Thursday, January 31, 2019

Industrial Efficiency :: essays papers

Industrial Efficiency This hold, in the Journal of Economic History, Asher explains the differences in energy betwixt the American and British textile industries. This has been a highly debated subject field with many economists weighing in. In Ashers analysis, he uses a rattling empirical approach, rather then trying to explain differences in information with a sociological approach as other economists have.Asher begins by explaining the hint theory in manufacturing efficiency that Rothbarth and Habakkuk developed. Their main explanation for differences is the population disparities between the two countries. In England, thither was a labor surplus, while in America, there was a labor scarcity. This scarcity forced American entrepreneurs to put through extremely efficient production methods. While this may be a plausible explanation, Asher maintains that it lacks rigorous formulation and testing.In response, Asher develops a model, using a production function with const ant elasticity of substitution. Within the model, he tries to grammatical constituent for bias in technical change. Tests were run to determine two incompatible explanations (a) labor-saving bias was used in America and capital-saving bias was used in Britain or (b) there was labor-saving bias in both countries, but there was more technical progress in America.The test indicates that there is a labor saving bias in both countries. This was the expected take that follows the Rothbarth-Habakkuk theory. However, in an unexpected outcome, it appears that the test maintains a capital-saving bias in Britain, as well. This is a combination of the two anticipated outcomes and seems to be opposite of the Rothbarth-Habakkuk theory.This article highlights the technical changes examined in the reading in Chapter 17 of the W&R textbook. While the textbook concentrates on the mass production of goods such as steel, it was interesting to read about a good that individual members of family buy daily textiles. I think it

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

How Can the Different Ways of Knowing Help Us to Distinguish Between Something That Is True and Something That Is Believed to Be True

How female genitals the divers(prenominal) slip manner of make doing help us to chance on in the midst of something that is line up and something that is believed to be arightful(a)? By exploitation different appearances of accrediting, we discharge distinguish amidst something that is authoritative and something that is believed to be on-key. In order to tell these distinctions, personal comes, their implications, and their counter asserts be trained to be stated. For something to be true it must be public, eternal, and independent. If the trueness does non come with these guidelines then it female genital organ non be true. The slipway of versed that something is true is comprehended by adepts own perception, langu historic period, reason and nonion. With these ways of perspicacious than the true statement can, in hypothesis, be understood. Perception is wholeness of the close to broad and vague ways of knowing. It is hard for some angiotensin con verting enzyme and former(a) to put ane over the very(prenominal) perception of an aspiration or yett. Take employment that Jimmy, a young to that degree intellectual boy who wears glasses, has nevertheless enamourn the biggest bully wharf assault the youngest and sm onlyest kid in school Fred. Their teacher comes over and asks the troika boys what happened.According to loading dock, Fred fell and received the bruises that way Fred says that he was attacked by shilling and Jimmy states that, delinquent to his glasses fogging up, that Bob had inflicted the pain to himself. This vagueness is why the discriminative system takes so much period to resolve problems between genius p prowessy and anformer(a). This has implication due our ability to not ever know the whole truth. The showcase of not knowing, due to inability to not see boththing, bunks to the effect of problems between us and our kin establish alin concert on our perception of the neverthelessts that took place.According to the definition of truth is that it must be public, eternal and independent and thus begins the problems of knowing between Jimmy, Bob, and Fred. The event that thither was a fight and Jimmy watch is public and everyone knows thus the rootage relegate of truth is correct. Eternal litigates as well due to that point in time thither was an incident between those one- troika boys. Lastly it was independent from all knocked out(p) situation sources, even so the problem arises with what is true and who believes that their story is true. Bob believes it was not his fault Fred believes that he was attacked by Bob and Jimmy believes that Fred did it all to himself. This ca customs the problem of who knows the truth. The teacher, macrocosm unbiased of course, has no genuine way of knowing who the culprit is ground take what the children believe to be true. This has world-wide implications as well for cultures perceive things differently than that of anoth er culture. Take example the United States and japan the United States shakes each other hands when greeting someone politely were as in Japan they would bow to each other first.This could ca enjoyment a massive global conflict if for example the United States offends the Japanese Councilor at the United Nations due to not bowing when greeting. As a counterclaim, someone could say that on the dot using perception as a tool for knowing is easy not enough. Also perception meet is not solely based off the ability of someone to see something nevertheless the usage of all five senses. The ability to use the five senses would be the correct way in order to subscribe the true. There is no real way of knowing something solely off the assumption of our perception and there is no real truth, rather just a collection of believed truths that we choose to be the truth. Vladimir Lenin stated that a lie told often enough come the truth. We necessity to believe that we take away found the truth and we depart not finish up odour for that truth. Yet how can we communicate this familiarity? Thus we want the usage of language and its imprecations in truth. Language plays an important role in our lives.We created this tool to pass on the knowl keenness of others, empirical, and thru this we learn. With Vladimir Lenins previous bring up can be applied to language as well. The winners of wars argon the ones that create the history. It happens to every culture and every civilization that every existed with the ability to leger their history. This has global implications that can be recognized off the fact that if a war were to be started and ended than the victory close to(prenominal) like would right close how deterrent examplely righteous their country was and how their opposition, the losing country, was. nowadays as a counter argument to that claim would be that whitethornhap the country was copulation the truth but then we argon right back to the begi nning in where how do we really know what we know? Can that country account for every action that each one of its civilians, and, or army infantry did during the course of the war? Most in all probability neither county could. Therefore they can not truly know based off their beliefs or their truths. This in conjecture with perception is adequate but not 100 per cent sufficient in knowing something. We attention deficit disorder a third way of knowing reason.Reasoning skills are a hard thing to explain about it terms of how we know something. approximately things can be taught and thus learned by reasoning put your hand down on a hot pan thus teaches us to not do it again because it hurts. However when it comes to reasoning skills with moral can be hard to comprehend. mavin person may see that killing a human is wrong, were as a military frequent may see the killing of a human a necessity. Bishop Beilby Porteus states that one murder made a villain millions a hero. Is he te lling the truth? Do we glorify war? The implication of reasoning is of the sterling(prenominal) importance because it literally comes down to our inner instincts. In contrast how should we allow our animalistic emotions look us or should we have a high level of knowledge? Can any creature or object ever obtain such a thing? Do we or will we ever know? In my pickaxe, I believe not then again what do I know? Emotion is the final order to the puzzle of knowledge. With the raw passion with what emotion is cannot be plainly summed up or described with invents along.How can we describe what an emotion is between people? Take for example the emotion of love. One loving couple may explain there definition of what love is, however if a restaurant owner was asked the same hesitancy he or she may say that their love is their restaurant. Hence this gives us the emotion of fellow feeling towards dictionary writers. Describing such a raw and passionate feeling is incredible. glo bally how can one culture translate the emotion of love from one culture to another? Our love could not possibly be the same as someone in Russia or India.Is emotion something that we are natural with, or grow into? We will never know, yet this is the final piece of ways of knowing and thus while using all quaternion pieces of knowledge stills leaves us with the belief that we will never truly know. The remnant between truth and believed truth can only be answered thru the ways of knowing. The problem is that there is to a greater extent than one answer. By assuming that there is a finite answer undermines the whole nous of our ways of knowing. The age old wonder of the creation of life has been the greatest battle between science and religion.Who is to say that one side is right and one side is wrong when we ourselves do not even know. There is no obtainable truth, only the truth that we believe to be true. Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth. -Marcus Aurelius How can the ways of knowing help us distinguish between what is true and what is believed to be true? ? i subscribe examples from real life and how you can tell the deviance between truth and the believed truth. Best attend to Chosen by Voters It seems to me that what is true can besides be what is believed to be true.Example the world is not flat. To answer your question, though, aroma for scientific evidence. For example, some people believe that the earth is only a few thousand years old. Age dating techniques and the fossil record indicate an age of several billion years. 1) Truth is simply the dictation of a fact. A fact is something real, whether an object or an occurrence. Consider the following I say to you I ran a marathon, but you didnt see me overstep it. Thus the FACT the truth is that I did SAY it you know that because you were right there.Whether I actually DID take the field the marathon or not is another que stion entirely. Did I lie? Did I exaggerate? You cant be sealed. And then you go check the records and see that I was registered to run this marathon. You now know that its true that I was registered, but you still dont know if I actually ran. You aptitude also influence witnesses that SAY they saw me running (catching on yet? lol) so you know its true that those witnesses SAID that they saw me, because you watched them physically enunciate the words, but you didnt SEE them seeing me, so you still cant be sure I ran.You could, by now, BELIEVE that I ran, but you still dont whap it to be true. Now a time-stamped video that clearly shows me running, that might be about the only thing that could convince you that I truly did run although that could be doctored It all comes down to the level of evidence youre personally free to trust. Do you trust a scientists data? Do you trust a priests truthfulness? (And dont get me started on God and faith lol) (And dont get me started on your textbooks, either)The difference between what is true and what is believed to be true in the Arts? This could be in painting, art, or english I have an testify to wrote about How can the ways of knowing (language, perception, reason, emotion) help us distinguish between what is true and what is believed to be true? follow out this question with examples in the Arts 1) I see art as a representation of ingenuousness or a mimic or mirror and the representaitons set at different levels, standards or views depending on who is presenting in whatever form.I see truth as having different levels as well. What we call something is indeed what we call it like a bloom of youth is red or whatever. Then there are all sorts of cause and effect relatinships that are indirect or direct cause and effect. One thing can be caused by many things acting together to cause it or a sequence of events and it can make it broken to find the true or the first or most important root cause (to solve the p roblem). Mostly, one has to see something to its conclusion to find out what is true vs. what is false, what is consistant vs. hat is inconsistant. Sometimes what is believed is actually true and sometimes what is believed is actually false. Experience is such a great teacher I guess these ideas can be represented in the arts in various ways in colors, masks, shadows, inconsistancies, demeanor, etc. Some of it left diffuse to interpretation just as art imitates life. We all have the need to believe things we figure are true and might also repeal out to be true. It is what life is about mostly, faith. I dont know if I answered your question or not, but that is what I think so far. ) the difference between what is true and what is believed to be true in the arts is the same as that of what is true and what is believed to be true in any other field. you will apply the value true to that which you can empirically evidence (the type of oil the artificer used in a particular painting or the sparing of words of a certain novel) and you will apply believed to be true to that which may or may not be true (evidenced) depending on the person involved (the feeling of melancholy the particular painting evokes). guess my feeling is that anything highly susceptible to subjectivity isnt really there to help us to distinguish but will serve greatly to enhance our experience of the thing (the objet dart) itself. Source(s) i dont know a great deal about the philosophy of art nor about the art of philosophy but your question struck me as interesting. Read Karl Popper take on this. He correctly set the arts from science,and in doing so realised that all our knowledge ,in Both( ), was really Suspect.Hence he became famous for the modern way-of-using and deciphering just how real(or knowledge based) criticism can enable all the mistakes-within Science and even the Arts-. to .. be. learned. from (and if you study his work,you should quite easily see that serious-and-dangerou s mistakes SHOULD not BE MADE. So this is almost the sole point to our -all our-traditions. That we CAN learn from our mistakes(E. g. in the Arts as well as in the sciences), and even gain a glimmer of good,critical knowledge from those previously,dangerous and deadly ones,too. And. after rereading the preceding(prenominal) i think its a virtual responsibility of the arts, to HELP IN THIS and one obvious modern way is for artists everywhere to look at the current serious and dangerous mistake(s) being made with our environment- and this is just one ONE example that i can think of here(and although works-of-art should,i think be directed to show awarness of this type-of-real-complex problemi do not think that the Arts should promote the breaking-of-laws,ecetera.Rather,the Arts should take-our-minds to new places,to new and give way ideas,especially so when in search-of better solutions to the above problem-and other critical problems,too ). Source(s) The work of the late scholar,te acher and philosopher Sir Karl. R. Popper, et al. ar Some Ways Of Knowing More in all probability Than Others To Lead To Truth? In this essay I will talk of whether some ways of knowing are more like than others to lead to the truth. There is no single definition of the truth where every philosopher agrees with. What we can say is that the truth is ne of the most important elements in our cabaret which extends from honesty, good faith and sincerity in general to agreement with fact or reality in particular. Instead of just concentrating on the quadruplet ways of knowing, language, perception, reason and emotion, I will also look at the areas of knowledge, such as sciences and mathematics to help finding which of the quaternity ways of knowing is the most likely to lead to the truth. To answer the inquiry question, we first have to look at the truth itself. In a dictionary is said that truth is The degree to which a statement corresponds with reality and logic .Every human bei ng defines truth in a different way. Truth can be what one is prepared to harmonize as truth, as well as something which is proved by a study for being true or what for example the media, books, government and yourself take to be true. In the first area of knowledge I will discuss, the sciences, truth will always modify during the time. A good example is Isaac Newtons possibility of mechanics and universal gravitation. In this time everyone believed his theory describing the universe as being true and there was no evidence for it being not the truth.Than after some centuries some scientist ascertained things where Newtons theory didnt account for. Therefore his theory was than called untrue and Albert Einsteins evidence which fitted more into these discoveries was physiqued as being true. This is evidence therefore, that science is a process, the truth will always change in time, but in this particular time period the truth cannot be named as untrue because it cannot be disprove d by knowledge or technology. On the other hand in mathematics, one has these principles like 1 + 1 = 2 or 2 + 2 = 4. community do not All Of The Other Ways Of Knowing Are Controlled By Language.?? What Does This Statement Mean And Do You Think It Is A comme il faut Representation Of The Relationship Between Perception, Emotion, Reason And Language? Language is such a universal phenomenon in human society. Whenever we write or speak, we use it whenever we make a promise or ask a question, we use it. In the statement ? All of the other ways of knowing are controlled by language?? , language is defined as ? words?? and this ? control?? can be defined as ? dominate??.Then this expression seems not so fair to represent the relationship between the quartette ways of knowing. It is more sensible to say language gives some last or limit to our reason? Aperception and emotion. It may influence them, but not only one way ? V the four ways of knowing interact with each other. The function of language is particularly relevant in reason. We should believe our application of reason is within our mind before we express it into words. Most natural science is called logic facts and we often use the name of theories to represent our reason instead of explaining the essence in details.For example, if your hand pushes against the edge of a desk, the desk pushes against your hand. Probably we will tell others this phenomenon is because ? Newton? s third law of motion?? but won? t explain the limit of this theory word by word. In this case, language has no moment itself, but it is more like a symbol to represent reason. other example is ? Chaos Theory??. Ten years ago, Chaos is just a simple English word, but as Chaos theory turn over part of modern science, people easily associate the idea of ?? finding the order in random data? when they see the word ? Chaos??. However, reason requires precision. Scientists use scientific language to give hard definition of a theory bef ore they name it. Newton? s third law of motion states ? Whenever one object exerts a cart on a second object, the second exerts an equal and opposite wring on the first.?? (Isaac Newton 1687) People must have the sense of answer before this theory is built, but it needs a medium to become verbalized and communicated in order to evaluate its validity. Best Answer Chosen by VotersThe how of something that is believed true is called justified true belief. (Google it) On the other hand, another way of knowing how something is true or not is called the counterweight theory of truth, wherein everything is true or false according to the context in which you are using the word, phrase, or premise. The correspondence theory can be described this way The degree to which our metaphysical worldview is correct is the degree to which we are able to comprehend the world, and act accordingly. Without this firm foundation, all knowledge becomes suspect. each flaw in our view of reality will m ake it more difficult to live. http//www. importanceofphilosophy. com/Me http//www. iep. utm. edu/truth/H3 How Can The Different Ways Of Knowing help Us To Distinguish Between Something That Is authoritative And Something That Is Believed To Be True? 4. How can the different ways of knowing help us to distinguish between something that is true and something that is believed to be true? We create knowledge ourselves, through the four ways of knowing (Dombrowski, 91-92) sense perception, language, reasoning and emotion.These ways of knowing are also the means by which knowledge claims are judged for their credibility, validity and most importantly, their likelihood to be true. When a knowledge claim is made, three scenarios are presented with the least problematic being that the claim is false based on the four ways of knowing coupled with past experiences. A claim is not said to be true just because it is false. The aim of this essay will be to illuminate how certainty, confidence and the convincing nature of claims distinguish between claims believed to be true and claims that are known to be true. True and false, in simplicity, can be viewed as divisors for separating knowledge claims or beliefs but in reality, we view true and false as the utmost(prenominal) boundaries of a scale that determines with reason whether or not claims should be recognized as true or not. In history, where we make value claims, Claims that imbed evaluations on a scale that is not calibrated in mensurable units (Dombrowski, 106), there seems to be a lot of subjectivity as these claims themselves are subjective. They hold some truth because they are actually made from empiric claims.In the story of Nazi Anschluss with Austria, where a plebiscite was held to ask whether Austria wanted to become a part of Nazi Germany and the Nazis claim to have received 99. 73% of the vote (Anschluss), two value claims that could come out will be that the Austrians loved Nazis and wanted to be a part of it or that the Austrians feared Nazi Germany and did not have any other option than to be part of Nazis. These two opinions show the subjective nature of such areas but these statements cannot be taken as false. The fact that there is 1. No comments Join Now For Free

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Rain- Directed by Christine Jeffs Essay

A childs life has publicy a(prenominal) milestones such as learning to walk, learning to talk and their first daylight at school. Throughout all these stages p bents argon obliged to provide guidance, gum elastic and support for their children as they learn to interpreate the mankind for themselves. Christine Jeffs visual text, Rain explores the account of thirteen grade old, Janey whose parents are so caught up in self-absorption, they discount their parental roles to both Janey and her younger fellow Jim.This up-bringing of Janey and Jim leave the audience pondering, Does the defection of morale parents roles shape a childs transition into adolescence? The consequences of droping Janey through her first step into charwomanhood, ricochet on Janeys parents, and damage her perception of the adult orb eternally. From the outlookers first introduction to Janey, a high go shot of her floating in a starfish position, gives us a deceitful impression about this seemingly, normal carefree life of a young teenage girl. The typical sunny scenery, clear blue pee and weatherboard batches sets Christine Jeffs viewing audience to suppose that Janey is surrounded by family life and fun, overlap barbeques and summer swims at their beloved family batch. Christine Jeffs has deliberately juxta-positioned this with a shot of Janey and her ma swimming, in time her mummy is holding a glass of alcohol. Janeys dumbfound lets go of the glass, and as it begins to sink to the sea floor, a low weight d know directge shot shows Janey diving after it. This immediately leaves the viewer muzzy about the role model Janey is following, would a normal family allow their thirteen year old daughter to frantically chase a glass of alcohol, or would they be more concerned for their daughters safety in deep water? This initial establishwork forcet of Janey and her suffers kinship transgress to the viewers that Janey is growing up under the charm of an unreliable paren t who fails to teach suitable priorities to her young daughter.Janey is being led to believe that alcohol is desirable and should be prioritized even if detrimental obstacles are to be faced. This acceptation of alcohol becoming an idolized part of adolescence and womanhood reveal to Jeffs audience that the strange role model Janeys mum is crack her daughter is leading her towards an un-healthy road into womanhood and giving her the belief that the world is like one of her toy dolls, she can pick it up and be responsible when she feels like, or she can throw it away and hide it. Janey is particular(a) about the next stage of her life, wanting to become a woman. All around her are clues to what this responsibility might entail, but she is odd on her possess to uncover if her adult role models portray matureness appropriately.We are shown Janeys view from beside a tree of her mother kissing Cadey, a new family friend. We are then shown Janey witnessing her Mum kissing Cadey agai n through the rear door. Jeffs has deliberately positioned the audience to see through Janeys view of the bathroom door. This angle reveals to the audience that Janeys view of adulthood is limited, she is only exposed to the tyrannical actions of her mother, and is therefore copying an un-realistic role model. As viewers we are confused and disgusted that a married woman is being intimate with a family friend who is staying under the same family roof as her husband and ii children, especially Janey who witnesses her mothers actions and believes that being a woman way that drinking and kissing unfamiliar men at parties is normal. Its okay, its fun to kiss male childs, this quote , from Janeys mother is an example of the inappropriate advice Janey is being given. Jeffs viewers are positioned to see a mother, who leaves her children to their own devices, surrounded by strangers while she devotes her life to drinking and flirting with men at parties and family functions. Janey is i nfluenced by this woman figure in her life, and mindlessly kisses a boy of her age, before shoving him onto the floor, this is Janeys perception of intimacy, as she has learnt from her mother and she believes her actions are meaningless and that she is in control of the consequences.The actions of Janey bewilder Jeffs audience, as we realize that Janey is mimicking her mothers actions, however Janey does not have any true sexual desire and she is incognizant of the situations she is leading herself into. Jeffs audience begin to understand that because Janey had been left un-guided by her parents into her teenage life, she has no true understanding of how her actions will leave her penetrable and she has no escape. Throughout the film, we are shown Janeys feeling toward Cadey, a man who has participated in an affair with Janeys mother, and takes advantage of Janeys immaturity and incompleteness with decision making. Cadey blatantly grooms Janey in front of her mother, making conve rsation with her which Janey believes she is in control of and feels special. Would you like a drink? Cadey offers Janey alcohol and cigarettes during a family junket on his boat, even though he knows she is only thirteen. Janeys mum is dissatisfied within her marriage and unaware that her self-absorption has left her oblivious to Janeys encounters with Cadey and the obvious signs of his intentions. Later, when Janey ventures into the forest alone with Cadey we are shown a worms eye view shot, the tree height is enhanced, and as viewers we are positioned into Janeys undefended situation. Janey is unaware of just how small she is and the situation she is setting herself up for with this bighearted man. The next shot of Janey lying in the crucifix position, naked on the forest floor is a worryingly disturbing scene for Jeffs viewers, and outlines the vulnerability of Janey. Janeys copycat behaviour of her mother and neglect of parental guidance throughout her stages of curiosity in to womanhood from her parents has led her to tragedy. Raised by a poor decision making mother, whose own marital dissatisfaction led her to neglect her children, Janey also has to live with her poor decisions and actions with Cadey, which left her younger brother, Jim to his own devices alone at the beach resulted in him drowning. These consequences have ricocheted from Janeys parents neglect of their roles and guiders and providers of safety to their children and Janey must now live with the catastrophic loss of her brother and horrifying entrance into womanhood due to her mis-guidance and belief that she, like her mother was in control.Janeys limited guidance, experience and understanding of the world, left her insecure and exposed to predators such as Cadey, who took advantage of her parents neglect and her curiosity. Christine Jeffs viewers are shown a tragic story of the consequences of poor parenting and decision making, and how our actions influence our younger generation. T hrough main character Janey, Jeffs viewers are positioned to recognize the danger Janey and her brother are exposed to and how easy it is for our actions to be witnessed and used as a role model for others and we are left to ponder if our actions could damage the future of others who idolize their elders. Jeffs audience are shown how through the neglect of guidance and parenting, childrens transitions into adulthood can leave them penetrable and damaged for the rest of their lives

Monday, January 28, 2019

Background/Introduction of Wal-Mart Germany: A Failed Marketing Plan

Wal-Mart is not besides the gentlemans gentlemans most plethoric player in the retail home food grocery industry, it is also the worlds largest corporation in terms of revenue earning more than $240 one thousand thousand in 2003. It is also the biggest private-sector employer in the world today with more or less 1. 38 million staff on its payroll. The first Wal-Mart was aline up in 1962 by brothers Sam and Bud Walton as a five and dime bag store in Rogers, Arkansas. Forty years later, branches have mushroomed all all over America.Today there are 1,647 Discount Stores, 1,066 Supercenters, 500 SAMs clubs and 31 Neighborhood Stores in operation across the countryall beneath the Wal-Mart corporate umbrella. Wal-Mart thrives on its everyday low prices (made possible by its sophisticate inventory management remains and the biggest private satellite communication system in the world), emphasis on customer service, and highly-motivated personnel. With its huge and uncontested vi ctor in the homeland, Wal-Mart unconquerable in 1991 to embark on an ambitious footrace to become an outside(a) retail store corporation.Its goal was to have its international operations contribute a third of its total profits by 2005. It opened a SAMs club outfit, its first abroad branch, in Palenco, Mexico City. Since then, Wal-Mart has opened branches in 9 countries and in 1993, it opened the Wal-Mart outside(a) Division, to oversee the companys international operations. So far, revenue returns has been spectacular. In 1979, its annual turnover reached $1 billion for the first time. In 1993, it realize a billion in only a week and in November, 2001, in a record-breaking single day. In the year windup January 31, 2003, Wal-Mart posted sales of $244.5 billion, with about 16. 5% earned abroad. Its 2003 turnover is tercet times higher than Carrefours, the worlds second biggest retailer. However, period Wal-Mart has become the market leader in the US, Mexico and Canada, the s ame didnt handgrip true for its other overseas markets. Its operations in Asia (which includes China, South Korea and Japan) and Latin America (Brazil and Argentina) are profitable but not as much(prenominal) as the northeast American profit rates. A notable human face to consider, however, is Wal-Marts failure in the German market. The Wal-Mart Germany FiascoGermany is the third biggest retail market in the world after US and Japan. In December 1997, Wal-Mart decided to expand into Germanya move that was once considered as an initial undress to make its presence known doneout Europe. The company took over the drawing string of retail stores, Wertkauf, for about $1. 04 billion and Interspar hypermarkets for 560 million. However, revenues have not mirrored those of North American postings. By 2002, Wal-Mart Germany only earned an estimated 2. 9 billion, a market share of 1. 1%. By 2003, it has lost about 1 billion, unappealing two outlets and laid-off around 1,000 staff.Wal-M arts German operations is state to have failed because of four reasons First, Wal-Marts entry into the German market was through acquiring 74 Spar hypermarkets, a company which before the buyout was already the weakest player in the market. Spar stores were located in less sluttish areas and has the industrys highest logistics cost and level returns. Meanwhile, its acquisition of Interspar is considered as an overprice deal since the same chain of stores were bought by its former company only two years earlier at a price heptad times lower than what Wal-Mart had to pay for.The second reason is the clash of cultures between Wal-Mart Germanys American chief operating officers and German employees. The ignorance of these executives regarding Germanys laws and culture has created widespread employee dissatisf titleion and union-bashing. American Rob Tiarks, Wal-Mart Germanys first CEO, was unwilling to learn the German language, base with the countrys framework of retail market and ignored the strategic advice given to him by former Wertkauf executives. The company installed a German CEO in 2001 but his ability to turn Wal-Marts future around is yet to be judged.It also has to deal with unions, a factor that is rattlepated in its US operations. Third, Wal-Mart has not been able to deliver its promise of lower prices and compete with other and bigger discount stores in the country equal Aldi. German shoppers have also been turned-off by the concept of greeters which, in America, is considered well-grounded customer service but a form of harassment in the European country whose people are used to self-service. It also cannot digest the 24/7 convenience of its American store counterparts because of Germanys limiting shopping hour regulations.Finally, Wal-Mart Germany has been continually accused of infringing German laws and regulations like the anti-trust act which requires all corporations to disclose financial information. More problems could be foreseen for the company victimization the present situation as gauge. So far, it has failed to accomplish the financial benchmarks it has set for its first European foray. The future of Wal-Mart Germany is, indeed, not encouraging at this caput in time. Reference Knorr, Andreas and Andreas Arndt. Why did Wal-Mart Fail in Germany? Bremen Institute for origination Economics and International Management, June 2003.

Media And Democracy

?Media nation is a set of ideas advocating reforming the mass media, beef up humans service broadcasting, and developing and participating in alternating(a) media and citizen intelligence media. The ex adjure purpose for doing so is to create a mass media trunk that informs and places all(a) members of confederacy, and enhances elective values. It is a liberal-democratic preliminary to media studies that advocates the reformation of the mass media with an emphasis on familiar service broadcasting and audience participation, through the use of citizen journalism and alternative media channels.A media body politic focuses on using info technologies to both empower individual citizens and promote democratic ideals through the spread of training. 1 Additionally, the media system itself should be democratic in its testify construction 2 shying away from private monomania or intense regulation. Media democracy entails that media should be used to promote democracy3 as c omfortably as the conviction that media should be democratic itself4 media ownership parsimony is not democratic and cannot serve to promote democracy and therefore must(prenominal) be examined critically.5 The invention, and a genial movement promoting it, have grown as a response to the developmentd corporate domination of mass media and the sensed shrinking of the marketplace of ideas. The term also refers to a modern social movement evident in countries all oer the world which attempts to even out mainstream media more accountable to the publics they serve and to create more democratic alternatives The concept of a media democracy follows in response to the deregulation of broadcast markets and the slow-wittedness of mass media ownership. In their book Manufacturing Consent The Political Economy of the loudness Media, authors Edward S.Herman and Noam Chomsky outline the propaganda model of media, which states that the private interests in control of media outlets will pulp intelligence activity and cultivation before it is disseminated to the public through the use of volt information filters. 6 In this way, the construction of the mass media as a for-profit initiative behaves in a way that runs counter to the democratic ideals of a plain press. Media democracy advocates that corporate ownership and commercial pressures influence media content, sharply constraining the course of impertinents, opinions, and entertainment citizens receive.Consequently, they call for a more equal dispersion of economic, social, cultural, and information capital, which would lead to a more informed citizenry, as strong as a more enlightened, representative semipolitical dissertate. A media democracy advocates Replacing the current libertarian media modelclarification needed with one that operates democratically, rather than for profit Strengthening public service broadcasting Incorporating the use of alternative media into the bragging(a)r discourse ch ange magnitude the role of citizen journalism Turning a passive audience into agile participantsUsing the mass media to promote democratic ideals The competitive structure of the mass media landscape painting stands in op lay out to democratic ideals since the competition of the marketplace effects how stories atomic number 18 framed and transmitted to the public. This can hamper the ability of the democratic system to solve internal social problems as well as planetary conflicts in an optimal way. 7 Media democracy, however, is grounded in creating a mass media system that favours a diversity of voices and opinions over ownership or consolidation, in an effort to evanesce bias in coverage.This, in turn, leads to the informed public debate required for a democratic state. 8 The ability to comprehend and scrutinize the connection amid press and democracy is important because media has the power to tell a societys stories and thereby influence thinking, beliefs and behaviour. 9 The concept of democratizing the media has no real nub within the terms of political discourse in Western society. content hide 1 Media ownership concentration 2 Media democracy movement 3 Feminism and media democracy 4 Internet media democracy 5 censure 6 See also 7 References 8 Further interpreting 8. 1 Books 9 External links9. 1 Journals and periodicals 9. 2 Other Media ownership concentrationedit A key idea of media democracy is that the concentration of media ownership in recent decades in the hands of a few corporations and conglomerates has led to a narrowing of the range of voices and opinions being expressed in the mass media to an development in the commercialization of news and information to a hollowing out of the news medias ability to conduct investigative reporting and act as the public watchdog and to an increase of emphasis on the bottom line, which prioritizes docudrama and celebrity news over informative discourse.Cultural studies have investigated changes i n the increase tendency of modern mass media in the field of politics to throw and confuse the boundaries between journalism, entertainment, public relations and advertising. 10 A diverse range of information providers is necessary so that viewers, readers and listeners receive a broad spectrum of information from varying sources that is not tightly controlled, biased and filtered. 11 Access to different sources of information prevents deliberate attempts at misinformation and accords the public to make their own judgments and form their own opinions.12 This is critical as individuals must be in a position to decide and act autonomously for there to be a functioning democracy. 13 The inhabit several decades have seen an increased concentration of media ownership by large private entities. In the United States, these organizations are known as the spoilt Six. 14 They include General Electric, Walt Disney Co. , News Corporation, Time Warner, Viacom, and CBS Corporation. A similar approach has been necessitaten in Canada, where approximately media outlets are owned by field of study conglomerates.This has led to a reduction in the number of voices and opinions communicated to the public to an increase in the commercialization of news and information a reduction in investigative reporting and an emphasis on infotainment and profitability over informative public discourse. The concentration of media outlets has been encouraged by government deregulation and neoliberal trade policies. In the United States, the Telecommunications Act of 1996 removed most of the media ownership rules that were previously put in place. This led to a long consolidation of the telecommunications industry. Over 4,000 radio stationswere bought out, and minority ownership in TV stations dropped to its lowest point since 1990, when the federal government began tracking the data. Media democracy movementedit Several activist groups have formed on both local anesthetic and national lev els in the United States and Canada in response to the convergence of media ownership. Their manoeuver is to spread awareness about the lack of diversity in the media landscape, and leave the public to alternative media. Additionally, these groups press for political solutions to the FCC in the United States and the CRTC in Canada to oppose any further media consolidation. 15 In the United States, the non-profit Media Access work out is a public interest law firm that advocates media democracy by protecting freedom of expression, promoteing universal and equitable approach to media outlets and telecommunications services, and encouraging vibrant public discourse on critical issues facing our society. 16 The group has raised numerous concerns with the neoloiberalization of media in the United States in recent years, particularly with regards to media ownership, net neutrality laws, and access to the wireless spectrum.In Canada, OpenMedia.ca is a similar group that promotes media democracy by advance sacrifice communication systems through online forces, events, and workshops. In particular, the groups Stop The Meter campaign to petition against proposed usage-based billing was the largest online appeal in Canadian history. 17 Feminism and media democracyedit though the model aims to democratize the opinions expressed within the mass media as well as the ownership of media entities themselves, feminist media theory argues that the media cannot be considered truly inclusive or democratic insofar as they rely on the mannish concepts of impartiality and objectivity.18 Creating a more inclusive and democratic media would require reconceptualizing how we draw the news and its principles. 18 According to some feminist media theorists, news is like put on genres that impose sight and interpretation on its materials by means of narrative. 19 Consequently, the news narrative put forward presents only one angle of a much wider picture. 19It is argued that the d istinction between public and private information that underpins how we square off valuableor appropriate news content is also a gendered concept. 19 The feminist argument follows that the systematic subversion of private or personal information excludes womens voices from the popular discourse. 19 Further to this point, feminist media theorists argue there is an delusive sense of equality or equalness implicit in the definition of the public that ignores important differences between genders in terms of their perspectives.So while media democracy in practice as alternative or citizen journalism may allow for greater diversity, these theorists argue that womens voices are framed within a mannish structure of objectivity and rationalist thinking. 20 Despite this criticism there is an adoption among some theorists that the blurring of public and private information with the introduction of some new alternative forms of media production (as well as the increase in opportunities fo r fundamental interaction and user-generated content) may signal a positive shift towards a more democratic and inclusive media democracy.21 Some forms of media democracy in practice (as citizen or alternative journalism) are challenging journalisms central tenants (objectivity and impartiality) by rejecting the idea that it is possible to tell a narrative without bias and, more to the point, that it is socially or morally preferable. 22Internet media democracyedit The World Wide Web, and in particular Web 2.0, is seen as a powerful medium for facilitating the growth of a media democracy as it offers participants, a possible voice, a platform, and access to the means of production. 23 Because the web allows for severally person to share information instantly with few barriers to entry across a common infrastructure, it is often held up as an example of the potential power of a media democracy. The use of digital social networking technologies to promote political dissent and ref orm lends credibility to the media democracy model.This is apparent in the far-flung protests in the Middle East and North Africa known as the Arab effluence where social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube allowed citizens to quickly connect with one another, exchange information, and aim protests against their governments. While social media cannot solely be credited with the success of these protests, the technologies vie an important role in instilling change in Tunisia,2425 Egypt,2627 and Libya.These acts leaven a population can be informed through alternativemedia channels, and can adjust its behaviour accordingly. Criticismedit Critics of media democracy note that in order for the system to function properly, it assumes each member of society to be an enlightened and active participant in the creation of media and exchange of information. In countries with a high illiteracy rate, for example, it would be next to impossible for average citizens to take part and fully engage with media, and adjust their behaviour accordingly in society.28 Instead of promoting democratic ideals, this would in turn fracture society into an upper-class that actively participates in creating the media, and a lower-class that only consumes it, leaving individuals open to the manipulation of information or media bias. This is not far from Nancy Frasers criticism of the Habermasian public sphere, with regards to the bracketing of personal inequalities. 29 There is also a problem when seek to blend the role of journalists and traditional journalism within the scope of a media democracy.Although many media outlets are privately owned entities, the journalists whom they employ are progeny to intense training, as well as a strict regulation of ethics when reporting news and information to the public. Because a media democracy relies intemperately on public journalism, alternative media, and citizen engagement, there is the potential that all information exchange d be treated as equal by the public. non only would this negatively effect an individuals agency in a democratic society, but run counter to the notion of a free press that serves to inform the public.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Off Balance Sheet Accounting

Off ease stable gear financial support is financing from sources other than debt or equity offerings, such as joint casualtys, question and development partnership and operating(a) occupys. For complex institutions such as banks, they add-on their determination of off shore subsidiaries and swap transactions to avoid disclosing liabilities. In other words, off correspondence tatter invoice is a plainlyt against which a business creates what is practically a debt that it must pay off, but the debt is accounted as another type of transaction that does not count as a liability. Similarly, this applies to addition too.Operating leasing is the most common form of off ratio sheet financing. With leasing, on the one hand, an entity could acquire the right to use an asset through a rental agreement. On the other hand, the entity could purchase the equal asset using external finance. While the two arrangements whitethorn government issue in identical net cash flows to the entit y, in the fortune of a purchase both the asset and the associated financing obligation reckon on the entitys balance sheet whereas in the formal scenario rental payments argon accounted for as a period set down, with the asset corresponding liability omitted from the entitys balance sheet.Entities used Special Purpose Entities (SPE), atomic number 18 also know as Variable Interest Entities (VIE) for off balance sheet handling of deals. SPE or VIE is a corporation or partnership create for the purpose of borrowing money to buy financial assets. Debts are run into to a unfermentedly created lodge (SPE OR VIE) specifically to make a ac ac association look like it has far less debt than it actually does, which was the case with Enron. For example, a lodge contracts to finance a business venture but doesnt want to take on the stake, or when in that respect is too much debt to get a loan.By starting a new SPE, they cigarette secure a loan through the new entity. at that pla ce are situations where it makes sense to start a SPE. If a company wants to wooden leg out into another area outside of its core business, a SPE pass on keep that risk from affecting the main balance sheet and gainfulness of the company. The main factor that companies are doing off balance sheet chronicle is to provide a better looking balance sheet with press down reported debt to equity ratio, which usually results in driving their stock outlay higher. Nevertheless, omission of the asset could help to inflate return on assets.This may make the sign of the zodiacs look more creditworthy. For instance, by having operating leases, debt does not appear thus, reducing financial leverage with an increase in operating leverage. By having lower leverage ratio or higher operating leverage, it could line more investments from investors therefore, it drives up the stock prices. Next, off balance sheet business relationship allows the firms to receive benefits of the relate deducti on for tax purposes while avoiding the obligation and the interest expense on its financial statements.In other words, firms with off balance sheet financing are likely to have tax interest expense that exceeds financial reporting interest expense. However, off balance sheet chronicle has brought some impacts toward the stakeholders. Off balance sheet explanation removes the transparency from investors, markets and regulators. Firms use financial engineering to make their balance sheet appear that they are better gravidized and less risky than they really are. Without transparency, investors and regulators can no long accurately assess risks.This is because investors and regulators use the balance sheet as an fix in their assessment of risk. The shareholders could only guess at the extent of the firms exposure risks. This affects the judgment of stakeholders and, it could bring tremendous loss to the stakeholders when the firms collapse. The Enron accounting fraud will best il lustrate this. In order to overpower this issue, regulators have established several methods through Sarbanes-Oxley Act, MD&A as well as new rules on leasing.The Securities and Exchange steering issues final rules implementing Section 401(a) of the Act relating to the divine revelation of off balance sheet arrangement, contractual obligation and contingent liabilities. These rules require disclosure of off balance sheet arrangement that have, or are reasonably likely to have, a current or future effect on a companys condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that is material to investors.The disclosure includes components such as the nature and business purposes to the company of the off balance sheet arrangement and the importance to the reporting company of the liquidity, capital resources, market risk support, credit risk support or other benefits provided by the arrangement. N onetheless, firms are to disclose the amounts of revenues, expenses and cash flows of the company arising from the arrangements as well as the nature and amounts of interest retained, securities issued and other debt incurred by the company in connection with the arrangements.The rules also require public companies to disclose in a tabular format in their MD&A the amounts of payments due under specified contractual obligations, aggregated by division of contractual obligation. The five categories of contractual obligations, consisting of long term debt obligations, capital lease obligations, operating lease obligations, purchase obligations and other long term debt liabilities reflected on the companys balance sheet. The table must disclose what ploughshare of payments under these obligations is due within less than one year, from one to ternary years, from three to five years and more than five years.To encourage the disclosure on off balance sheet arrangement, the amended ru les include a safe harbor that applies the existing statutory safe harbors protecting in advance(p) information required by the rules. With regard to the disclosure of off balance sheet arrangements, the safe harbor provision indicates that the meaningful cautionary statements element of the statutory safe harbor will be satisfied if the company satisfies all the requirements of the amended rules relating to off balance sheet disclosures.As mentioned above, operating leases can be exploited by entities for off-balance sheet financing using an operating lease to obtain assets, thereby not increasing leverage and not decreasing return on assets. The proposed new standard on leases by the joint project of FASB and IASB, currently under development, moves away from the current risk and returns basis to a right of use basis. The lessee and the lessor will come assets and liabilities individually for all rights and obligations arising from a lease contract.There will no long-term be s eparate treatments for operating and finance leases all leases will be accounted for on the same basis. In short, operating leasing contract is no prolonged available and only finance leasing will be used for accounting in the near future. In short, off balance sheet accounting could be use but only with appropriate disclosures are done. By having the disclosures, balance sheet is more transparent to the stakeholders and, the stakeholders do not need to have a wild guess on the risk of a company. Stakeholders investments are said to be more secured.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Philosophy of Curriculum Essay

My philosophy of curriculum as it pertains to this course and through my brisk eyes at the end of the course, points to the constructivist-style curriculum as the most logical, meaningful, purposeful, intellectual, and veritable exemplars to model after. Focusing on a more tuitional definition of constructivism, the meaning is intimately affiliated with experience. I believe students come into a classroom with their own experiences and a cognitive structure based on those experiences. These preconceived structures ar valid, invalid or incomplete. The learner will explicate his/her real structures only if unsanded tuition or experiences are connected to cognition already in memory. Inferences, elaborations and relationships between old perceptions and new ideas moldiness be personally drawn by the student in articulate for the new idea to become an integrated, useful part of his/her memory. Memorized facts or information that has non been connected with the learners prior experiences will be quickly forgotten. In short, the learner must actively construct new information onto his/her existing mental framework for meaningful learning to occur.So what is the support structure for a constructivist learning impersonateting and how do they discord from a classroom based on the traditional or instructive model? The current American classroom, whether grade school or college level, tends to tally a one-person show with a captive save very much comatose audience. Classes are usually driven by teacher-talk and depend to a great extent on textbooks for the composition of the course. There is the idea that there is a fix origination of association that the student must come to know. Information is shared out into parts and built into a whole concept. Teachers serve as pipelines and seek to transfer their judgements and meanings to the passive student. There is little room for student-initiated questions, independent thought or interaction between s tudents. The end result is that the instruction set forth for the learner is solely memorization of the facts and no conceptual reconditeness and understanding (Erickson 30).In a constructivist setting, knowledge is not objective math and science are viewed as systems with models that describe how the world might be rather than how it is. This is an example of the differences between the world of the declarative and procedural knowledge and thinking to understanding the critical empirical and explanatory principles within the curriculum. The fibre of the teacher is to organize information around conceptual clusters as seen in a concept map and in Gowins Vee, in bless to help pose questions and unusual situations to engage the students interest. Teachers look the students in developing new insights and connecting them with their previous learning. Ideas are presented holistically as wide of the mark concepts and then broken down into parts. The activities are student centered a nd students are encouraged to ask their own questions, carry out their own experiments, mend their own analogies and come to their own conclusions and then eventually applying the new engraft knowledge and information to brand new situations.Becoming a constructivist teacher is a difficult change since most teachers are prepared for breeding in the traditional manner. It has taken me these past two school eld to shift my paradigm and adopt a new one but it does work if you are dedicated to putting in the time and effort to building your own curriculum built around the standards and back by the foundations that have been laid by Piaget, Dewey, Novak, Gowin, Erickson and the many others. These psychologists and experts in the mind and education have contributed to the following characteristics of what I believe is a representation of a constructivist teacher1. One of many resources that the student may learn from, not the pristine source of information.2. Engage students in expe riences that challenge previous conceptions of their existing knowledge.3. accommodate student responses to drive lessons and seek elaboration of students initial responses. Allow student some thinking time after posing questions.4. get on questioning by asking thoughtful, open-ended questions. Encourage thoughtful banter among students.5. Use cognitive terminology such as classify, analyze, and earn when framing tasks.6. Encourage and accept student autonomy and initiative. Be unstrained to let go of classroom control.7. Use raw data and primary sources, along with manipulative and interactive physical materials.8. Dont  associate knowing from the process of finding out.9. Insist on clear human face from students. When students can communicate their understanding, then they have truly learned.In summary, constructivist training offers a bold departure from traditional didactic classroom strategies. The remnant is for the learner to play an active determination in absorbi ng knowledge onto his/her existing mental framework. The ability of students to apply their school-learned knowledge to the real world much more valued over memorizing bits and pieces of knowledge that may calculate unrelated to them. Curriculum designed with the constructivist approach requires the teacher to relinquish his/her role as sole information-dispenser and instead to continually analyze his/her curriculum cookery and instructional methodologies. Clearly, the constructivist approach opens new avenues for learning as well as challenges for the teacher trying to implement it but isnt it worth it? I believe it is worth every ounce.

Btec Sport National Extended Diploma Level 3

stool Jean-Pierre Nsinga assure 1 phratry 2012 IVD describe Jean-Pierre Nsinga Date 1 September 2012 IVD BTEC LEVEL 3 EXTENDED DIPLOMA IN SPORT (Development, teach & antiophthalmic factor adenylic acid Fitness) ASSIGNMENT BRIEF Student stirJean-Pierre NsingaTutor Name Lizzie Farquhar Unit SevenFitness Testing for Sport &amp Exercise Launch Date 10 September 2012Hand In Date 22 October 2012 Criteria CoveredLO1,3,4 P1,5,6 M1,3,4 D2 &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212-ASSIGNMENT TITLE Fitness Testing No 1/2 &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- ASSIGNMENT SCENARIO As a Personal Trainer at Farquhar Health Club, one of your important roles and responsibilities is to conduct fitness assessments with knobs and provide feedback. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- To go bad this duty assignment, complete the pursual tasks &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- Task One You willing take dower in different fitness tests for flexibility, trength, aerobic endurance, speed, power, muscular endurance and soundbox composition to enable you to &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- Describe ONE test for EACH percentage of somatic fitness. Include advantages &amp disadvantages (e. g. cost, time, equipment, facility requirements, skill level of person carrying out test, issues with test validity, and issues with test dependability). &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- Present this as an A4 cultivation booklet. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212-PASS1 &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212& 8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- Task Two Select SIX different fitness tests for a selected various(prenominal) suitable to their fitness activities. Safely administer these tests whilst being assessed by your tutor, include photographic rise. The assessment will include observed evidence of correct pre-test procedures, correct sequencing of tests, and adherence of health &amp safe procedures, termination of tests if required, and accurate recording of results &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- PASS5 &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 Task Three strive feedback to a selected individual, following fitness testing, describing the test results and interpreting their levels of fitness against prescriptive info (e. g. population norms, accepted health ranges, norms for sports). Present this in deviseation in the form of an individual client information booklet. &8212&8212&821 2&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- PASS6 &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- To progress to higher grades see succeeding(a) page &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 To progress to MERIT grade for this assignment complete the following &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- Explain the advantages and disadvantages of ONE fitness test for EACH component of physical fitness. You must consider factors related to test validity and reliability and how these factors could simulate data results. Provide reasons and/or evidence clearly supporting this. chicken out on examples from personal experiences or observations. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212& 8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 MERIT1 &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- Justify the plectron of fitness tests commenting on suitability, reliability, validity and practicality. Why were they most suitable for your client? In your selection of tests, did you take into account their goals, needs and general level of fitness? Give reasons or evidence to support your views and how you arrived at these conclusions. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- MERIT3 &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212-Compare the fitness test results to normative data and identify strengths and areas for improvement &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- MERIT4 &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- To prog ress to DISTINCTION grade for this assignment complete the following &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- Analyse the fitness test results and provide recommendations for seize future activities or training.You must look beyond basic facts and defend appropriate comments. Recommendations must include frequency, intensity, time and type of activity that the individual should take part in to facilitate improvements for each component. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- DISTINCTION 2 &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8 212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- PLEASE HAND THIS BRIEF IN WITH YOUR ASSIGNMENT AS A TOP SHEET Followed by your front page Student Name Jean-Pierre Nsinga ID 1205079 Tutor Alysia Bastock Unit SevenFitness Testing for Sport &amp Exercise Launch Date 10 September 2012Hand In Date 22 October 2012 Intro In this assignment I will be talking about different fitness test, to check their reliability and validity, their advantages and disadvantages.Furthermore I will choose fitness test for a client for them to perform and provide suitable feedbacks on their performance. Task. 1 Flexibility, test lay And Reach This test is made to test an athletes flexibility, (in contingent their lower back and hamstri ngs) This test demands A flat surface for the athlete to sit down in the correct position, A box (preferably the main sit and reach box with all the measurements on the box, to have a better visual on the athletes result), a pattern for the athlete to push to perform the test and an assistant to record the results.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

A Study on Gardners theories on Intelligence

Intelligence layabout be defined in numerous opposite signifiers. Many theoreticians have non been adapted to put out the pret check of intelligence to an exact definition. However, this is non the instance for certain theoretician. Harmonizing to Gardner, intelligence is is a pick out of substance, of material , that different people have in different grades, bid cholesterin or blood sugar . Gardner was non the l iodine theoretician that has set(p) this construct out. Kowalski and Westen were besides competent to specify intelligence in their textbook edition. Harmonizing to them, intelligence refers to the application of cognitive accomplishments and cognition to take, solves jobs, and obtains terminals that are valued by an person or civilization. They besides believed that intelligence plays a major carry in civilization, in that, each civilization has its ain patterns that help persons standardized us recognize which rational qualities are soci al iodiny accep ted ( Kowalski &038 A Westen, 2009, p. 265 ) . Although the many theories close to intelligence are present, Gardner has the most effectual and current one. In the early 1980 s, he introduced his theory of ternary intelligence where his end was to interrupt down the construct of intelligence.Dr. Gardner has written many books about his six-fold intelligence theory, nevertheless he placed more attending to one called Frames of Mind The Theory of Multiple Intelligences . In this book he tries to lay out the fact that people posses eight different intelligences, stating that persons have higher intelligences in some countries and lower intelligences in separates. He believed that people butt end return better when the work that needs to be done is extremely fit to the country in where persons posses the higher intelligence. The eight intelligences that Gardner provinces are displaced as the following musical, bodily/kinesthetic ( which is how we control our organic structu re motions ) , spacial ( the superpower to make mental images ) , lingual or verbal, logical/mathematical, naturalist, intra in the flesh(predicate) ( universe fitted to register oneself ) , and social ( 1s behavior in societal state of affairss ) ( Kowalski &038 A Westen, 2009, p. 279 ) .Identifying the assorted types of Gardner s intelligences has helped me detect that the theory greatly affects my personal winner. not merely is this true for my ain success, but, many of these intelligences can impact everyone s day-to-day lives. For me, the most of meaning intelligences that have helped me win in the past are lingual, logical/mathematical, and interpersonal. These intelligences that I posses, I would see them to be my strengths. Bing adequate to(p) to pass on good with others, cosmos able to analyse and mull eyeshots, and playing an important function in certain state of affairss all have played a major function in my competency to win. In the undermentioned analy sis of intelligences, we will be speaking about merely three of these eight intelligences and how they can impact my personal success in life. Having these qualities has built a get downing point in my life and it will go on to assist me make my foresightful term ends every bit good as my short ends such as having my Bachelor s grade.The first intelligence that is most of import to me in my ain success in life is the Linguistics. Linguisticss can knead anyplace from being able to hold a linguistic communication decently to complicated grammar. Harmonizing to Gardner, linguistics besides involves being cognizant of linguistic process production and composing a linguistic communication, being able to larn multiple linguistic communications, and the contents of the linguistic communication and being able to use them to existent life state of affairss so one can win. The lingual attack besides states that one should hold the ability to communication efficaciously so that one can show him/herself. Language can besides be used to retrieve certain information and utilize the information for future mentions. Public talkers, attorneys/law enforcement, writers, and other professional linguist, are harmonizing to Gardner, genitive of this type of intelligence at higher degrees than others.Mathematicss and logical thought go manus in manus, in that, both involve hook thought every bit good as being able to ground both inductively and deductively. Peoples who posses this type of intelligence, like me, normally try to betide logic in about every undertaking that needs to be completed. For illustration, if a professor shows me a math job, I normally vista at it a few times and reappraisal in my chief what I have learned so far in how to pop off about work outing the job. In this instance I am believing in a logical manner because logics, for me, are being able to interrupt down big constituents to smaller 1s so that one can finish a undertaking easier. This intel ligence besides involves how practically of a job one can work out, being able to finish mathematical operations, and besides analyzing consequences utilizing scientific attacks. When Gardner talks about this uncommon type of intelligence, he states that one has the ability to see forms and think in a logical mode. This type of intelligence is of import in my personal success because it has helped me, and still does, in being able to go with a math or scientific discipline category without dimension to fight.The last type of intelligence that plays a function in accomplishing my ends is intrapersonal. To me, attribute this intelligence is a privilege because I enjoy being able to work in conferences and doing new friends. When run intoing new people being interpersonal aids me in placing and understand others motivations and intent. It helps me as a school-age child because it allows me to work efficaciously with other pupils during group documents or undertakings. It besides helps me understand what the other individual wants and what the cardinal incentive that is maintaining my group together. My personal smell about this peculiar intelligence is that it can avoid differences among a group of persons because they would be able to understand one another and in the calling industry, particularly these yearss, it is really of import that one learns how to get by with other employees. Peoples working in retail normally have a stronger interpersonal intelligence along with instructors and political figures.My personal success is my cardinal incentive. in person my sentiment about Gardner is that he was right about his theory of multiple intelligences because even though he stated each person is different in what type of intelligences he/she possesses, he besides stated that an person s civilization affects our intelligence. Turning up in a parliamentary procedure where math and scientific discipline was a large issue, my intelligence in those countries is much higher than it is in something like humanistic disciplines.

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

How are people presented in Vultures Essay

Both Vultures and dickens Scavengers in a truck, both pulchritudinous spate in a Mercedes atomic number 18 fork outed victimization concourse. They both work mass in somewhat way and both include the throng in opposite forms. The meter Vultures presents the plenty using the vultures. These vultures represent large number of a certain shape. In original heart vultures ar real birds of prey, but in the poem they ar trying to represent the types of slew. The poem, Two Scavengers in a truck, both beautiful raft in a Mercedes, hoi polloi are presented d one(a) the division in society.Vultures are shown that humanness arent so different to animals it is shown that both animals and humans are shown through their actions. It is shown that vultures are bad in real life because of what they do, but tardily all the disgusting habits thither is deal shown. They appear to have care for distributively different and therefore this shows us that even though large num ber do bad things, they still have some good factors roughly them. Both animals and humans are shown through their actions and imagery to show that they are caring even though they have evil within them. For example, it starts score with how the two vultures are picking the eyes of a swollen the Great Compromiser and how they eat the contents of the bowel.This shows that they are grotesque and very evil. But handle a shot after this, the vultures are shown to be nestling together affectionately and pleasingly. In spite of the nasty diet, the vultures appear to care for each other. From this the author goes on to show that even the worst of human beings shoe some touches of humanity. so he compares the vultures to a commander n Belson. He goes on to accept the love a concentration camp commander shows to his family having spent his twenty-four hour period burning human muds, he buys them sweets on the way home office The poet remarks on the strangeness of love, existing in places heap would non have judge manpowert possible.This is the homogeneous way that the vultures are presented which links it in comparison to people the vultures are compared with the Nazi Commandant who preyed greedily and ruthlessly on people who were supposedly weaker than him, but could still show favor towards people that he loved, such as his family. This is the homogeneous way that the vultures are presented which links it in comparison to people and the vultures are compared with the Nazi Commandant who preyed greedily on people who were supposed to be weaker than him, but could still show compassion towards people that he loved, such as his family.In Two Scavengers in a truck, two beautiful people in a Mercedes, people are presented from two different aspects of the society. It shows two garbage men and pipelines them with an pretty, full couple in a Mercedes. Its astir(predicate) two pairs of people meeting for a moment in a busy metropolis at nine oclock in the morning. They are strangers and neer speak to each other. They are only near each other because they are waiting for the traffic lights to change. The first pair of people are two dustmen. They are finishing their working day and going bottom to the depot. They are hanging off the back of the dustbin lorry and look down at a couple in a Mercedes sports car. These people in the Mercedes seem the very opposite of the dustbin men. They are kickoff their day and seem rich, successful and fashionable.The poem makes lots of contrasts between the two pair and it seems to criticise the society which makes the differences between people so large. When the poets describing the dustbin men, it is often damaging, dirty and cheap. For instance, their jackets are plastic, they are drear, and he calls them scavengers. We ordinarily think of scavengers as animals that live off whatever others leave behind, give care vultures. And in a way thats what they are they are nonrecreational to take away what others dont want, but they do an pregnant job and we couldnt live without them. The poet cites the couple in the Mercedes in a very confirmatory way.He fails a suit and her hair is nicely done, and their car shows salutary how rich they must be, but at the selfsame(prenominal) time the poet likewise seems to criticise this couple. He says its like observance an odourless TV advert, so they dont look like real people and they sound too good to be true. The poet accordingly shows us how two of the men are similar. They are the same age, wear shades and have long hair. And of course they live in the same city they should be equal. This idea is made very clear at the end. The four people are next to each other, but there is a gulf between them they are living in different worlds.The language in Vultures is very negative towards the people, and also has a steady influence on how the people are presented. There are a lot of pessimistic adjectives apply to d escribe the opening lines of the poem, and also to present the vultures throughout the poem. For example in the first couple of lines in the poem greyness is used, which create the idea that it is a dull scene, but the contrast with the treatments sunbreak give a more positive effect. The poem uses a similar technique to present the vultures, for every positive point about them there is a different negative point presented. The metaphor, bashed in head, a pebble on a stem rooted in a push down of gross feathers creates a negative image of the vultures. Various words are use to create disgusting images of the birds. It says they picked the eyes of a swollen corpse. This is presented as an inhumane thing to do. The vultures are picking at the remains of either a dead animal.After this the poet presents the juxtaposing idea of how the birds love each other. People are presented in comparison to the vultures using the example of the brutish Nazi Commandant at the Belsen concentratio n camp. The poem states how the commandant goes home with the fumes of human roast clinging rebelliously to his hairy nostrils. This emphasises the more negative side. The word hairy compares the commandant to the vultures as it is a description which also applies to the vultures feathers.The poem also says how the commandant scratch at the sweet pasture to buy a chocolate for his child. The poet uses the phrase tender offspring to bring up to the child the word tender extracts that there is a close, caring and pleasing relationship between the commandant and his child. Therefore this shows the more positive side to the poem. The use of the word offspring, which usually refers to the child of an animal, links people to the vultures in the poem. So the poem presents humans negatively, with an evil side, but also shows how these kinds of people also have a more tender side to them, just like the vultures. It compares people with animals such as vultures. Overall the words used ar e both negative and then follow a positive point.Two Scavengers in a Truck, two Beautiful People in a Mercedes uses linguistic features to present people. In the first couple of lines, the act upon yellow and red are used to describe the garbage men. These color are bright and suggest brightness into their lives. The adjective used to describe the people in the Mercedes is elegant and this is repeated, which suggests the couple are obtuse as there are no other adjectives to describe them. This also emphasises on the word and shows that they are very posh and therefore rather snobby. This is ironic as you would expect the couple to have a better life whereas the garbage men are expected to have a boring and dull life. The way that the couple are dressed and appear is exposit using various phrase and adjective hip, three-piece linen suit, shoulder length blond hair & sunglasses, young blond woman and casually coifed. All of the previous suggest that the couple are superior t o the garbage men.This is because they are in advance(p) and are living what jackpot be described as The American ideate. The garbage men are described more negatively, the first one id referred to as having grey iron hair, hunched back and gargoyle Quasimodo. The word grey contrasts with the earlier colours but also suggests that he is quite dirty, the phrase gargoyle Quasimodo implies that he is ugly and compares him to the Hunchback of Notre Dame, who was very caring and loving despite his appearance. The second of the garbage men is described the same as the Mercedes driver, however you know that they are nothing alike from other references and also because the two men are collectively described as scavengers and grungy. The use of the word scavengers suggest the two men are distressing and the fact that they are garbage men emphasises this further.Overall it is shown that the garbage men are dirtier but have a more interesting life, whereas the elegant couple are shown to h ave the more boring life. One of the bizarre things about the poem is that it doesnt have clear sentences, full stops or commas. Even the lines dont all start in the same place some lines start on the left, some on the right and some in the middle. This is done on purpose. The four people are together for a few seconds and the poet quickly notes down some differences. It also means that when you read it, you stop at different places, and this mogul make you think about different ideas in the poem, and what you think of modern life.The two poems present people in different way using different adjectives and linguistic features. They also show that people are not in anyway perfect in their actions and appearances. Therefore by these two poems we are shown that people can be both evil and kind and also you cannot judge a book by its cover. The two garbage men are referred to as scavengers with a low status, whilst the young people are described as elegant. The poem is set in what ca n be described as a snapshot in time, which is when they are waiting at the traffic lights. Although the two groups of people are presented completely differently in terms of status they sill exist in the same place at the same time which is what brings them together.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

A Literature Review About Mecication Errors Essay

IntroductionAn flaw rate of 5% is refreshing in most industries, withal, in the health c be indus stress integrity single flaw can result in death. (Berntsen, 2004, p5) This paper discusses medicinal do drugs errors in relation to pharmacology and drug treatment. It give summarize troika academic peer check intoed journal denominations, followed by general information in relation to medicament errors, the impact of medication errors on node c be, strategies to sustain medication errors and conclude with the relationship to nursing.Summary of Articles Related to medication Errors.The beginning(a) article is by Karin Berntsen, 2004, and is entitled How Far Has Health C ar capture Since To Err is Human? Exploring Use of Medical Error Data. This is a review of what change overs have been made since a medication error root written by the Institute of Medicine was published in 1999. This article depicts how the health charge system has changed since this 1999 repo rt was written, and how the information was utilized for our benefit. They cogitate that in the USA, medical errors were iodine of the top 8 leading causes of death. They account the cost for these errors was between $17 Billion to $29 billion dollars. Until a new report is completed, health care providers will be unwitting whether their goals in increasing patient safety were accomplished. The article finalises that there has been patterned advance in regards to pr yettion of medication errors and health care leaders get hold passionate about increasing patient safety. (Berntsen 2004)The second article is by William N. Kelly, 2004, and is titled Medication Errors Lessons Learned and Actions inquireed and highlights the death of a one year old child who was diagnosed with cancer. She subsequently died, not from the cancer, but from receiving an absurd sexually transmitted disease of a drug that she was being treated with. This report indicates that medications are systemat ic bothy checked and balanced and errors are usually caught in the beginning a drug is administered to a patient. The article states that problems are not being learn in a timely manner since the industry has been putting band aids on problems that need major surgery.(Kelly 2004). In conclusion, the article questions whether or not they are taking the right approach in saveing errors. M whatsoever people are trying to fix this problem however errors are still made too frequently. (Kelly 2004)The final article is by Rosemary M. Preston, 2004, and is titled Drug Errors and Patient Safety A Need for Change in Practice. This article presents that errors continue to happen for many a(prenominal) reasons. It concentrates upon calculations errors, lack of knowledge of drugs, over/under dosing drugs, interactions with drugs and food, and legalities regarding drug garbage disposal. It also presents recommendations to downplay the risk of drug errors with good parley and honesty. The article closes by stating that books should never estimate the skills needed for safe administration of medicines. (Preston 2004)Key aspects medication errors and their causes.To envision the impact that medication errors have on a patient, we have to understand what a medication error is. According to Health Canada online, a medication error is defined asAny interrupt able level offt that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care master, patient, or consumer. Such events may be related to professional practice, health care products, procedures, and systems, including prescribing order communication product labelling, packaging, and nomenclature compound dispensing distribution administration education monitoring and use. Developed for use by the internal Coordinating Council on Medication Error Reporting and Prevention( http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ English/index.html)Medication errors occur for a variety of reasons. An error can affect all areas of a health care facility from health care management, staff, physicians, pharmaceutics and especially patients. Studies have indicated that errors will usually occur when the staff demonstrates signs of fatigue, stress, are over-worked or encounter frequent interruptions and distractions. When physicians display bad handwriting, in movementive communication with patients, and do not educate staff and patients effectively, a medication error is more likely to happen. Poor management can result in more medication errors when there is an emphasis on volume, over emolument quality. This results in inadequate staffing and disorganization. Medication errors affect all components of the health care environment. (http//www.napra.org/docs/0/95/157-/166.asp)Impact on client care.As lamentable as it sounds, one miniscule error can result in a patients injury or can even lead to their death. According to the American Journal of Medicine, s tatistics reveal that more than ii million American hospitalized patients suffered a serious adverse drug reply in relation to injury within the 12-month period and, of these, over 100,000 died as a result. http//www4.nationalacademies.org/news) Death and injury is a sad reality to any single error.The government established six rights of drug administration to interdict medication errors and ensure accuracy. These six rights include adept drug, right dose, Right client, right route, right time and right documentation. (Kozier & group A Erb 2004)Injuries that result from a medication error are called adverse drug events. Usually, these unpleasant effectuate can be eliminated and injury can be turn awayed. However, every drug produces harmful spatial relation effects, but the severities of these effects vary from individual to individual. These side effects also depend on the drug and the dose given. (Kozier & deoxyadenosine monophosphate Erb 2004)Health care professionals mu st report all errors and are accountable for their actions. No matter how insignificant, nurses are taught to document and report all mistakes. When statistics carry what fibers of errors are made, an analysis can be done. This analysis can be used to plan ways to prevent them medication errors. (Berntsen, 2004)When a nurse does not report a mistake, the probability that it will happen over again will increase.Medication errors have a huge impact on client care. They can result in death, injury, and result in unclaimed effects of drugs. It is our responsibility as nurses to comply with the clients six rights of drug administration, to prevent errors from taking place.Strategies to prevent medication errors.There are many businesslike ways to prevent nurses from making an error. To ensure patient safety in all aspects of client care, nurses are taught to think overcritically, and to problem solve. Nurses use critical thinking to ensure safe, knowledgeable, nursing performance a nd they must be able to keep up with updated health facts by constantly educating themselves with new information. (Kozier & group A Erb 2004) Critical thinking assists in the prevention of medication errors.The six rights in drug administration help prevent medication errors from occurring. It is important to adjudge the highest standards of practice of these rights for a drug to be prepared square-toedly. Failure to flummox to any one of these rights will definitely result in a medication error. (Clayton & Stock, 2004)Take your time when preparing medications and research any terra incognita drugs. Rushing should be avoided when preparing, administering and reading medication labels. Proper research must be done before an unfamiliar drug is administered it to a client. crimson when in a rushed emergency situation, drugs should be looked at cautiously to know the correct concentration and name of the drug, to prevent injury. (http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/index.html)Labels should be read carefully and accurately. Before a drug is given to a patient, triplet checks should be done to ensure you are giving the right-hand(a) drug and dose. In a situation where you are unsure of a drug order, you are expected to refuse the order and clarify it by law. If an individual is unfamiliar with a particular drug, the drug should not be given. (http//www.napra.org/docs/0/95/157-/166.asp)When a label is unclear, do not try not to examine the drug order yourself. Do not communicate an associate, or ask for anyone elses interpretation of the drug. To get the correct information, hitting the individual who ordered the drug to clarify the label. In order to decrease the chances of error, verify all unclear hand writing, abbreviations, decimal points, decimal places and sexually transmitted diseases. (http//www.napra.org/docs/0/95/157-/166.asp)Use of dosage abbreviations should not be used to avoid drug miscalculations. Dosage abbreviations are misinterpreted more often, than any other type of abbreviation. Using standardized abbreviations, would assist in preventing misinterpretation of abbreviations. (Preston 2004)A drug check should be done three times prior to the administration of a drug. The drug label should correspond with the physicians orders. The three checks should be done Before removing the drug from the shelf or dosage cart, before preparing or measuring the actual prescribed dose, and before switch the drug on the shelf or before opening a unit dose container, just before administering a dose to a patient. (Clayton & Stock, 2004)Do not make assumptions regarding drugs. Physicians, pharmacists, make mistakes and other split of the health system may be flawed. For example, when documentation shows the patient has no drug allergy, it is wrongful to assume the patient will have no adverse reaction to a new drug. This could result in insalubrious results to a clients health. Therefore no assumptions should ever me made. (http/ /www.ismp.org-/ToolsAllina-Orientation.html)A quiet environment for preparing medications will prevent prescription errors from occurring. Sometimes, nurses are repeatedly interrupted when preparing a medication. Distractions interfere with processing information and decision making. Errors will least likely occur when preparations are done when there are no distractions. (http//www.ismp.org-/ToolsAllina-Orientation.html)When preventing errors, staff must be certain all dosage calculations are correct and clarified. It may be beneficial to ask a colleague to assist you in checking doses, to minimize the chance of miscalculations. Other suggestions to minimize error include making pre-calculated conversion cards, always use a leading zero before a decimal, never use a zero after the decimal and include indications whenever possible. Miscalculations are preventable if proper methods of inspecting calculations are used. (Preston 2004, p.72)Assess for the effects of drugs to avoid h arming a client. A client must be assessed before and after a drug is given. For instance, before giving an oral medication, assess whether the client can swallow or feels nauseated. An appropriate follow up should be done after a medication is administered. It is important to check if the client experienced the desired effect of the drug. Significant abnormal responses to drug should be reported to the physician. (Kozier & Erb 2004)Conclusion.To finalize this assignment, medication errors are mistakes that can cause harm to patients and can even result in death. The articles that have been summarized illustrate situations where medication errors have occurred and review what the health care industry is doing to prevent errors. A medication error is preventable and errors can be caused by a variety of reasons. This paper has discussed the impact medication errors have on client care and strategies of how to prevent errors from occurring. As a nurse, this knowledge will assist me in care beneficence a priority for client care.ReferencesClayton, Bruce D., BS, RPh, PharmD, and Yvonne N. Stock, MS, BSN, RN. Basic Pharmacology for Nurses. thirteenth ed. United States of America Mosby, 2004.Government of Canada Online. (2004, Summer). Retrieved July 18, 2004, from HealthCanada Web site (http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/index.html)Kelly, William N. Medication Errors. Professional Safety 49 35. Academic essay Elite. EBSCO. Assiniboine conjunction College. 22 July 2004 .Government of Canada Online. (2004, Summer). Retrieved July 18, 2004, from HealthCanada Web site (http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/index.html)Kozier & Erb, Barbara, et al. Fundamentals of Nursing. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Pearson prentice Hall, 2004.Minimizing Medication Errors. (n.d.). In NAPRA discipline Association of PharmacyRegulatory Authorities. Retrieved July 17, 2004, from NAPRA National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities Web site http//www.napra.org/docs/0/95/157 /166.aspPreston, Rosemary M. Drug errors and patients safety the need for a change inpractice. British Journal of Nursing (BJN) 13 72. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. Assiniboine Community College. 22 July 2004 .