Sunday, March 31, 2019
The School Community Relationship
The trail Community Relationship fosterage is an important tool in the using of communities and nations at erect. The provision and concern of case education lies non but at the heart of primal government but stay a sh atomic number 18d responsibility of all s bindholders and the create of proficient workings human descent among these stakeholders with qualityicular emphasis on improving the tutorho engross- confederation relationship . This stems from the feature point that education is seen as a accessible enterprise requiring the alimentation of all stakeholders so that its contribution stern benefit the entire society. (Addae-Boahene et.al,2001).For the accomplishment of quality education, at that place is the motivation for the alliance in which the develop is situated to work in collaboration and harmony with the shallow not only in the upbringing and welfargon of the pupils but must go beyond that to offer support in the provision and main(prenomin al)tenance of the train root as well as coquetteing a critical supporting(a) image in the impressive management and administration of the initiate.The nurture, corresponding to different facilities such(prenominal) as the alliance market, company borehole, is situated in the companionship belonging to the entire community members. The community therefore has a role to play in shaping the policies and finances of the school just as the school in turn must function to meet the social needs of the community by turning out a lite com gete person population and transmitting culture of the community to the youth.Improving the school-community relationship is tombstone beca go for both(prenominal) bodies ar interdependent and failure on the part of either body to play its role displace lead to a go of the education system with its consequent effect on the society as a whole. Again, though formal education is said to have been introduced in Ghana by the Europeans who pro vided not only the curricular but the infra social organisation inclusive, the schools were not cited initially enough to cover all the communities in Ghana. It is against this flat coat that round communities desirous of having formal education took it upon themselves and established basic schools, volitionally recruited t each(prenominal)ers and contributed to support them with the resources needed for their work including remuneration. As the process continued these schools were posterior absorbed into the public school system. (Addae-Boahene, et.al.2001).The management and financing of these schools wherefore shifted from the communities to the central government this created a internet site that witnessed less community involvement in the management of schools, hence the beginning of poor school-community relationship.The Ministry of Education (MOE) and The Ghana Education Ser frailness (GES) recognized the richness of reciprocal partnership of school-community leading and local anaesthetic school governing in effecting changes in the school. Under the Free unequivocal Universal Basic Education (fCUBE), MOE, and GES, who have committed themselves to building a systematic approach assisting community organizations (SMC and PTA) to play a major part in the regeneration of their schools. It is the belief of the MOE and GES that communities have an important role to play in enforcing standards, developing and maintaining school infrastructure, and creating partnership surrounded by teachers, pupils and the regularise authorities to bring about needed changes. In conclusion the school and the community rely on each other for mutual benefit. The need for both to operate on a cooperative atmosphere erectnot therefore be overemphasized. (Addae-Boahene, et.al.2001).RESEARCH PROBLEMIt is very necessary that in all communities, both the community and the school operate closely and co-operate with each other as the have gotership and management of the school is gradually becoming community-based, a situation in which the headspring teacher and the round supervisor should see the members of the community as partners in the educational development of the child. The signifi contributece of this relationship includesThe motivation of the school to function with the interest of the wholesome development of the society.Both the school and the community working in the same direction for the proper development of the children and the community supporting the school financially, among others.However, the central government control and management of education delivery system over a long tip has had an adverse effect on the relationship amidst the school and the community. The mixture of relationship in which the school and the community exist as kick bring downstairs entities. Both ar seen as performing different functions and hence need not interfere with each other. The school officials run the school sequence the Community lo ok on. What happens by way of development or training flow in the community is not the concern of the school and vice versa. Members of the community do not care to find out what goes on in the school nor does the school develop interest in what goes on in the community. Each of them feels the other has nothing to offer, and no effort is do for cooperation. (Amofa, 1999). This kind of relationship besides called the Closed System, is very prevalent in rural heavenss, (Annoh, 2003). This has contributed to less community involvement and commitment in the quality management of education in Ghana and the Tolon/Kumbungu govern of Yankee component in particular. These poor school-community relationships in the Tolon/Kumbungu regularise manifest itself in several(prenominal) ways includingOn August 1, 2009, the head teacher of Gbrumani Primary School was beaten by some community members citing the head teachers effort at settling a quarrel between two pupils in the school as inter ference in community affairs.May, 2010, Nyankpala community members turned Nyankpala D/A Junior High School classrooms into community toilet facility.Again, Chirifoyili community encroached on the school land, turning it to a farm land in 2008 with the argument that they go away not spare their land to the school and acquire insufficient farmland.(circuit supervisors report).These incidents signal to the level of strained relationships that prevails between the school and the community in the district.These acts are impacting negatively on the delivery of education in the district. quality of education continues to fall in the district as reflected in the BECE turn outs released by WAEC year after year. (GES Tolon, 2006,2008,2009).There is high illiteracy rate in the district, coupled with low enrolment and high drop-out rate in the schools. (Tolon/Kumbungu District profile 2004). It is against this background that the interrogationer finds the seek hassle of this excogitate world, the lack of meliorate school-community relationship in the Tolon/Kumbungu District of Northern Region, as very necessary and worth undertaken. of import RESEARCH QUESTIONArising from the interrogation business secernd as, the lack of amend relationship between the school and community, the main research question for the think is what strategies can be put in place in pose to build an interchange relationship between the school and the community?SUB RESEARCH QUESTIONSWhat is the importance of building an improved relationship between the school and community?What is meant by improved school-community relationship?What are the causes of the lack of improved relationship between the school and community?What roles can both the school and the community play towards promoting an improved school-community relationship?What are the principles underlying school community relations?MAIN RESEARCH OBJECTIVETo recommend strategies that can be put in place to move on an improv ed school-community relationship.SUB RESEARCH OBJECTIVESTo highlight the importance of building an improved relationship between the school and community.To explain the image of improved school-community relationship.To identify the causes of the lack of improved relationship between the school and community.To identify the roles both the school and the community can play towards promoting an improved school-community relationship.To highlight the principles underlying school community relations.LITERATURE REVIEWconceptual FrameworkIn this discover the concepts that provide be canvassed include school, community, the school community, school management, community stakeholders, relationship, and improved relationship.In the research process, the investigator impart review literature from secondary sources as this testament support the researcher toMake use of results of existing studies that are closely related to the mull being conducted (Croswell, 1998 20).Locate modeolog ies previously apply to conduct studies in phenomenon correspondent to this employment and to identify contrary findings (Mcmillan, 1992 44).The researcher give enforce the use of literature review in conducting this study since it leave alone provide an collar of the phenomenon of improved school-community relationship. It bequeath alike help to provide an analytical and theoretic framework for analyzing the findings of the research. In this textbooks, published papers, unfermentedspaper publications, containing subjects related to the research problem result be reviewed.RESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch DesignThis research design is basically soft in nature and to achieve the habit of the study, the following regularitys have been active role player placard, call into questioning, contract root word of honor, review of secondary literature, interview slip by, and purposive sampling. The tools that go away be use to help the look ative info collection are fiel d strains, tape recordings and manual recordings. The entropy summary will involve the use of coding, transcribing tape recording, and decoding the selective information tinned. fit in to Strauss and Corbin (1990), soft research is a type of research whose findings are neither arrived at by means of statistical procedures nor quantitative means.harmonize to Nachmias and Nachmias (199628), qualitative approaches facilitates our understanding of behavior through with(predicate) knowing the persons involved and their rituals, beliefs, values, and emotions. soft approach is necessary in this study because it allows the researcher to typically analyze an aspect, thus, the lack of improved relationship between the school and the community, as it pertains to the Tolon/Kumbungu district.Again, Mcmillan and Schumacher (1993), state that qualitative research presents facts in a narrative form with lyric and also concerned with understanding social phenomenon from the eyeshot of the participants.Furthermore, the researcher will be able to gain first hand selective schooling from the good deal involved including head teacher/teachers, School Management Committees(SMCs), Parent teacher Association(PTA), circuit supervisors, chiefs and assembly members, on their knowledge regarding the lack of improved school-community relationship in the district, why there is lack of improved relationship between the school and the community, the role they can play to improve the relationship, and the strategies to put in place to promote and sustain improved school-community relationship.The use of multi-method strategies in concourse data is very necessary in qualitative research. For the mean of this study, the methods to lease in gathering data are interactive methods and non-interactive methods.A conclave of these two approaches presents to the researcher an advantage of systematically observing, interviewing, and recording processes as they take place naturally. Th e appropriateness of these activities to the researcher emerges from the point as explained by Miles and Huberman (1994), that they are carried out in close proximity to the local setting for a sustained period of time.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF RESEARCH METHODS TO USE FOR THE memoriseParticipant ObservationIn participant ceremony, researchers join the convention they typify to study and ob military service it frominside (Legewie, 1991). Subjects usually change their behaviors when they know that theyare being spy, so researchers may take measures to prevent them realizing that they arebeing studies, and hence eliminate the effects of reactivity (sarantakos, 2005 221)Unstructured observation will be employ in the study. Unstructured observation is loosely nonionic andthe process of observation is largely left up to the reviewer.Participant observation will be used in this study. The researcher will palaver the communityschools in the Tolon/Kumbungu District and participate in both school ceremonies andcommunity ceremonies and note all issues that proclaim the lack of improved relationship betweenthe school and the community, includingSMC/PTA meetings.The school annual open day service .The celebration of the annual Damba and Fire festival.This approach will provide an luck for open discussion during which certain challenging issues will emerge.InterviewingIn the perspective of Maykut and Morehouse (199480), an interview refers to a discourse shaped and organized through the ask of questions and the supply of answers, through which the interviewer and the interviewee are able to talk about the study focus and this brings out thoughts and perceptions.On the other hand, Gillham (2000 1) describes interview as a conversation that usually goes on between two good deal, the interviewer asks questions and seeks solvent from the interviewee.Interviews can be conducted face-to-face, through the telephone, or other means, but fit to Gillham (2000 62), the o verwhelm strength of face-to-face interview is its possibility of making the communication rich.Interviews, according to Bogdan and Bilklen (199296) are used to gather descriptive data in the subjects own lyric poem. Through this, the researcher is able to develop insights on how subjects interpret some piece of the world.The researcher will employ semi-structured interview method for this study.Semi-Structured InterviewsThis method has been chosen for use for a number of good reasons. According to Borg and cheekiness (1989 452), semi-structured interview facilitates a more thorough understanding of the respondents opinion and the reasons fanny such opinions than what could be achieved if mailed questionnaire is used. Also, this method is good because it makes it possible for the conceptualization of opinions by the interviewees. Again Robson (1993231) states that, when using semi-structured method, the interviewer has the advantage of being able to modify the order of questions based upon the context of the conversation, change the wording of the question, give explanations and can avoid particular questions that appear inappropriate with a particular interviewee.Semi-structured interview has been chosen by the researcher because it has the ability to provide in-depth, objective information that account for the lack of improved school-community relationship. Though semi-structured interview will be used, the interview eviscerate will still be used to detention the interviewer and interviewee on focus.Focus Group DiscussionsFocus group research can best be described as a loosely constructed discussion with a group of people brought together for the bearing of the study, guided by the research and addressed as a group. Due to the use of interviewing techniques, it is also referred to as focus group interviewing (as e.g. Bergaddresses it because and ( 1995, the group rather then(prenominal) particular members, it is also known as group discussion, (H. K ruger, 1983). Given that more then one group is usually included in the study, and each group constitute a separate sample of respondents, focus group can be seen as a multi-sample study.In most common application, this method entails, first the selection of people with a particular interest,expertise or position in the community, second, the formation of the group by bringing these peopletogether in the same venue third, the introduction of the discussion composition by the researcher, who actsas a facilitator and arbitrator, fourth, guiding the discussion so as to address the research topic, fifth,encouraging discussion among the members of the group rather than between them and theresearcher, and sixth, observing and recording the discussion (sarantakos, 2005) The focus groupmethod appears in two forms, the unstructured or semi-structured form and the structured form, whichare busy by qualitative and quantitative researchers respectively (Stewart and shamdasani, 1990).Focus gro up discussing is employed to bring about changes in the group and its members, as a result ofthe direction and intensity of the discussion. It can move on provide valuable information about groupprocesses, attitude changes and manipulation, the attitudes and opinions of group members, the groupor public, the speciality of certain methods and so on. It can also enable the testing of groupstrategies in solving problems (flick, 1998). Finally, the study of focus group can arrest diversity anddifferences either within or between groups, and so reveal.. the dilemmatic nature of bothdayarguments (Lunt and Livingstone, 199696)This approach will be used to promote brainstorming and debate among the participants on key issues affecting school-community relationship in the district. Again focus group discussions promote the sharing and learning of new ideas among participants. The researcher will be part of the group discussion and hash out the process as well to keep the discussion on t rack.A add up of 30 focus groups made of 15 people each will be engaged in the study (these are the PTA and SMC members of the 30 selected schools).How To Collect The DataFor the purpose of data collection, the researcher will use the following tools Interview Guide, Field Notes, and arranging.Interview GuideThis will be very useful in this study. According to Borg and Gall (1989 451), interview guide is a list containing questions mostly asked in a desired mood in the interview process. It serves as a guideline to the researcher on what to say, as the interview commences and ends. It is regarded as a checklist of topics to be covered by Dooley (1990288), and it includes reminders of researchers interest arranged in an orderly manner to promote intercourse. In general terms, it is a guide but allowing actual questions to be shut in during the interview to fit the natural tone of the intercourse between the interviewer and the interviewee. This helps to watch that the interviewe e remains unbiased in responses given. This also allows the researcher to select topics in advance but determines the sequence and wording of the questions during the interview process. (Mcmillan and Schumacher, 1993426).The guide evenly enables the researcher not to rigidly control the interview content such that the interviewee will not be able to tell the story in his own words. (Bogdan and Biklen,199297).For the purpose of this study, the researcher will promote flexibility by allowing the respondents to explain issues in their own words and language. Again, there will be instances in this study that the interviewer will not follow a unique(predicate) order of the questions, but will rather link one response to another question not necessarily next in order as the need arises.Field NotesThis will be used for noting information that may not be captured by the tape recording. This will serve as a buffer to remind the researcher during data depth psychology. According to Mcmillan and Schumacher (1993 418), field notes are written at the end of each observation and describes in details the settings and activities of each subject. This will only be used for the participant observation.RECORDIINGThe most common methods of recording are report down information verbatim, in summary or in key words tape recording conversations video recording events taking photographs, (sarantakoss,2006229). For the purpose of this study tape recording, manual recording and coding will be used commemorate RecordingTape recordings will also be used. Tape recordings are easier and certainly more efficient. The tapes can be listened to as many another(prenominal) times as required, using more then one observer if desired, and this produces more accurate and more valid records (Sarandakos, 2005229)The researcher will employ tape recordings during the interview process to record the intercourse that occurs between the interviewer and interviewee. The recordings will be played back l ater and the words transcribed for the purpose of data synopsis. The interviewees permission will be sought by the interviewer sooner the use of tape recordings. The use of tape recording will help minimize possible errors that may result from forgetfulness on the part of the interviewer during the interview process. It can equally minimize the time spent in the interview. manual RECORDIINGManual recording will equally be used, whereby two leaders will be used, with each of themtaking notes in turn or one recording the data and the other acting as facilitator(sarantakos,2005). This will be transcribed later.Where circumstances do not allow for note taking, the observer will write down key words or phrases as a guide, and complete the notes after observation.CODINGCodes serves as symbols, a shorthand recording, where actions and behaviors are replaced by numerals or keywords. This makes recording easier, particularly when there are many items to be recorded and many people to be ob served. (sarantakos, 2005230).SAMPLINGUnder qualitative designs for example where unstructured or participant observation is employed, thesubjects are often chosen by means of purpose or theoretical sampling (sarantakos, 2005224)The researcher acknowledges that the problem under study may be prevailing in other districts in the Northern Region however the study will be limited to the Tolon/Kumbungu District of the Northern Region because there is high illiteracy rate in the district, coupled with low enrolment and high drop-out rates in the schools. (Tolon/Kumbungu District profile 2004).Sampling is used for the study because the district has a large population size of 132,338 inhabitants (2000 population and housing census), therefore a focus on a small distinct group of participants (SMC, PTA, head teachers, circuit supervisors, chiefs, and assembly members), will enable the researcher to get an in-depth understanding of the problem of lack of improved school-community relationshi p in the Tolon/Kumbungu district. Purposive sampling will be the main sampling technique to use in the study. It is also the expectation of the researcher that the selected participants will be information-rich, because they are knowledgeable in terms of the phenomenon being studied.Purposive SamplingThe researcher will select and interview community stakeholders in education such as PTA and SMC members, head teachers, circuit supervisors, chiefs, and assembly members. Responses and contributions of these people can form a good basis for carrying out analysis and stating findings of study in the district. There has been consensus by Gillham (2000) Mcmillan and Schumacher (1993378) and Patton (1990169) that purposive sampling involves selecting people with in-depth knowledge of the problem being studied, man keeping the number of interviews to a minimum for adequate re creation. The people that will be selected for this study should have good ideas regarding the problem being studie d. (Mcmillan and Schumacher, 1993 378). experiment SizeThe district has 150 basic schools (Tolon/Kumbungu District Profile, 2004).A total of 70 people will be interviewed. This includes 30 head teachers bony from 30 schools out of a total of 150 basic schools in the district, 30 assembly members of the communities where these schools are located and 10 circuit supervisors administer these schools.Study AreaTolon/Kumbungu district is chosen as the study area. The district covers a land area of 2,741 square kilometers and forms about 3.9% of the total land area of Northern Region. The district is one of the 45 new districts created by the past Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC) Law 207 in 1988 and has Tolon as the Capital. The district is characterized by high illiteracy rate, coupled with low enrolment rates and high drop-out rate in schools. (Tolon/Kumbungu District Profile, 2004).DATA ANALYSIS hostile quantitative research, where analysis is conducted after data collect ion, in qualitative research the timing of analysis varies. In some cases it follows the same path as in quantitative research, but inmost cases it is conducted during data collection. A combination of both models is also possible (sarantakos, 2005344)For the purpose of this research, data analysis will be done both, during and after data collection. While appeal data, the researcher will conduct some basic analysis, record the data, and further intensifydata analysis after completing the study and focussing on more specific aspects of the research questionas contained in the research.In a number of cases, analysis during data collection serves to guide research in the right direction, and to facilitate a more effective treatment and coverage of the research topic. The actual analysis is conducted after data gathering is completed (sarantakos, 2005346). computer-Aided Data analysis (CADA) will be used to analyze data.Computers can be, and are being used in qualitative research in t he context of both pure qualitative research, where analysis is done the traditional way, and the so-called enriched qualitative research (contrad and Reinharz, 1984 Fielding and Lee, 1998 Fisher, 1997, Richards, 1986 Richards and Richards, 1987,1994 Weitzman and Miles, 1994). Computer aided data analysis (CADA) is used in many forms and allows the qualitative research to process data in a way correspond to that in quantitative research (Huber, 1991 Madron, Tate and Brookshire 1987 Ragin, 1987), (Sarantakos, 2005357)A major data analysis instrument that will be employed in this study is concepts and indicators. Indicators are concrete data, such as behavior patterns and social events, which are observed or described in documents or interview texts. They indicate the bearing of a concept which the researcher develops, at first provisionally and then with more confidence. (Sarantakos, 2005347).Analysis will be done by exhaustively examining the field notes of what will be observed b y the researcher and the responses of every participant that will be interviewed. In line with Maykut and Morehouse (1994 135), the following data analysis steps will be adopted for the studyRecording the interview conducted, making a reflection of the process, and carrying out further observations and writing notes, comments, as well as memos.Transcribing what has been recorded in the exact words. This will be done immediately after the interviews of the day. All additional comments will be placed in brackets.Reading through the data that has been transcribed and stating clearly in writing, the meaning of the transcribed data.Coding the data and identifying the formula meanings in line with research question.All key items or categories (the main ideas, words,or phrases) will be listed. The researcher will then go through the literature to find out whether responses of interviewees bear common grounds with the research topic as well as other respondents conclusions in similar resea rch works. This is done for the purpose of testing the validity of the study.Data presentationCertainly, tables and graphs are useful tools of presentation in qualitative research, but the structure of presentation does not seem to adhere to any strict rules and procedures. date FRAMEThe researcher plans to spend a period of 5 months in carrying out the study including the compilation and presentation of the report.