Monday, April 15, 2019
Infancy and Early Childhood Paper Essay Example for Free
Infancy and other(a) Childhood Paper EssayI believe Pi periodts theory of cognitive development best explains the cognitive development both(prenominal) in infancy and early childhood. His theory is explained by a theory of cognitive organization called schemes. Schemes argon the actions or mental representations that organize knowledge (Santrock, 2008, p. 94). According to his theory, schemes change with age in other words, they are action-based (motor patterns) at first and then gradually change to a mental (thinking) level. at that place are several key terms that explain Piagets process of developmental change those include adaptation, assimilation, accommodation, organization, and equilibration. sensorimotor make up is the first of the Piagets theory of cognitive development. It lasts from birth to the about 2 years of age, where awareness of the globe is limited to what can be kn make by dint of sensory awareness and motor acts. Furthermore, Piaget divided the sensor imotor stage into six sub-stages 1) simple reflexes (2) first habits and primary visor reactions (3) substitute circular reactions (4) coordination of secondary circular reactions (5) tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity and (6) internalization of schemes (Santrock, 2008, p. 96).Reflexive Schemes this is present in newborns. Initially, the infants actions are mastermindd through reflexive behaviors, much(prenominal) as rooting and sucking. But gradually the infant produces behaviors that resemble reflexes in the absence seizure of the usual stimulus for the reflex (Santrock, 2008).Primary circular reactions it develops between 1 and 4 months of age. In this stage, infants arrive to adapt their reflexes to their environment simple motor habits are centered around own body (Caulfield, 2001) second-string circular reactions it develops between 4 and 8 months of age. The focus of infants exploration shits to external events. Infants develop awareness that objects ex pand to exist even when not in sight at about 8 months of age (Caulfield, 2001)Coordination of secondary circular reactions develops between 8 and 12 months of age. Infants begin to demonstrate intentional behavior and anticipate events they coordinate separate actions to achieve desired goals (Caulfield, 2001).Tertiary circular reactions develops between 12 and 18 months of age. Infants reach an progress level of proficiency they begin to explore properties of objects through novel actions (Caulfield, 2001).Internalization of schemes develops between 18 and 24 months of age. Their ability to represent the external world internally begins to develop, also called as symbolic representation. Also, deferred imitation, the ability to apply and copy a representation of an observed behavior, begins to develop (Caulfield, 2001).I also believe Piagets theory best explains the cognitive development in early childhood as well. His Preoperational period, the second stage of Piagets theory of cognitive development lasts from approximately 2 to 7 years of age. In this age, children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings. not only that, they begin to form stable concepts and embark on reasoning (Santrock, 2008, p. 145). Also, egocentricism (inability to distinguish between ones own perspective and someone elses perspective) and magical beliefs also begin to play a role in childs cognitive development. There are different sub-stages of the preoperational stage.Symbolic function sub-stage is the first sub-stage of the pre-operational thought. In this stage, the child has the capability to mentally represent an object that is not physically present. This stage occurs between the ages of 2 and 4 years of age.The visceral Thought Sub-stage, the second sub-stage of preoperational thought that mostly occurs between 4 and 7 years of age. In this stage, children are tempted to ask many questions. In other words, one of the most prominent words for the child ren around this age is why. There are many similarities and differences between the Piagets theory of cognitive development that explains infancy and early childhood.Similarities both(prenominal) the selected theories that I believe best describes cognitive development in infancy and early childhood bonk from Piaget.Both theories bring forth stages (Sensorimotor and preoperational) and are further divided into sub-stages.Both theories rely on the assumption that infants and children actively construct an understanding of the world.Both theories give a time frame of when the stages and the sub- stages occurBoth theories have limitations.DifferencesSensorimotor stage deals with infants from birth to 2 years of age and Preoperational stage deals with early childhood that generally occurs between the ages of 2 and 7.Sensorimotor is the stage one of the Piagets theory of cognitive development whereas preoperational period is stage two of his theory.The limitation of the sensorimotor st ages rests on the accuracy of the timing of the events that Piaget mentioned whereas the limitation of the Pre-operational thought rests on the concepts such as centration and conservation.Therefore, in this paper, I have considered Piagets theory to explain cognitive development in both infancy and early childhood. I have also considered the similarities and differences between the two theories.ReferencesCaulfield, R. A. (2001). Infants and toddlers. Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice HallSantrock, J. W. (2008). Essentials of life-span development. NY McGraw-Hill.