over 2000 experts in varied field have gone back to China to start a new career during the last three years(Zhang, 2012,para. 1).The financial supports make the returnees road back to China easier. Not only the central government but also the local government attempts to attract overseas scholars. Enterprise incubators have been set up to offer opportunity to returnees to start their own business since 1994 (Zweig, 2006, & Liu, & Li, 2010). An Enterprise incubator is a special zone that provides preferential policies and service for overseas entrepreneurs, which makes it an appropriate zone for overseas scholars to begin from.According to the statistics cited in Zhongguo liu xue tong shi (The history of Chinese student studying abroad, Liu, & Li, 2010), in 2003, there were over 110 such zones in China, more than 6000 companies were founded in those zones, and over 15,000 overseas entrepreneurs were attracted to those zones. The annual output value of 2003 was 32. 7 billion Yuan (about $5. 24 billion). The success in these enterprise incubators may lure more overseas scholars to go home. Cultural binding with homeland also lures overseas scholars to go back to China.In a foreign country, it is probable for someone to suffer from nostalgia, discrimination, and other problems. And they would miss home and return to their familiar culture to avoid those problems. Family is an essential part of ones cultural background. As a consequence, it acts as a firm bond between overseas scholars and their homeland. First, Kellogg, a researcher working on international migration at UCLA, did a survey on the future plans of Chinese students in America in 2012. According to the survey, the top one reason why they want to return home is famil y (Kellogg, 2012).It is suffering to stay far away from relatives and friends for a long period of time. Furthermore, because of one-child policy, the only child is what parents can rely on except for the welfare and pension when parents get old. In Chinese traditional convention, children should take care of the elder family members (Smith, 1973). So parents and children would like to live together, at least live nearby each other (Settles, Sheng, Zang, & Zhao, 2008). This will lead to an increasing number of overseas students to come back to China.Moreover, China, a familiar environment, may comfort these scholars and give them confidence in their career, which is an attraction to scholars who stays abroad. Integration into the local society is a troublesome problem to Chinese students. In a survey done by a website named deyi which is a popular website among Chinese students in Germany (2007) about the students situation in the local society, only seven percent of students assert that they have no problem to join the main stream. Others encountered problems more or less (as cited in Liu & Li, 2010, p. 88-491) To evade this, some of them tend to limit their social contact to a small group of Chinese people and confine their career to lab when they graduate, which lead to the result that they have less communication with the main stream and it becomes more troublesome for them to integrate into the society (Miller, 1992 & Liu & Li, 2010). On the other hand, their situation in China is different from that abroad. An overseas scholar has both a native knowledge of his or her homeland and the ability to use Chinese fluently.That is the basis of overseas scholars confidence. When they strike root in their homeland, they gain confidence. Chaoyang Zhang, the CEO of sohu (Sohu is one of the most successful Internet companies in China. )and a returnee, shares his experience When I was an official at MIT, I met Zhangliang Chen (He is a famous experts of tropical bota ny in China and he studied in Washington University in St. Louis. ) once. From his expression and the look in his eyes, I could see the authority and firmness that he gained during the years when he was in China.His confidence and pride are what overseas students and successful overseas scholars do not have. That is result of striking root in homeland. The difference is so enormous to make me shocked, which strengthen my determination to go back to China. ( Liu & Li, 2010, p. 587) The confidence based on living in homeland cannot usually be gained elsewhere. On the other hand, the cultural binding with homeland may be a disadvantage of Chinese scholars when they live abroad. Chinese scholars and those who have already mmigrated to foreign country may experience discrimination from others. The glass ceiling exists, which according to Joseph Tsien, a American neuroscientist from China, is an unspoken truth (Mervis, 2005, p. 607). A glass ceiling means that a certain barrier blocks th e advancement to a relatively high position faced by minority in a society. Because of culture gap and language barrier, most of the scholars from China find they can not totally understand the foreign culture (Liu, & Li, 2010).As a result, many of them can have fame and achievement in their own field as scientists but only a few of them can get a job of senior management in their field (Mervis, 2005). Alice Huang, a successful virologist who came from mainland China to America when she was 10 years old, encountered the barrier in her application to a high- level job in New York University in 1991. During her interview, she found out that what the committee was searching for is a WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) candidate and the committee set barriers to make Huang give up that position. In the end, she lost that position (Miller, 1992).Since evaluation, which may be subjective, is a key step in process of promotion, one, not belonging to the main stream, may be afraid of the un equal judgment done by the evaluating committee which consists of the majority. Scholars want to prove their value and be accepted by the society. But the existed barriers prevent scholars from getting higher positions and realize their plans. Under this condition, scholars would believe that they will be minority and nearly impossible to be integrated to mainstream, which may hurt scholars and drive them to go home (Liu, & Li, 2010).However, the racial discrimination to those overseas scholars will be eliminated in their homeland. They will be honored in China. Experiences of studying and working abroad are called paint a little gold (du jin) in Chinese (Zweig, Chen, & Rosen, 2004, p. 736), which means returnees are regarded precious in China. To conclude, the three keys to Chinese reverse brain drain are dramatic growth in the economics, proper policies that encourage overseas scholars to return and a cultural environment that can give returnees a sense of belonging.Through the su ccess of Chinas alluring scholars back, power plays a significant role. To encourage more overseas scholars to go back, the authorities should concentrate on developing the economy to gain more hard power. Moreover, an open political environment is necessary, for overseas scholars have experienced freedom in political status. Furthermore, for moving the trend of returning further, the government should not only concentrate on the quantity of the returnees but also the quality of the returnees. Reference Alsop, R. (2007). TRACK More Chinese Graduates Return Home.The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http//online. wsj. com/article/SB11737448221373 4773. html Castles, S. (2012). Cosmopolitanism and freedom? Lessons of the global economic crisis. Ethnic & Racial Studies, 35(11), 1843-1852. doi10. 1080/01419870. 2012. 715662 Confucius, C. (2006). Lun yu ming yan = Aphorisms From LUNYU. Di 1 ban. Jinan Qi lu shu she. Engardio, P. ,& Engardio, P. (2009). Chinas Reverse Brain Drain. BloomberBusinessweek. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http//www. businessweek. com/magazine/content/ 09_48/b4157058821350. tm Ford, P. (2012). Reverse brain drain China engineers incentives for brain gain. Christian Science Monitor, Retrieved from http//www. csmonitor. com/World/Global-Issues /2012/1021/Reverse-brain-drain-China-engineers-incentives-for-brain-gain International Rankings and Chinese Higher Education Reform. (2006). World Education News and Reviews. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http//www. wes. org/ ewenr/06oct/ practical. htm. Jianshu, Z. (2000). Students Returned from Abroad in the 1990s. Chinese Education & Society, 33(5), 8. Kellogg, R. (2012).Chinas Brain Gain? Attitudes and Future Plans of Overseas Chinese Students in the US. Journal Of Chinese Overseas, 8(1), 83-104. doi10. 1163/179325412X634319 Liu, J. , & Li, X. (2010). Zhongguo liu xue tong shi Zhongguo liuxue tongshi. Di 1 ban. Guangzhou Guangdong jiao yu chu ban she Llana, S. , Ford, P. , Marquand, R. , Pflanz, M. , & Ibukun, Y. (2012). Reverse brain drain Economic shifts lure migrants home. Christian Science Monitor, N. PAG. National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2011). China statistical yearbook 2011. Beijing China Statistics Press.Settles, B. , Sheng, X. , Zang, Y. & Zhao, J. (2008). The one child policy and its impacts on Chinese families. Research Committee on Family, 12-13. Smith, D. (1973). Confucius. London Temple Smith. Wang, Z. (2012). Ten years of international companies since China entered WTO. International Financing. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http//www. zcom. com/ article/51886/ Yan, J. (1998). My heart turns toward the homeland. Chinese Education & Society,31(2), 57. Ye, L. (2000). Overseas students coming back at a golden time. Beijing Review, 43(6/7), 20. Zhang, Y. (2012).Thousand Talent Program brings more pros. China Daily, Retrieved from http//www. chinadaily. com. cn/bizchina/2012-04/28/content_15168335. htm. Zweig, D. , Changgui, C. , & Rosen, S. (2004). Globalization and transnational human capital Overseas and returnee scholars to china. The China Quarterly, 735-757. Zweig, D. (2006). Competing for talent Chinas strategies to reverse the brain drain. International Labour Review,145(1), 65-0_6. Retrieved from http//search. proquest. com. ezproxy. library. wisc. edu/docview/224008850? accountid=465 1

Monday, May 20, 2019

Is Everything Already Determined by Fate or God or Is There Room for Human Freedom?

Is Everything Already Determined by Fate or divinity fudge or Is There Room for Human Freedom? Do we as human beings have empty will or does fate or deity determine anything? The human invigoration is lived in uninterrupted interaction with a complex of forces, energies, experiences, and events. Those argon so varied that it is impossible or difficult to chance it down to either or a duality of free will or fate. There is a pattern of what we have done, experienced, or are a part of. Yet, we are aware that there is a greater being, one that can be called divine.In that awareness, that of the divine presence, there is always a choice and misadventure to create a new self in the image of divinity. In the book deity and the man, an expression in Arabic Maktub was brought up which means, it is written. The question that was asked to Cardinal Ratzinger was whether or not God shows us the way we have to go so that we only have to recognize what is designated for us. His reply was that in Islam it is addressed that everything is ordain and that we in a way live in a ready-woven web. That belief is reversion to Christianity because it always considers the freedom factor.In other words, on one hand, God embraces everything he is aware of everything and guides the course of history. However, he has so arranged it that freedom has a fit in it. (58) In my understanding, Cardinal Ratzingers thoughts are as follow. Destiny is not predetermined. God has given you the choice to choose the right or price and also your destiny. If you do what God has commanded you to do, you escape hell and destruction. When you obey Gods commands, God saves your life and gives you eternal life after the physical death of your body.Christians pray because theyre told to. God is all well-educated so he does know what we fatality and we still pray because it shows God that we recognize him as God and that we care enough to talk to him and keep in mind. In the article Does doubt belong in faith, there is a passage that states just as we have already recognized that the truster does not live immune to doubt but is always threatened by the plunge into the void, so now we can discern the entangled nature of human destinies and say that the nonbeliever does not lean a sealed-off, self-sufficient life either. This part stood fall out to me because we often think of great faith as something that happens naturally so that we can be used for a miracle or healing. However, the greatest faith of all, and the about effective, is to live day-by-day trusting God. The type of trust that will make us look at every problem as an opportunity to see his work in our life. I think that a mortals faith is not complete unless he knows that any(prenominal) occurs could not have missed him, and whatever misses him could not have happened him. Everything is subject to the will of God all things were created with predestination.God knew all the disasters and troubles that happen on e arth, or happen to an individual, or to his wealth or family, before they happened. No matter what disasters happen to a psyche, it is acceptable for him, whether he realizes that or not, because God does not command anything that is not good for us. Once a person knows that all tragedies happen by the will of God, he has to believe and submit and be patient. The position of longanimity in relation to this aspect of faith, in particular, is like that of the head in relation to the body. Patience is a virtuous attribute with good consequences.Those who are patient will have an unlimited reward. Believing that God predestines everything that happens will teach a person to be modest and humble. This is so because everything that he does is by the obstinacy of God so if he succeeds he knows that he helped him in doing it he doesnt succeed because he is trenchant or because he is rich or because he deserves it, and, likewise, a person isnt poor because he is stupid. This stop pride and arrogance from sneaking to his heart because he knows that God can afflict him with harm and dismantle him from the rewards he brags about.In my opinion, believing in predestination doesnt make a person grieve about anything because he doesnt say things that reflect unhappiness like if I did much(prenominal) and such then such and such would have happened. Also, he doesnt worry too much about the future because he believes that everything is already written. What he would worry about is his actions and doing well. In the bible, and according to the bible a world that believes in a predestined fatalist environment is not correct. Although, we all are predestined, God has a plan for us all.He doesnt want to force us to do anything. We have always had free will. Without free will, what is the point? That is slightly opposite in Islam because as Muslims, the belief is that everyones fate, and destiny is known, and written by God. Its acknowledged that if someone starts out poor and ends up rich, its not because that person earned it out of hard work, its because God wrote his fate as starting as poor, and ending up rich. Does Doubt Belong to Faith? October 2, 2007 Edward T. Oakes, S. J.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Film Noir to Neo Noir

Murphy 1 Rachel Murphy Professor Charlotte E. Howell charge 2700 12 November 2012 Word Count 1411 Film Noir to Neo-Noir A Shift in Cultural Tides Film noir of the 1940s captivated audiences through its distinct sour of storytelling. Strongly forged by German Expressionism, these take ins have a definitive look and style that still resonates with new(a) audiences today. Like other classical Hollywood genres, photograph noir sought to bring to light tensions felt within society, namely those that affected work force following World War II.Neo-noir moving pictures pay a great mickle less attention to genial commentary. Like film noir of the past, neo-noir elevates style over narrative however, the genre has seen probative changes in regards to narrative, the disappearance of the femme fatale, and the prevalence of onscreen military unit due to shifting cultural tides. In observing examples of film noir and its contemporary version, neo-noir, it is clear several elements in regards to the style and overall feel of these films have virtually remained the analogous through aside the years.In Nicolas Winding Refns neo-noir, crowd, a sense of otherworldliness is portrayed through several darkness scenes, intense shadows, and an overall dark sooner downtrodden mood to the film. The scenes in the film take place at night and invariably in an urban setting. All of these elements be Murphy 2 extremely distinctive of classic film noir as well as German Expressionism. Drives narrative unfolds with astonishingly bitty dialogue. Instead Refn focused scenes on the mood, further strengthening the style of the film. Similarly, Curtis Hansons L. A.Confidential keeps with traditional film noir in elevating the style of the movie above its narrative. This is done through the heavy emphasis of the urban cityscape. As the title suggests, Los Angeles, is a major component within the film. The peppy, orange-filled paradise portrayal of L. A. in the films opening scen e sharply contrasts the corrupt, crime-ridden town shown throughout the rest of the film. In addition, voice-overs and flashbacks, typical elements of film noir, are extensively used. The genre has seen great changes in regards to its social commentary, however.Noir films of the 1940s strongly reflected the social climate of the time. In several respects, film noir can be seen as the male equivalent to melodrama. Just as women dealt with the crisis of muliebrity in post- fight years, men also struggled with their masculinity as well as adjusting to their new roles in an ever- changing society. After World War II, many Americans, especially men who had experienced the atrocities of war firsthand, took on a more cynical outlook on the world. Film noir of the 1940s sought to bring these feelings of isolation and changing attitudes to light.Like many men returning from the war, the heroes were disenchanted and often very isolated. In many respects, their fate is predetermined. In Tay Garnetts The Postman Always Rings Twice, the audience gains a sense that John Garfields character, uncivils, fate is already sealed as soon as he first plots, and eventually carries out the murder of Coras husband. This action clearly serves as a marker in the downward curlicue of Franks life. Similarly, in Billy Wilders Murphy 3 Double Indemnity, Fred MacMurrays character, Walter, irrevocably alters the course of his life when he gives in to Phylliss pleas to murder her husband.In both(prenominal) of these instances, the motivation screw this clearly immoral acts is lust. Both protagonists seem somewhat bewildered against these forces. Both films also end with little doubt as to the fate of the protagonists. In The Postman Always Rings Twice, the film ends with Frank awaiting his penalty on death row. Similarly, Wilders Double Indemnity ends with Walter, critically injured from a gunfire wound inflicted by Phyllis, confessing his role in her husbands murder. This clearly ref lects upon the attitudes of males during the 1940s as lost(p) against the imposing forces of an oppressive society.Neo-noir films differ from their film noir counterparts because they are no longer reflective on social and cultural tensions. This is simply because the tension is non as widespread or heavily felt in todays society. In the ending of Refns Drive, the nameless driver, though stabbed in the abdomen, clearly lives. It unexpended up to the viewer to decide what kind of life he will lead in the future. In Hansons L. A. Confidential, the future of the city is somewhat unclear, but both protagonists in the film are met with at least somewhat happy endings.The male protagonists in neo-noir films are also much more strong-willed. Their actions, though at times extreme, are seen as justified to the viewer and made by the protagonist alone. different earlier noir films, the protagonists are at least somewhat in control of their future. This turn within the genre clearly refle cts changing attitudes within society, as the helplessness and isolation men felt after the war is no longer felt on such a large scale. Murphy 4 The influence of culture on the content of noir films is especially lucid in the disappearance of femme fatale in neo-noir films.The 1940s label a major shift in gender roles with the start of World War II. As men left for war, women took up jobs in the workforce and in factories in order to help with the war effort. This brought about(predicate) a new sense of independence for women. When men returned home from the war, however, this shift was not necessarily seen in a positive light. The emergence of the femme fatale in film noir clearly reflects that in the eyes of men, womens changing roles in society often presented a nemesis to perceived masculinity as well as established gender roles of the day.The femme fatale of noir films is invariably portrayed in a negative light. She is in most cases seen as the major driving force behind the protagonists tragic end. Furthermore, the protagonist is usually helpless against the advances of these women. Femme fatales, such as Cora in The Postman Always Rings Twice and Phyllis in Double Indemnity, are almost always met with an end even more bleak than that of the protagonist. In these two films, the femme fatales are both killed with little thought. Neo-noir films, however, approach female characters in a much more favorable light.The relationships between protagonists and these women are found on love, rather than mere lust. Thus, the actions of the protagonists appear often more justified. This can be genuine to the changing cultural tides since the 1940s. Womens independence is generally no longer seen as a threat to male masculinity and thus is virtually extinct thematically in neo noir films. This is especially evident in Drive as well. The nameless drivers love interest, Irene, is characterized by her innocence rather than her sexuality. Murphy 5 Even in L. A.Co nfidential, Lynn, a prostitute, has a relationship with one of the protagonists, however, the relationship is based on love rather than lust. Film noir arguably would not translate well to modern audiences if not for its integration of onscreen violence. Like German Expressionism, 1940s film noir drew a definitive reaction of uneasiness and psychological unease from its audiences. In Double Indemnity, the scene in which Phylliss husband is hit is shortened and little is shown. The audience is shown only Phylliss cold, detached expression piece her husband is murdered coterminous to her in the passenger seat.In the 1940s, filmmakers didnt necessarily need to show Phylliss husband being murdered in order to raise a strong psychological reaction from audiences. With the abrogation of the Hays Code, however, audiences have become somewhat desensitized to the mere implication of violence. L. A. Confidential and Drive both use violence as a means of eliciting this same reaction. Per haps the most memorable scene in Drive occurs in an elevator where the driver, in order to protect himself and Irene, not only kills a man, but ingathering to unleash all of his anger by stomping the mans head into a gruesome, bloody pulp.In L. A. Confidential, numerous murder scenes and uncomfortable police interrogations illustrate how violence is now used in neo noir to elicit the strong emotional and psychological discomfort that typified 1940s noir. Certainly the strongest influence on the evolution of film noir has been societal and cultural changes throughout time. These changes have served, however, to maintain film noirs relevance with contemporary audiences while still keeping with specific attention to the overall feel of the film and high level of stylization.