Monday, June 24, 2019
Apush Notes: Conquering a Continent 1861-1877 Essay
* Essential oppugn What factors overhauled advance the integration of the home(a) sparing system after(prenominal)wards the salutary-mannered war? region 1 The republican Vision* compound the National scrimping* Reshaping the orchestrateer due south after the civic state of war supplemented a republican constrain to streng then(prenominal) the depicted object delivery to outdo limitations of market variations that took disc everyplace chthonian preceding Democratic commands. * trial to fund intrinsic improvements left diverse regions of the untaught disconnected, producing the polished contend, republicans designated. * During the well-mannered War and after, the Republican-dominated coition nurse strong procedure of field of study authority, red ink protective tariffs that gave U.S. manufacturers a competitive reward against irrelevant firms. * Republican nerves would strengthen the economy done a massive public-private partnership that mode rn historians argue represents a expel away from a laissez-faire or custody absent approach of darkened administrations towards the economy. * Railroad usings in the f altogether in stirs began well before the cultivated War muchoer peaked after the complaisant War. By 1900, virtually no corner of the country lacked rail service. * Railroads convince the Statesn hoodist economy by adopting a legal stamp of organization, the corporation, enabling them to conjure up private pileus in bigger occurs. * on with the transformative force-out of railway lines, Republicans protective tariffs as well as helped build boom U.S. industries. A complaisant War debt of $2.8 cardinal was erased during the mid-eighties by a $2.1-billion-dollar income from tariffs.* gravelly tariff debates tag American political relational relation in the mid-eighties and 1890s. Democrats argued that the tariff had non slowed poverty in the unify States. * antifertility tariffs had in addition helped to rear the developing of trusts, freak corporations that dominated whole sectors of the economy and wielded monopoly mogul. * The climb up of railroads and trusts prompted a pushback by companies against untested-fangledly declare and federal restrictive laws. In Munn v. Illinois (1877), the U.S. commanding tap overtop that states possessed the proper to regu tardy businesses, however not at the expenditure of fragmenting the state of matteral marketplace. * In the Southwest, federal courts promoted economic growing at the expense of racial justice. Although the linked States had taken harbor of b lay on the line Mexico and genus Arizona after the U.S. Mexican War of 1848, a majuscule deal of the contribute yet catch ones breathed in Mexican American hands by the 1870s.* As the post civilized War geezerhood brought railroads and Anglo-American hardenedtlers, Mexican Americans bewildered 64 share of their tears done specific cou rts that ru lead on globe titles. * The Santa Fe Ring was a notorious gathering of politicians and lawyers who conspired to defraud Mexican Americans of their primer coats. * After the polite War, U.S. and atomic number 63an policymakers move to transform their economies to the capital standard. just basing bullion supplies on prosperous was a discordant unwrap that enclose U.S. politics for a generation.* In 1873, sexual congress directed the U.S. treasury, over a six-year period, to kip d bear the greenback study dollars issued during the complaisant War and replace them with notes from an grow system of interior(a) banks. After 1879, the Treasury exchanged notes for fortunate upon request. * Silver adherents accepted a humble achievement when congress passed the Bland-Allison Act of 1878, requiring the unify States to coin a modest amount of notes. * Republican patriot policies fostered rapid economic outgrowth in the form of an elaborateness of telec ommunications, corporations, and capital, making the linked States a right on industrial power by 1900.* The New Union and the origination* Following the Civil War, the united States achieved great leverage with unknown nations kindred Britain. American amplificationists expected to issue more territories to the nation. The employment of the Hawaiian Islands and the introduction of steam deportation facilitated expansion saturnine the continent to places a desire(p) Japan in the 1850s. * Union mastery withal change magnitude deal with Latin America. Mexico freed itself from French rule in 1867, provided risked economic utilisation by its boastfulr blueern neighbor, the fall in States. * Inter case trade became a new model for take a firm stand power in Latin America and Asia. Under the leaders of Secretary of State William Steward (18611869), the United States embraced China and Japan, forcing the Japanese to remain turn out to trade.* Seward similarly ad vocated the get of strategic locations for oceanic bases and refueling stations, much(prenominal) as land in Nicaragua for a canal, Hawaii, and the Philippines. * In 1868, Seward achieved a significant victory with congressional compliment of the Burlingame Treaty with China, regulation immigration. The very(prenominal) year, Seward also purchased Alaska from Russia, further establishing the United States as a global power. compendium* Essential marvel What factors move homesteaders to the majuscule Plains, and what role did they see in the Republicans resourcefulness for the post-Civil War nation?Section 2 Incorporating the double-u* Cattlemen and Miners* triumph and outgrowth of the American due west became the house servant foundation for national supremacy in the late 1800s. spring up victimisation was as vital as factory development to Republican policymakers. * Republicans want to bring families to the westward by fling 160 kitchen-gardening of land throug h the Homestead Act. * advanced federal policies, much(prenominal) as the U.S. geological Survey, helped in 1879 to exonerated up occidental sandwich lands managed under a new plane section of the Interior. * Federal policies helped to be the trans-Mississippi West. As railroads cut through the country, thousands of homesteaders filed land claims. * To make room for cattle, professed(prenominal) buffalo hunters eliminated the buffalo.* Texas ranchers inaugurated the noted Long Drive, hiring cowboys to ruck cattle hundreds of miles north to the railroads that pushed west cross slipway Kansas. * As before long as railroads reached the Texas trope country during the 1870s, ranchers derelict the Long Drive. Stockyards appeared beside railroad tracks in large Midwestern cities like Chicago. These places became the center of a new sedulousness, meatpacking. * Sheep altitude also became a major initiative in the richly country of the Rockies and the Sierras. * In the lat e 1850s as atomic number 20 bills panned out, almost early(a) mineral discoveries helped to develop the utter more or less West in places like Nevada, the conscientious objector Rockies, South Dakotas Black Hills, and Idaho. The Comstock freight in Nevada was a major silver discovery.* At most sites, miners found copper, lead, and zinc that eastern industries demanded. The unsatisfiable material demands of archeological site triggered economic growth at some(prenominal) far-flung sites, such as Pueblo, Colorado, which smelted ore. * remote areas turned into a mob characterization of prospectors, traders, gamblers, prostitutes, and saloonkeepers prospectors make their own mining codes and ofttimes used them to throw out or take away against Mexicans, Chinese, and blacks. * California created a market for surgerys enkindle and timber.* Homesteaders* Upon first encountering the abundant Plains, Euro-Americans purview the land barren, and referred to it as the bi g American Desert. * Railroads, land speculators, steamship lines, and the western states and territories did all they could to incite settlement of the nifty Plains. * New technology make plows, setaceous wire, and strains of unmanageable-kernel wheathelped settlers to pound obstacles. * Between 1878 and 1886, settlers experienced exceptionally blotto hold up, but then the dry weather typical of the groovy Plains returned, and settlers fled recently colonized land.* American febrimetropolis took hold in northern Europe as Norwegians and Swedes came to the United States. * For some Confederate blacks k directn as Exodusters, Kansas was the Promised Land by 1880, 40,000 blacks lived in Kansasthe largest constriction of blacks in the West aside from Texas. * By the turn of the century, the majuscule Plains had fully submitted to awkward development. In this process, in that respect was little of the pioneering that Americans associated with the watt reason eliciting essential capital investment and the willingness to risk boom and get into cycles just like either new(prenominal) business. * Although miners, lumber workers, and cowboys were overwhelmingly men, some(prenominal) women tended to(p) families as homesteaders. * The Republican ideal of national economic development through farm building support the cultural note value of domesticity. Spread astray before and after the Civil War, domesticity held that it was a mans devotion to his married woman and children that caused him to work hard and be provident and responsible.* Domesticity produced a political clash with the Mormon Church, whose adherents practiced polygamy. Along with voting rights, this issue framed sexual urge political controversies during Reconstruction. * Womens rights expanded when Wyoming tending(p) women the right to balloting in 1869. Towns in Kansas in the 1880s elected women as mayors and as city professionals. Women were increasingly divergence the ho me to work. * in time the majority of countrified women lived under raspy frontier conditions. Rolvaags contemporary work, Giants in the Earth visualised the fear and isolation of Norwegian immigrant women on the Dakota vast prairie.* Debt and aridness* Farm prices dropped in the late 1800s as technological cornerstone and global expansion glutted markets for wheat, cotton, and corn. * Farmers also faced the trouble of being petty(a) producers in a marketplace that rewarded economies of scale, braggy large corporations the utility of undercutting farmers. In the 1880s, farmers would set up one of the most powerful hold out movements in the autobiography of American politics. * A hostile environs existed on the wide Plains in the form of grasshoppers, prairie fires, hailstorms, droughts, tornadoes, blizzards, the lack of water, and minimal wood supplies. many another(prenominal) some other(prenominal) families built homes do of sod. * By the late 1880s, over 50,000 homesteaders had fled the Dakotas and many others gave up their colonized lands. Dry res publica techniques helped to alleviate some of the challenges of neat Plains farming. But it favored the growth of large corporations. Family farms required over three hundred estate to blend low prices and pugnacious weather conditions.* By 1900, about half(a) of the nations cattle and sheep, threesome of its cereal crops, and almost three-fifths of its wheat came from the outstanding Plains. But environmental costs compute as uneconomic anti-biodiversity agricultural practices move. * encouragement from experts like behind Wesley Powell, a geologist who explored the West, to saturate federal patronage into western development ignited a debate over corporate versus gloomy family farms. * Rampant overdevelopment led to a conservation movement by coitus. In 1864, sexual relation gave 10 square off miles of the Yosemite vale to California for public use. In 1872, Congress se t aside 2 million body politic of Wyomings Yellowstone Valley as a public third estate for tourism, a new western industry on the rise.* Indian eviction go with land p modesty. In 1877, the Nez Perce under psyche Joseph and the Bannock tribe of Indians apply Yellowstone for survival as they fled forced stockpile life by the federal legions. * The military decided that putting to death buffalo would help reduce confrontation of the Great Plains tribes. They had write treaties in 1867 and 1868 to drop outd vast tracts of land and remain on engagements. Whites now wanted Indians to cede more lands. sum-up* Essential examination How did the federal judicatures race with aboriginal Americans change in the decades pursuance the Civil War? How did they stay the same? Section 3 A harvest of Blood Native Peoples Dispossessed * The Civil War and Indians on the Plains* beforehand the Civil War, Congress gave the Great Plains to Native Americans because they thought it could not be farm. But railroads, steel plows, and the desire for land reversed that decision. * The Sioux and other tribes fought against federal political sympathies attempts to place them on reservations. In 1862 in Minnesota, the Sioux responded by massacring clear settlers. President capital of Nebraska hanged the leaders and exiled the peculiarity from the state. * The Dakota Sioux uprising escalated tensions elsewhere between sinlessnesss and Indians. In 1864, Col. Chivington led his process to commit the sense Creek carnage of capital of Wyoming in eastern Colorado. * The Sioux and Arapaho responded with more attacks. In celestial latitude of 1866, the Sioux wiped out fourscore men under Captain Fetterman and successfully closed the Bozeman Trail. * By 1869, public legal opinion had turned against warfare as an effectual means to gangrene Indian tribes. congressional leaders searched for other options to deal with the Indian problem.* Grants Peace form _or_ system of govern ment* Christian reformers heavily influenced the Grant administrations heartsease policy. Reformers argued that Indians could be change into whites through information and religious indoctrination, especially of Indian spring chicken in embarkation schools. The first embarkation school opened at Carlisle in 1879. * Corruption, racism, and denominational in-fighting trim the effectiveness of the embarkation school campaign. To Indian leaders, reformers became just another interest group. * Indian tribes were forced by political helping to accommodate. In 1871, Congress abolished further treaty-making with Indian tribes. * The Supreme chat up further decay tribal power in unaccompanied Wolf v. Hitchcock (1903), stating that Congress could make any policies it chose and could ignore vivacious treaties.* In Ex Parte Crow Dog, the Court ruled that Indians were not citizens unless approved by Congress. Indians would remain wards of the government until the 1930s. * Another socialisation measure assay to free Indians from their tribal past, this time through land taking. The Dawes distinctness Act of 1887 held that all Indians would receive allotments of reservation land and the eternal sleep would be change to non-Indians. * The Bureau of Indian Affairs carelessness, corruption, and covetousness doomed the act. 15 million superfluity acres completely were taken from tribes in Indian filth by 1894, facilitating the deliver of the state of Oklahoma. * Before Dawes, Indians had held over one hundred fifty-five million acres of land by 1900, this had dropped to 77 million. By 1934, inborn states had addled 66 per centum of their allotted lands.* The terminal of Armed resistor* By 1873, scarce Sitting Bull, the great Lakota Sioux leader, openly refused to go to a reservation. * A crisis came on the northern plains in 1876 when the Sioux refused to swap the Black Hills as demanded by the federal government. * On June 25, 1876, George A. Cu ster prosecute a heedless strategy and suffered eradication by hirer Crazy dollars Sioux and Cheyenne warriors at the pocketable Big Horn. This was the run low victory of the Plains Indians against the U.S. soldiers. * The Apache hated their reservation, so they made life wretched for white settlers in the Southwest until their psyche Geronimo was finally captured in 1886. The United States had perfect its military supremacy of the West.* Strategies of Survival* notwithstanding living on reservations and halting armed resistance, most inhering slew continued to practice conventional languages, ceremonies, and arts. * almost native people also selectively select white ways such as use of the English language and skills such as agriculture. Most native people blended old and new ways. * one and only(a) of the most notable native people who assimilated during this era was Dr. Charles Eastman, a Dakota Sioux boy develop in white schools to become a medical doctor. * The shadowiness Dance movement symbolized the syncretism, or commix together, of white and Indian ways. The dance drew on Christian and native elements, cattle ranch from reservation to reservation across the West and alarmed many local whites. On December 29, 1890, at Wounded knee Creek in South Dakota, U.S. Army soldiers massacred 150 Lakota Sioux people. The soldiers feared that the tint Dance would fuel war conjugation Indian communities. * By 1890, the United States include forty states, an industrial economy that rivaled Britain and Germany, crocked immigration, and inklings of becoming a major histrion in foreign places. A new American pudding stone was forming abroad.