Wednesday, January 16, 2019
A Literature Review About Mecication Errors Essay
IntroductionAn flaw rate of 5% is refreshing in most industries, withal, in the health c be indus stress integrity single flaw can result in death. (Berntsen, 2004, p5) This paper discusses medicinal do drugs errors in relation to pharmacology and drug treatment. It give summarize troika academic peer check intoed journal denominations, followed by general information in relation to medicament errors, the impact of medication errors on node c be, strategies to sustain medication errors and conclude with the relationship to nursing.Summary of Articles Related to medication Errors.The beginning(a) article is by Karin Berntsen, 2004, and is entitled How Far Has Health C ar capture Since To Err is Human? Exploring Use of Medical Error Data. This is a review of what change overs have been made since a medication error root written by the Institute of Medicine was published in 1999. This article depicts how the health charge system has changed since this 1999 repo rt was written, and how the information was utilized for our benefit. They cogitate that in the USA, medical errors were iodine of the top 8 leading causes of death. They account the cost for these errors was between $17 Billion to $29 billion dollars. Until a new report is completed, health care providers will be unwitting whether their goals in increasing patient safety were accomplished. The article finalises that there has been patterned advance in regards to pr yettion of medication errors and health care leaders get hold passionate about increasing patient safety. (Berntsen 2004)The second article is by William N. Kelly, 2004, and is titled Medication Errors Lessons Learned and Actions inquireed and highlights the death of a one year old child who was diagnosed with cancer. She subsequently died, not from the cancer, but from receiving an absurd sexually transmitted disease of a drug that she was being treated with. This report indicates that medications are systemat ic bothy checked and balanced and errors are usually caught in the beginning a drug is administered to a patient. The article states that problems are not being learn in a timely manner since the industry has been putting band aids on problems that need major surgery.(Kelly 2004). In conclusion, the article questions whether or not they are taking the right approach in saveing errors. M whatsoever people are trying to fix this problem however errors are still made too frequently. (Kelly 2004)The final article is by Rosemary M. Preston, 2004, and is titled Drug Errors and Patient Safety A Need for Change in Practice. This article presents that errors continue to happen for many a(prenominal) reasons. It concentrates upon calculations errors, lack of knowledge of drugs, over/under dosing drugs, interactions with drugs and food, and legalities regarding drug garbage disposal. It also presents recommendations to downplay the risk of drug errors with good parley and honesty. The article closes by stating that books should never estimate the skills needed for safe administration of medicines. (Preston 2004)Key aspects medication errors and their causes.To envision the impact that medication errors have on a patient, we have to understand what a medication error is. According to Health Canada online, a medication error is defined asAny interrupt able level offt that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care master, patient, or consumer. Such events may be related to professional practice, health care products, procedures, and systems, including prescribing order communication product labelling, packaging, and nomenclature compound dispensing distribution administration education monitoring and use. Developed for use by the internal Coordinating Council on Medication Error Reporting and Prevention( http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ English/index.html)Medication errors occur for a variety of reasons. An error can affect all areas of a health care facility from health care management, staff, physicians, pharmaceutics and especially patients. Studies have indicated that errors will usually occur when the staff demonstrates signs of fatigue, stress, are over-worked or encounter frequent interruptions and distractions. When physicians display bad handwriting, in movementive communication with patients, and do not educate staff and patients effectively, a medication error is more likely to happen. Poor management can result in more medication errors when there is an emphasis on volume, over emolument quality. This results in inadequate staffing and disorganization. Medication errors affect all components of the health care environment. (http//www.napra.org/docs/0/95/157-/166.asp)Impact on client care.As lamentable as it sounds, one miniscule error can result in a patients injury or can even lead to their death. According to the American Journal of Medicine, s tatistics reveal that more than ii million American hospitalized patients suffered a serious adverse drug reply in relation to injury within the 12-month period and, of these, over 100,000 died as a result. http//www4.nationalacademies.org/news) Death and injury is a sad reality to any single error.The government established six rights of drug administration to interdict medication errors and ensure accuracy. These six rights include adept drug, right dose, Right client, right route, right time and right documentation. (Kozier & group A Erb 2004)Injuries that result from a medication error are called adverse drug events. Usually, these unpleasant effectuate can be eliminated and injury can be turn awayed. However, every drug produces harmful spatial relation effects, but the severities of these effects vary from individual to individual. These side effects also depend on the drug and the dose given. (Kozier & deoxyadenosine monophosphate Erb 2004)Health care professionals mu st report all errors and are accountable for their actions. No matter how insignificant, nurses are taught to document and report all mistakes. When statistics carry what fibers of errors are made, an analysis can be done. This analysis can be used to plan ways to prevent them medication errors. (Berntsen, 2004)When a nurse does not report a mistake, the probability that it will happen over again will increase.Medication errors have a huge impact on client care. They can result in death, injury, and result in unclaimed effects of drugs. It is our responsibility as nurses to comply with the clients six rights of drug administration, to prevent errors from taking place.Strategies to prevent medication errors.There are many businesslike ways to prevent nurses from making an error. To ensure patient safety in all aspects of client care, nurses are taught to think overcritically, and to problem solve. Nurses use critical thinking to ensure safe, knowledgeable, nursing performance a nd they must be able to keep up with updated health facts by constantly educating themselves with new information. (Kozier & group A Erb 2004) Critical thinking assists in the prevention of medication errors.The six rights in drug administration help prevent medication errors from occurring. It is important to adjudge the highest standards of practice of these rights for a drug to be prepared square-toedly. Failure to flummox to any one of these rights will definitely result in a medication error. (Clayton & Stock, 2004)Take your time when preparing medications and research any terra incognita drugs. Rushing should be avoided when preparing, administering and reading medication labels. Proper research must be done before an unfamiliar drug is administered it to a client. crimson when in a rushed emergency situation, drugs should be looked at cautiously to know the correct concentration and name of the drug, to prevent injury. (http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/index.html)Labels should be read carefully and accurately. Before a drug is given to a patient, triplet checks should be done to ensure you are giving the right-hand(a) drug and dose. In a situation where you are unsure of a drug order, you are expected to refuse the order and clarify it by law. If an individual is unfamiliar with a particular drug, the drug should not be given. (http//www.napra.org/docs/0/95/157-/166.asp)When a label is unclear, do not try not to examine the drug order yourself. Do not communicate an associate, or ask for anyone elses interpretation of the drug. To get the correct information, hitting the individual who ordered the drug to clarify the label. In order to decrease the chances of error, verify all unclear hand writing, abbreviations, decimal points, decimal places and sexually transmitted diseases. (http//www.napra.org/docs/0/95/157-/166.asp)Use of dosage abbreviations should not be used to avoid drug miscalculations. Dosage abbreviations are misinterpreted more often, than any other type of abbreviation. Using standardized abbreviations, would assist in preventing misinterpretation of abbreviations. (Preston 2004)A drug check should be done three times prior to the administration of a drug. The drug label should correspond with the physicians orders. The three checks should be done Before removing the drug from the shelf or dosage cart, before preparing or measuring the actual prescribed dose, and before switch the drug on the shelf or before opening a unit dose container, just before administering a dose to a patient. (Clayton & Stock, 2004)Do not make assumptions regarding drugs. Physicians, pharmacists, make mistakes and other split of the health system may be flawed. For example, when documentation shows the patient has no drug allergy, it is wrongful to assume the patient will have no adverse reaction to a new drug. This could result in insalubrious results to a clients health. Therefore no assumptions should ever me made. (http/ /www.ismp.org-/ToolsAllina-Orientation.html)A quiet environment for preparing medications will prevent prescription errors from occurring. Sometimes, nurses are repeatedly interrupted when preparing a medication. Distractions interfere with processing information and decision making. Errors will least likely occur when preparations are done when there are no distractions. (http//www.ismp.org-/ToolsAllina-Orientation.html)When preventing errors, staff must be certain all dosage calculations are correct and clarified. It may be beneficial to ask a colleague to assist you in checking doses, to minimize the chance of miscalculations. Other suggestions to minimize error include making pre-calculated conversion cards, always use a leading zero before a decimal, never use a zero after the decimal and include indications whenever possible. Miscalculations are preventable if proper methods of inspecting calculations are used. (Preston 2004, p.72)Assess for the effects of drugs to avoid h arming a client. A client must be assessed before and after a drug is given. For instance, before giving an oral medication, assess whether the client can swallow or feels nauseated. An appropriate follow up should be done after a medication is administered. It is important to check if the client experienced the desired effect of the drug. Significant abnormal responses to drug should be reported to the physician. (Kozier & Erb 2004)Conclusion.To finalize this assignment, medication errors are mistakes that can cause harm to patients and can even result in death. The articles that have been summarized illustrate situations where medication errors have occurred and review what the health care industry is doing to prevent errors. A medication error is preventable and errors can be caused by a variety of reasons. This paper has discussed the impact medication errors have on client care and strategies of how to prevent errors from occurring. As a nurse, this knowledge will assist me in care beneficence a priority for client care.ReferencesClayton, Bruce D., BS, RPh, PharmD, and Yvonne N. Stock, MS, BSN, RN. Basic Pharmacology for Nurses. thirteenth ed. United States of America Mosby, 2004.Government of Canada Online. (2004, Summer). Retrieved July 18, 2004, from HealthCanada Web site (http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/index.html)Kelly, William N. Medication Errors. Professional Safety 49 35. Academic essay Elite. EBSCO. Assiniboine conjunction College. 22 July 2004 .Government of Canada Online. (2004, Summer). Retrieved July 18, 2004, from HealthCanada Web site (http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/index.html)Kozier & Erb, Barbara, et al. Fundamentals of Nursing. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Pearson prentice Hall, 2004.Minimizing Medication Errors. (n.d.). In NAPRA discipline Association of PharmacyRegulatory Authorities. Retrieved July 17, 2004, from NAPRA National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities Web site http//www.napra.org/docs/0/95/157 /166.aspPreston, Rosemary M. Drug errors and patients safety the need for a change inpractice. British Journal of Nursing (BJN) 13 72. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. Assiniboine Community College. 22 July 2004 .